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Full text of "The siege of Carlaverock in the XXVIII Edward I. A.D. MCCC; with the arms of the earls, barons, and knights, who were present on the occasion; with a translation, a history of the castle, and memoirs of the personages commemorated by the poet. By Nicholas Harris Nicolas"

HANDBOUND 
AT THE 



UNIVERSITY OF 
TORONTO PRESS 







1 






THE 



SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK 

I A 



IN THE XXVIII EDWARD I. A. D. MCCC ; 



WITH 



THE ARMS OF THE EARLS, BARONS, AND KNIGHTS, 



WHO WERE PRESENT ON THE OCCASION ; 



WITH 



A TRANSLATION, A HISTORY OF THE CASTLE, 



AND 



MEMOIRS OF THE PERSONAGES COMMEMORATED BY THE POET. 



BY 



NICHOLAS HARRIS NICOLAS, ESQ. 

OF THE INNER TEMPLE, BARRISTER AT LAW. 



LONDON: 
J. B. NICHOLS AND SON. 



MDCCCXXVIII. 



Sf 



6320S7 



I'IMNTtU UV J. n. NICHOLS AND SON, 25, 1MIILIAMENT STKEIT 



TO THE 

KINGS, HERALDS, AND PURSUIVANTS, 

OF THE 



College of 



GENTLEMEN, 

I do myself the honour of inscribing this volume to you, in 
testimony of my high respect for your profession, and of my gratitude for 
the liberal manner in which you have for many years been pleased to allow 
me access to your invaluable archives. 

By those individuals of your Corporation, with whom I have 
long lived on terms of uninterrupted intimacy, I hope this dedication will 
also be received as evidence that I admire their talents as much as I value 
their friendship. 

I have the honour to subscribe myself, 

Gentlemen, 
Your very faithful and obliged humble Servant, 

NICHOLAS HARRIS NICOLAS. 

February IQth, 1828. 



PREFACE. 



THE claims of the following Poem to attention are great and unques- 
tionable : instead, therefore, of a feeling of surprise being excited at its 
present appearance, it is extraordinary that it should not long since have 
been given to the world in an accurate and satisfactory manner. 

For the Historian the Poem minutely details the siege of a celebrated 
fortress in Scotland, by King Edward the First, in July, 1300, of which 
no other account is to be found, excepting in one line of Peter de Langtoft's 
rhyming Chronicle, and in a few words of the inedited Chronicle of 
Lanercost Abbey. 

For the Antiquary it abounds in descriptions of considerable interest, 
chiefly respecting the mode in which a siege was conducted, and the ap- 
pearance and equipment of an army, at the end of the thirteenth 
century. 

By the Bibliographer its value must be at once admitted, since its 
antiquity is undoubted. When compared with other poems of the 
time, its merits as a composition are at least equal if not superior to most 
of those which are extant, and, from the subject of which it principally 
treats, it is unique. 

It is by the lover of Heraldry, however, (if, which it is difficult to 
believe, such an individual can exist, who is not to a greater or less 
extent an antiquary,) that this Poem will be the most eagerly perused and 
the most attentively studied. It contains the accurate blazon of above 
one hundred Knights or Bannerets of the reign of Edward the First, 
among whom were the King, the Prince of Wales, and the greater part 
of the Peers of the realm. At the same time that this production may, 
perhaps, be considered the earliest blazon of arms which is known, it 



IV PREFACE. 

affords evidence of the perfect state of the science of Heraldry at that 
early period, and from which it is manifest that it was reduced to a science, 
when it is generally considered to have been but in its infancy. 

Valuable as the " Siege of Carlaverock" is to Historians and Antiqua- 
ries, it is difficult to believe that the raciness of the author's descriptions, 
his quaint notices of the characters of the different personages, and the 
occasional beauty of his passages, will not possess a charm for far more 
general readers. 

The merits of the Poem having been pointed out, it is necessary that the 
proofs of its authenticity should be briefly noticed. It is sufficient to 
state the fact that a contemporary copy at this moment exists in the British 
Museum ; a and, irrefragable as that evidence is, the internal proofs, to 
which various allusions are made in the biographical memoirs, are no less 
satisfactory. 

Although the name of the author has not been decidedly ascertained, 
there is one line which affords strong presumptive proof of his identity. 
When speaking of the Earl of Warwick, he says he has alluded to him in 

his " rhyme of Guy :" 

e Bartoifi le Count 
Cement feen ma rime fee 



It may therefore be presumed that the author of the " Siege of Carlave- 
rock" was Walter of Exeter, a Franciscan friar, who " is said on good 
authority to have written the romantic history of Guy Earl of Warwick 
about the year 1292." b Bale asserts that the said Walter wrote " Vitam 
Guidonis," and which, Warton observes, " seems to imply a prose his- 
tory." An imperfect but contemporary copy of the romance in question 
is thus described in the Harleian Catalogue, " Historia Feliciee filise Co- 
mitis Warwicensis, et Guidonis filii Seguarti dispensatoris ejus, aliter dicti 
Guido Warwicensis, versibus Gallicis:" d and a few extracts from it will 

a In the Cottonian MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. 

' Warton's History of English Poetry, ed. 1774, vol. I. p. 87, apparently on the authority of Bale 
and Carew. Bishop Nicolson and some other writers state, however, that it was written in 1301, about 
the same time as the " Siege of Carlaverock." 

<- Warton's History of English Poetry, p. 87, note. d Harleian MSS. 3775, art. 2. 



PREFACE. V 

be found among the notes at the end of this volume. A copy also occurs 
in the College of Arms,' 1 in the collection of MSS. presented to that body 
by Henry, Duke of Norfolk, in 1678 ; and perhaps other transcripts 
exist. Two reasons, besides the lines which have been just extracted, 
render it probable that the author of the following Poem wrote the one 
in question ; the date which has been assigned to it, 1292, and its having 
been written in the same language. 

Of Walter of Exeter very few particulars are known. Carew considered 
him to have been born in Cornwall, and says he was " a Franciscan 
friar of Carocus 6 in that county, and that at the request of Baldwin of 
Exeter he formed the History of Guy of Warwick ;" but Prince claims him, 
with more probability, as a native of Devon, " as his name plainly'de- 
monstrates the place to which he owed his nativity, Exeter in Devon." f 
The biographical facts of him mentioned by that writer, are so few 
that they will be here inserted. He was, he informs us, a religious 
man professed, but of what order is not known. Bale thought he 
was a Dominican, Carew that he was a Franciscan friar, and Izaac that 
he was a monk of the order of St. Bennet. The greater part of his 
time was passed in a little cell in Cornwall near St. Caroke, a short 
distance from Lostwithiel, in study and devotion ; but his chief pursuit 
was history : "for his knowledge therein he hath obtained this character, 
' Quod in historiarum cognitione non fuit ultimus,' and the part of history 
he was most skilled in was the lives of the saints and other great men, 
which induced Baldwin, his fellow citizen, to put him upon writing the 
life of Guy of Warwick." " What more things he wrote," Prince adds, 
" he does not find, but, dying as is probable in his cell, he lieth interred 
near that place." 

The studies for which that monk was distinguished peculiarly fitted him 
for the task of composing a poem of so historical and biographical a nature 



'1 Now numbered 27. 

e Tonkin supposes Carew to have meant Carantocus, Crantock, in Cornwall. 

f Survey of Cornwall, with Tonkin's notes, published by Lord de Dunstanville in 1811, p. 159. 

g Worthies of Devon, ed. 1810, p. 345. 

b 



Vi PREFACE. 

as the " Siege of Carlaverock ;" and heraldry and genealogy, of which the 
writer displays a profound knowledge, were, it is probable, then deemed 
to form no trifling part of the necessary acquirements of an historian. That 
it was the production of a priest may be inferred from the laboured eulo- 
gium of the Bishop of Durham, though Warton supposes that it was un- 
doubtedly written by a herald : h but in this instance his opinion is not 
to be relied on, for he could never have examined the Poem with attention, 
as in the extract which he has given from it, though consisting of only four 
lines, the most important words, " D'erinine," are printed " Determinee," 
nor was the banner to which it relates that of John Duke of Brittany, but 
of his nephew, John of Brittany. 

Whether it be considered that the Poem was .written by Walter of 
Exeter or not, the probability is sufficiently great to justify what has been 
said on the subject. 

The text has been formed from a MS. copy of the Poem in the auto- 
graph of Glover, the celebrated herald, preserved in the Library of the 
College of Arms,' in consequence of the following certificate that it was 
transcribed from the original : 

Exemplar verissimum vetusti eundem reverendae antiquitatis monument!, religiose admodum 
transcript!, renovati, et ab injuria temporis vindicati. Eundem fideliter cum prototipo sive ori- 
ginal! in omnibus concordare testatur Robert' Gloverus, Somerset!' fecialis regius, Armorum regi 
cui Norroy nomen inditum, Mariscallus designatus. Qui veritati testimonium perhibere pulchrum 
ducens, tam hie in fronte, quam etiam in calce, manu propria nomen suum subscripsit, tertio nonas 
February. Anno Cliristi Salvatoris M. D. lxxx*vij Regni vero Ser m Reginas Elizabethan tricesimo. 

GLOVER SOMEKSETT, 

Mareschal au Norroy Roy d'Armcs. 
The signature at the end of the Poem is, 

R. GLOVER SOMERSETT, 

Mareschal au Norroy Roy d'Armes. 

It has also been most carefully collated with the contemporary copy in the 
Museum, and every variation is inserted in the notes. 

h History of English Poetry, vol. I. p. 335. 

i Following the Poem in that volume is a catalogue of the names and arms of the Princes and Noble- 
men and Knights who were with King Edward the First at Calais, with their arms illuminated in the 
margin. This catalogue has been printed more than once. 



PREFACE. Vll 

Another transcript is deposited in the office of Ulster King of Arms at 
Dublin, to which a similar certificate by Glover is affixed ; k and modern 
copies are in the possession of various individuals. 

In 177-9 the Poem was printed in the " Antiquarian Repertory," pro- 
fessedly from the contemporary copy just alluded to, and with a translation; 
the text there given is, however, as corrupt as the translation is unfor- 
tunate. For the former there is no apology ; but of the mistakes in the 
latter no person is disposed to speak more tenderly than he who now sub- 
mits one which he is sensible requires but little less indulgence. Perhaps 
few tasks are more difficult, and certainly none more laborious, than to 
translate an early French poem. The sacrifice of sense to rhyme, not only 
in the transposition of words, but in the substitution of one which in some 
cases almost bears the mark of being coined for the occasion ; the quaint 
conceits with which these productions abound ; the errors or abbreviations 
of transcribers ; the allusion to things or events of which no trace remains ; 
combine to form a host of difficulties which no sagacity can surmount, 
and which can only be understood by those who have encountered them. 
As the translation was so unsatisfactory to himself, the Editor was induced 
to solicit a gentleman of the highest reputation for his acquaintance with 
the French of the period, and indeed with every thing else which is con- 
nected with English history, to favour him with his remarks. These will be 
found in the notes ; and they merit the reader's attention as much as the 
readiness and kindness with which they were written claim his ac- 
knowledgments. It is also just to the learned individual by whom they 
were contributed to add, that he is also indebted to him for the important 
suggestion that the author of the poem had previously written a romance 
" of Guy." 

With the view of rendering the volume as complete as possible, a topo- 
graphical and general history of Carlaverock Castle has been prefixed to 
the poem ; and memoirs of every individual who is noticed by the Poet 
have been added to it. 



From the information of Sir William Bctham, Ulster King of Arms. 



viii PREFACE, 

The description of the banner of each Knight is illustrated by a wood- 
cut, which has been taken from the illuminations in the margin of the 
copy of the Poem by Glover, in the College of Arms. 

The materials for these memoirs, which might almost be entitled 
" Biographical Notices of the Baronage of England in 1300," since there 
are but few of them who were not present at the siege, have been chiefly 
derived from the invaluable labours of Sir William Dugdale, a writer 
whose fame can derive no lustre from any praise which it is in the power 
of the Editor to bestow, but who may at least be permitted to express the 
surprise and regret with which he has lately seen that indefatigable 
antiquary designated as a mere " plodding and laborious collector of 
records and dates," by a gentleman who ought to be able to form a more 
just opinion of productions which tend in so important a degree to illus- 
trate the history of this country. 1 

In many instances, however, several facts have been introduced into 
the account of the Peers who were at Carlaverock which escaped that 
distinguished Herald, whilst of such persons as it was not the object of 
his work to notice, very considerable trouble has been taken to collect all 
the information possible : hence it is presumed that this volume may be 
useful from the biography which it contains. 

To apologize for the errors which may be found in a work of this 
description would be impertinent. Those who can best estimate the time 
and research which it has consumed, will be sensible that it could not 
be wholly free from mistakes or omissions. 

To his friend Charles George Young, Esq. York Herald, F. S. A., 
Michael Jones, Esq. F. S. A., Dr. Meyrick, F. S. A., Frederick Madden, 
Esq. F.S. A., for their assistance and suggestions, and to William Constable 
Maxwell, Esq. the proprietor of Carlaverock Castle, for the account of the 
present state of his family, the Editor begs to offer his sincere thanks. 

1 Preface to Godwin's " History of the Commonwealth." 



HISTORY 



OF 



CARLAVEROCK CASTLE, 



THE Castle of Carlaverock, which is said to have been the Carbanto- 
rigum of Ptolemy," stood in the parish of that name, in the county, and 
about nine miles south of the town, of Dumfries, on the north shore of 
Solway Frith, at the confluence of the rivers Nith and Locher. 

Tradition states that it was founded in the sixth century by Lewarch 
Og, son of Lewarch Hen, a celebrated British poet ; and that it de- 
rived its name from his own, Caer Lewarch Ogg, which in the Gaelic 
language signified the city or fortress of Lewarch Ogg, and which was 
afterwards corrupted to Caerlaverock. b Mr. Grose, however, doubts 
this etymology ; and it would be a waste of time to speculate upon its 
correctness. 

Carlaverock Castle was, according to a MS. pedigree cited by that 
writer, the principal seat of the family of Maxwell as early as the time of 
Malcolm Canmore ; but Sir Robert Douglas informs us in his Peerage, 
that Sir John Macuswell acquired the Barony of Carlaverock about the 
year 1220. 

It is impossible to give any other account of the original Castle than the 
Poet's description of it. He says, " Carlaverock was so strong a Castle 
that it did not fear a siege, therefore the King came himself, because 
it would not consent to surrender ; but it was always furnished for its 
defence, whenever it was required, with men, engines, and provisions. 

Cough's Camden, vol. III. p. 327. b Grose's Antiquities of Scotland, vol. I. p. 159. 

C 



X HISTORY OF 

Its shape was like that of a shield/ for it had only three sides, all round, 
with a tower on each angle ; but one of them was a double one, so high, 
so long, and so large, that under it was the gate with the drawbridge, 
well made and strong ; and a sufficiency of other defences. It had good 
walls, and good ditches filled to the edge with water ; and I believe there 
never was seen a Castle more beautifully situated ; for at once could be 
seen the Irish Sea towards the west ; and to the north a fine country, sur- 
rounded by an arm of the sea, so that no creature born could approach it 
on two sides, without putting himself in danger of the sea. Towards the 
south it was not easy, because there were numerous dangerous defiles of 
wood and marshes, ditches where the sea is on each side of it, and where 
the river reaches it ; and therefore it was necessary for the host to approach 
it towards the east, where the hill slopes." d Mr. Grose informs us that the 
site and foundation of the original castle were very conspicuous and easy 
to be traced, in a wood about three hundred yards to the south of the 
present building ; that it appears to have been rather smaller than the 
second castle, but of a similar form ; and that it was surrounded by a 
double ditch. 

Such was the fortress which Edward the First, on his invasion of Scot- 
land in June, 1300, found it necessary to reduce. By writs tested on the 
29th December, 28 Edw. I. 1299, all who owed military service to the 
crown were ordered to attend at Carlisle on the feast of the Nativity 
of St. John the Baptist next ensuing, to serve against the Scots. 8 The 
command was punctually obeyed ; and about the first of July the English 
army quitted Carlisle. The Poet's description of it is very interesting. 
" They were habited," he says, " not in coats and surcoats, but were 
mounted on powerful and costly chargers, and, that they might not be 
taken by surprize, they were well and securely armed. There were many 
rich caparisons embroidered on silks and satins ; many a beautiful pennon 
fixed to a lance ; and many a banner displayed. And afar oft' was heard 
the neighing of horses : hills and vallies were every where covered with 

c Shields in the thirteenth century were nearly triangular. J Pages 62, 63. 

e Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," and the Poem, p. 2. 



CARLAVEROCK CASTLE. XI 

sumpter horses and waggons with provisions, and sacks of tents and pa- 
vilions. And the days were long and fine : they proceeded by easy 
journies, arranged in four squadrons." f 

He then notices the arms, and, in many cases, personal merits or ap- 
pearance of each of the Bannerets and some of the Knights who were 
present, among whom were the King, his eldest son the Prince of Wales, 
and the most illustrious peers of the realm, to the number of " eighty- 
seven," 6 but he describes the banners of eighty-eight individuals. The 
men at arms amounted to three thousand/ and " quite filled the roads to 
Carlaverock." s If any reliance can be placed upon his statement, it must 
be inferred that a summons was sent to the Castle before the King deter- 
mined to besiege it, and that it was in consequence of the refusal to sur- 
render, for it " was not to be taken like a chess-rook," that his Majesty 
appeared before it in person. h 

The exact time of the siege cannot be ascertained, but it undoubtedly 
took place between the 6th and 12th of July, 1300, for on the former day 
Edward was at Carlisle, 11 and on the latter at Carlaverock ;' but as he was 
at Dumfries on the 10th,J it may be concluded that the Castle was taken 
either on the 10th or llth of that month. 

The investiture and siege are minutely described in the Poem. As soon 
as the English army appeared before the place, it was quartered by the 
Marshal ; and the soldiers proceeded to erect huts for their accommoda- 
tion, the account of which is very picturesque. k Soon afterwards the mili- 
tary engines and provisions were brought by the fleet, and the foot-men 
immediately marched against the Castle. k A sharp skirmish took place, 
which lasted about an hour, in which time several were killed and wounded. k 
The loss sustained by the infantry caused the men at arms to hasten to 
their assistance ; or, as the Poet has expressed it, many of them " ran 
there, many leaped there, and many used such haste to go that they did 
not deign to speak to any one." k It would be difficult to find more 
appropriate words to detail what ensued than his own : " Then might 

* 

f Pages 4-5. g Page 59. h Liber Quoditianus Garderobae, a 28 Edw. I. p. 72. 

i Ibid. p. 41. j Ibid. k p age 65. 



Xll HISTORY OF 

there be seen such kind of stones thrown as if they would beat hats and 
helms to powder, and break shields and targets in pieces, for to kill and 
wound was the game at which they played. Great shouts w r ere among 
them when they perceived that any mischief occurred." ' He then notices 
some Knights who particularly distinguished themselves in the assault ; 
and proceeds to state that the first body was formed of Bretons, and the 
second of Lorains, who rivalled each other in zeal and prowess, 1 " and 
that those engaged in the attack " did not act like discreet people, nor as 
men enlightened by understanding, but as if they had been inflamed and 
blinded by pride and despair, for they made their way right forwards to 
the very brink of the ditch." n At that moment the followers of Sir Tho- 
mas de Richmont passed close up to the draw-bridge, and demanded 
admission, but they received no other answer to the summons " than 
ponderous stones and cornues." n Sir Robert de Willoughby was 
wounded in his breast by a stone ; and the valour of Sir John Fitz-Mar- 
maduke," Sir Robert Hamsart, " from whose shield fragments might often 
be seen to fly in the air,"" Sir Ralph de Gorges, Sir Robert de Tony, and 
especially of the Baron of Wigton, " who received such blows that it was 
the astonishment of all that he was not stunned," is especially comme- 
morated. 

The party engaged was reinforced by the followers of the Prince of 
Wales : the walls were mined with considerable effect by Sir Adam de la 
Forde : and Sir Richard de Kirkbride assailed the gate of the Castle in so 
vigorous a manner, " that never did smith with his hammer strike his iron 
as he and his did there." q Nor was the bravery of the besieged less con- 
spicuous. They showered such huge stones, quarrels, and arrows upon 
their enemies, that the foremost among them became so much hurt and 
bruised that it was with great difficulty they could retreat.i At that junc- 
ture Robert Lord Clifford sent his banner and many of his retinue, with 
Sir Bartholomew de Badlesmere and Sir John de Cromwell, to supply 
their places/ though they were not permitted to remain there long ; and on 

1 Page 65. m p age 69. n Page 71. Page 75. 

p Page 73. q Page 77. r p age 79. 



CARLAVEROCK CASTLE. Xlll 

their retiring, Sir Robert la Warde and Sir John de Grey renewed the 
attack, but the besieged were prepared for their reception, and " bent 
their bows and cross-bows, and kept their espringalls in readiness both to 
throw and to hurl." a The retinue of the Earl of Brittany, " fierce and 
daring as the lions of the mountain," recommenced the assault, and soon 
covered the entrance to the Castle :* they were supported by the followers 
of Lord Hastings, one of whom, John de Cretings, is said to have nearly 
lost his horse on the occasion. 1 

The courage of the little garrison was not yet subdued. As one of 
them became fatigued another supplied his place, and they gallantly de- 
fended the fortress the whole of one day and night, and the next day until 
about nine o'clock in the morning." But the numerous stones which 
were thrown from the Robinet depressed then* spirits ; u and it was impossi- 
ble to resist the effect of three ponderous battering engines on the opposite 
side, every stroke of which, by " piercing, rending, and overturning the 
stones, caused the pieces to fall in such a manner that neither an iron hat 
nor wooden target " could protect them, and many were consequently 
killed/ Finding resistance to be hopeless, they requested a parley, and 
in token thereof hung out a pennon ; but the unfortunate soldier who dis- 
played it was shot through his hand into his face by an arrow," when the 
others demanded quarter, surrendered the Castle to the King of England, 
and threw themselves upon his mercy." 

The Marshal and Constable of the army immediately commanded that 
all hostilities should cease, and took possession of the place. The 
English were excessively surprised to find that the whole number of 
the garrison amounted only to sixty men, who were, the Poet says, 
" beheld with much astonishment," >' and were securely guarded until the 
King ordered that life and limb should be granted to them, and bestowed 
on each a new robe ;? but this account of the treatment of the prisoners 
differs entirely from that in the Chronicle of Lanercost, where it is said 
that many of them were hung. 

s Pages 80, 81. t Page 81. u Page 83. * Page 85. * Page 86. 
* Page 87. y Page 87. 

d 



HISTORY OF 

As soon as the Castle fell into Edward's hands, he caused his banner, 
and that of St. George and St. Edward, to be displayed on its battlements, 
to which were added the banner of Sir John Segrave the Marshal, and of 
the Earl of Hereford the Constable, of the army ; together with that of 
Lord Clifford, who was appointed its Governor. y 

Only two contemporary chroniclers notice the event, and their state- 
ments are excessively brief. Peter of Langtoft says the rain 

... -ran ooton on i\je tttountajm and Drenfttea tlje 
Sir utoai't> jtaui) tlja papnE., find toft ffje gate 
arfje more ty for.softe, tlje fotemen lift a ffoft, 
3. pottere fjamlete tofte, tlje ca^telle ftarelaberoft : 

The Chronicle of Lanercost gives a much more accurate account of the 
circumstance, though it is scarcely less concise : 

A MCCC. Eodem [anno] circa festum Sancti Johannis Baptistse, Dominus Edwardus Rex 
Angliae cum pi-oceribus et magnatibus Angliae venit apud Karleolum, cum quo venit Dominus 
Hugo de Veer, et fecit moram apud Lanercost Et inde transivit Rex in partes Galwithiae usque 
ad aquam de Grithe, cepitque castruni de Carlaverok, quod dedit Domino Roberto de Clifforde, 
et fecit plures intus castrum inventos suspend!, fuitque tune annus Jubilei anno pontificatus Boni- 
facii Papae vj. z 

The capture of the Castle is also noticed by Robert Winchelsey, who 
was then Archbishop of Canterbury, in a letter to the Pope, dated on the 
8 id. October, 1300, in which he says that in obedience to his Holiness's 
commands to present a certain Bull to the King, he proceeded to his 
Majesty, " versus castrum de Carlaudrok (mod prius ceperat." a 

The " Liber Quotidianus Garderobce" of that year, contains numerous 
notices of Carlaverock, the first of which proves that Edward was there 
on the 12th of July, as on that day an oblation of seven shillings was 
offered in honour of St. Thomas in his majesty's chapel at that place : 

xij die Julij in obi' Regis ad altare in capella sua apud Karlaverok, in honore Sancti 
Thome vijs. b 

y Page 87. z Cotton. MSS. Claudius, D. vii. f. 209. 

a Leib. Cod. Jur. gent. vol. II. p. 280. b Liber Quotidianus Garderobse, page 41. 



CARLAVEROCK CASTLE.' XV 

But the most important are those which relate to the siege of the Castle, 
and which will therefore be extracted at length: 

Magistro Ricardo cle Abyndon, [pro vyndag' vini, &c. et] pro vadiis diversorum operarior' 
fabroruin ct carpentar' mi.ssorum de Karliol' usque Carlaverok, pro ingen' Reg', per manus Domini 
Henr' de Sandwyco capellani Domini Joh'is de Drokenesford, liberant" eidem denariis apud 
Karliol', mense Julij, ij li. iiij s. xj d. c 

Magistro Ricardo de Abyndon, Clerico, pro vad' carpentar' fabrorum et aliorum operariorum 
diversorum retentorum ad vadia Regis, per preceptum Regis per literam Thes' de scaccario ad 
uiiuin catum, unuin multonem, et unam berfrarium, et alia ingenia facienda, per visum et ordi- 
nacionem D'ni Joh'is de la Dolive, Militis, ad insultum faciend* castro de Karlaverok in adventu 
Regis et exercitus sui ibidem anno present!, et ad cariend' cum Rege in eadem guerra ad diversa 
loca Scocie inter xx diem Nov* anno predicto incipien' ad xxiiij diem Julij anno eodem, una 
cum diversis caring' conductis pro maeremio et aliis diversis pro predictis negociis necessariis 
cariand' ad loca diversa infra idem comp', sicut patet per comp' predictum, xlvj li .xiij s. jd. ob. d 

D'no Joh'i de la Dolyve, Const' castri de Dunfres, pro expensis quorumdam hominum eund' 
circa victualia pro municione dicti castri queremla, expens' quorumdam nunc' defer' literas per 
diversas vices, ciphis, ligneis, platell', et discis emp' per eundem, calciatura quorumdam balistar' 
commoranc' in municione predicta, ac expen' suis et quorumdam hominum euncium per pre- 
ceptum Regis, pro ingeniis querendo de Carliolo usque Carlaverok pro captione ejusdem castri, 
infra tempus predictum [a ix die Marcij anno presenti xxviij usque xxx diem Julij anno eodem] 
iijli. xixs. bid. ob. e 

Magistro Ade Glasham, carpentar' retento eodem modo ad vadia Regis pro ingenio venienc' de 
Loghmaban ad obsidionem castri de Carlaverok, pro vadiis suis, et vij sociorum suorum carpentar', 
a x die Jul' usque xx diem ejusdem mensis, utroque comp' per xj dies, predicto Ade per diem vjrf. 
et cuilibet alio carpentar' per diem iiijrf. jli. xjs. ijrf. f 

And other carpenters, masons, &c. were retained for the same period. e 

Roberto de Wodehous, pro den' per ipsum solutis Petro de Preston et ix sociis suis const' cum 
equis coopertis, pro vadiis suis vj CLX sag 1 ped' ven' usque Karliol um de com' Lane', per ij dies, 
veniendo de Karliolo usque Karlaverok ad Regem viij die Jul' pro primo romp' xij //. xj s. ; eidem, 
provadiis ij balist' et xlij sag' de municione castri de Roukesburgh, unius balist' et xj sag' peditum 
de municione castri de Gcddevvorth, per eosdem ij dies, veniendo eodem modo ad Regem j/. ijs. 
viij d. ; eidem, pro vadiis v hobelar' de municione de Rokesburgh, per idem tempus, sic veniendo, 
vs. ; eidem, pro vadiis iv carpentai 1 ' et v fossator' per unum diem, videlt, viij diem Jul', veniendo 
ut supni, ijs. ij d. Summa, xiv/t. xrf. R 

Steph'o Banyng, mag'ro navis et x sociis suis nautis ejusdem navis, car' in pre- 

c Liber Quotidianus Garderoba;, page 67. d Ibid, page 140. e Ibid, page 153. 

Ibid, page 258. g Ibid, page 259. h Ibid. 



XVI HISTORY OF 

dicta navi sua quoddam ingen' de Skynburnesse usque Karlaverok, pro vadiis suis, per duos dies, 
x die Julij, pro primo comp', mag'ro percip' per diem vjd et quol't alio nauta per diem iijrf. vjs.i 

Several entries occur which tend to prove that the King was at Carlave- 
rock on the 13th k and 14th of July; 1 on the 29th of August, when 
seven shillings were paid in the King's chapel there in alms, m and on the 
30th of that month;" and again on the 3rd of November, on which day 
the same sum was offered at the altar in his Majesty's chapel there. 

It appears that Edward left Carlaverock Castle in the custody of Lord 
Clifford a few days after it surrendered, for on the 1/th of July he was at 
Loghroieton ;? that he proceeded to Kirkcudbright, Twynham, Flete, and 
Suthesk, and returned to it on the 29th of August ; that he quitted it for 
Holmcoltram before the 2nd of September, whence he went to Rose 
Castle, Carlisle, and Dumfries ; and that he came for the last time to 
Carlaverock on the 3rd of November, where he perhaps remained until 
the 10th of that month, as on the llth he is stated to have been at 
Carlisle.? 

The Castle evidently continued in the possession of the English 
for several years. On the 1 2th May, 2 Edw. II. 1309, the Sheriffs of 
Somerset and Dorset were ordered to purchase, and send to Skinburness, 
150 quarters of corn and the same quantity of malt, for the munition of 
the castles of Dumfries and Carlaverock ; ^ and on the 15th of December 
following Robert Lord Clifford was commanded to furnish the castles of 
Carlaverock, Dumfries, Dalswynton, and Thybres, with men and provi- 
sions, and all other necessaries for their defence ; and the Constables of 
them were respectively enjoined to defend them against the King's rebels 
and enemies, without any truce or sufferance whatever/ In 1312 Sir 

i Liber Quotidianus Garderobae, page 272. k Ibid, pages 64-, 248. 

1 Ibid, pages 79, 102. In the month of July the following entry occurs : " Ciphus argenti pond' iij 
marc' di' x st. precij xxft. ixs. vijd. Datur per Dominum J. de Drokenesford, nomine Regis, D'no 
Salvo dc Parma vcnienti ad Regem apud Karlaverok cum certificatione super creacione cujusdam 
Cardinalis, mense Julij." Page 339. m Ibid, pages 41, 68, 70, 174. n Ibid. page!38. 

o Ibid, page 42. Other notices of Carlaverock will be found in pages 72, 82, 127. 

p Ibid, page Ixviij. By a reference to page 42 of that work, it will be seen that, in this abstract, the 
King is erroneously said to have been at Carlaverock on the 1st of November. 

q Rot. Scot. vol. I. r ibid. 



CARLAVEROCK CASTLE. . XV11 

Eustace tie Maxwell appears from the following document to have joined 
the English interest : 

Pro Eustathio de Maxwelle et securitate castri sui cle Carlaverok. 

R. clilecto clcrico suo Willielmo de Bevercotes, cancellario suo Scotie, salutem. Ut dilectu^ 
nobis Eustauthius cle Maxwelle, majorem et securiorem custodiam in castro suo de Carlaverok 
contra insidias Scotorum inimicorum nostrorum apponat, concessimus ei illas viginti et duas libras 
annuas quas nobis debet singulis annis ad scaccariam nostram Berewyci, de alba firma pro custodia , 
castri sui predict! in ejus subsidium, ad securam custodiam castri sui supradicti, ad voluntatem nos- 
tram. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod eidem Eustathio brevia nostra sibi super hoc sufficient!;! sine 
dilatione habere faciatis. T. R. apud Novum Castrum super Tynam xxx die Aprilis [1312]. 
Per ipsum Regem. 8 

It is uncertain how long Sir Eustace de Maxwell supported the invaders of 
his country, but it is unquestionable that he soon afterwards distinguished 
himself in the service of Robert Brus. The castle being again besieged 
by the English, he defended it for several weeks, and obliged them to 
retire, when, fearing, that it might ultimately fall into their hands, 
he demolished all its fortifications, for which generous sacrifice King 
Robert compensated him by the grant of an annual rent, " pro fractione 
castri de Carlaverok," 1 and moreover released him from the payment of 
s32 sterling due to the crown from his lands." Sir Eustace died between 
1340 and 134/, and his son, Sir Herbert Maxwell, in September in the 
year last mentioned, consented to swear fealty to Edward the Third ; 
about which time he received letters of safe conduct to attend a treaty at 
London with William de Bohun Earl of Northampton," the result of which 
is shown by the annexed document. It is also manifest from it, either 
that Sir Eustace Maxwell did not completely destroy Carlaverock Castle, 
or that his son had rebuilt it. 



s Rot. Scot. vol. I. p. 1 10. 

t Wood's Douglas's " Peerage of Scotland," and Robertson's " Index of Records and Charters from 
1309 to.l H3," p. 15. 

u Robertson's " Index," p. 12. Grose says the sura remitted him and his heirs was ten pounds yearly. 
* Rot. Scot. vol. I. p. 703. 

e 



Xviii HISTORY OF 

Protectio pro Herberto Maxwell, Anglicato, et pro castro suo Carlaverok. 

R. omnibus ballivis et fidelibus suis tarn in Anglia quam in Scotia ad quos, &c. salutem. Sciatis 
quod, cum Herbertus de Maxwell nuper per amicabilem tractatum inter dilectum consanguineum 
et fidelem nostrum Willielmum de Bohun, comitem Northampton', et ipsum Herbertum de man- 
dato nostro habitum, idem Herbertus ad obedientiam et ligeantiam nostras gratis venit et certos 
obsides sufficientes ad castrum de Carlaverok quod in custodia sua existit in manus nostras red- 
dendum prefato comiti liberaverit : Nos provide volentes securitati ipsius Herberti providere, sus- 
cepimus ipsum Herbertum, ac omnes homines secum in munitione castri predicti existentes, ac 
dictum castrum, cum armaturis et victualibus ac aliis bonis et catallis in eodem existentibus, in pro- 
tectionem et defensionem nostram speciales. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod ipsum Herbertum 
ac homines suos predictos manuteneatis protegatis et defendatis, non inferentes eis vel inferri per- 
mittentes injuriam molestiam dampnum aut gravamen. Et si quid eis forisfactum fuerit id eis sine 
dilacione faciatis emendari. Nolumus enim quod de armaturis victualibus ac bonis et catallis in 
castro predicto existentibus, seu de bladis feni, equis, carectis, cariagiis, victualibus, aut aliis bonis et 
catallis ipsius Herberti, aut hominum suorum predictorum, per ballivos seu ministros nostros aut 
alios quoscumque de Marchia Angliae, aut aliunde de obedientia nostra existentes, contra volun- 
tatem ipsius Herberti aut hominum suorum predictorum ad opus nostrum aut aliorum quicquam 
capiatur. In cujus, &c. per unum annum duratur. T. custode apud Glouces' quinto die Sep- 
tembris [21 Edw. III. 1347]. y 

In 1355 the Castle is said to have been taken by Roger Kirkpatrick, 
and levelled with the ground ; z and on the death of Sir Herbert Maxwell 
without issue, the baronial lands of Carlaverock devolved, on his first 
cousin, Sir John Maxwell, and of which he was possessed in 137 1 : a his 
son, Sir Robert, is presumed to have erected the present castle. From 
the said Sir Robert Maxwell it has descended to its present possessor, 
William Constable Maxwell, of Everingham in Yorkshire, Esq. and which 
is shown by the following pedigree of the ancient family of Maxwell. 

y Rot. Scot. vol. I. p. 704 b. 

z " Illic Donaldus Macdowel in ecclesia de Cummok fidelitatem Regi jurat ; et Rogerus Kirkpatricius 
totam terrain de Niddisdale ad idem induxit : arces de Dalswynton et Carlaverok de adversariorum ma- 
nibus eripuit, quas solo aequavit." Historia Majoris Britannia; tarn Anglia: quam Scotioe. Per Joannem 
Majorem, p. 248. 

a Wood's Douglas's Peerage. See the pedigree. 



CARLAVEROCK CASTLE. 



XIX 



PEDIGREE OF THE ANCIENT FAMILY OF MAXWELL, 

LORDS MAXWELL, HERRIES, ESKDALE, AND CARLEILE, AND EARLS OF NITHSDALE ; 
LORDS OF THE CASTLE AND BARONY OF CARLAVEROCK. 

[From Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, edit. Wood, vol. II. pp. 311-13, eicepting where other authorities arc cited.] 



MACCUS, son of UNWIN, attached himself to Earl David, and obtained lands from that Prince on=p 
the banks of the Tweed, which acquired from him the appellation of Macusville : he was one of the 
witnesses to the " Inquisitio Davidis," and to the charter of the foundation of the monastery of | 
Selkirk by King David. 



HUGO DE MACCUSVILLE, eldest: 
son : was a witness to a donation 
from David I. to the monastery 
of Newbottle. 



Edmund, 2nd son, witness 
to a perambulation and 
division of the lands of 
Mella. 



" Liulph filius Maccus," 3rd 
son, witness to a charter of 
Malcolm IV. to the abbacy 
of Kelso, 1159. 



HERBERT DE MACCUSVILLE, flourished under Malcolm IV. and William I. : =p 
was sheriff of the county of Roxburgh : ob. circa 1200. 



Sir JOHN MACUSWELL, eldest son, was Sheriff of Roxburgh, and witnessed agreements^: 
of the Abbot and Convent of Kelso, 1203 and 1207: was one of the guarantees of the 
marriage treaty of Alexander II. and Joan of England, 15 June, 1220, and was present 
at their marriage at York, 18 June, 1221 : ACQUIRED THE BARONY OF CAULAVEROCK : 
he was constituted Great Chamberlain of Scotland 1231 : ob. 1241. 



Robert de 
Macuswell. 



EUMERUS DE MACUSWELL, of Carlaverock : was a witness to divers charters in: 
1232, 1235, and 1239, Chamberlain of Scotland 1258, by which title he is de- 
signated in the agreement that Scotland should not make a separate peace 
with England without the consent of the Welsh ; and was Justiciary of Gal- 
loway. He was removed from the councils of Alexander III. by the King 
of England in 1255. 



:MARY, daughter and 
heiress of Roland de 
Mearns : she brought to 
her husband the barony 
and castle of Mearns in 
Renfrewshire. 



Sir HERBERT D 
MAXESWELL, 
I'ldost son, ob. 
ante 1300." 



Sir John de Makeswell, 2nd son : he obtained from his father the barony of 
Nether Pollock in Renfrewshire, with other lands, and was ancestor of the 
Maxwells of Pollock ; of Calderwood ; and of Cardoness, Baronets ; of the 
Earls of Farnham in Ireland ; of the Maxwells of Park-hill, Newark, and of 
other families of that name. , 



Sir Herbert de Maxwell sat in the parliament of Scone, 5th February, 128S-4, when the nobles agreed to recede Margaret of 
Norway as their sovereign in the event of the death of Alexander III.; was present in the assembly at Brigham, 19 March, 1889-90, 
when the marriage of Queen Margaret with Prince Edward was proposed ; was one of the nominees on the part of Robert Bruce, iu 
his competition for the crown of Scotland in H92 j swore fealty to Edward the First in 1S96' ; and he and a John de Maxwell received 
letters of credence concerning military service to he performed in parts beyond the sea, in July, 1297. (Palgrave's " Parliamentary 
Writs," Digest, p. 733.) 



XX 



HISTORY OF 



Sir John de 
Makeswell, 
eldest son, 
swore fealty 
with his father 
to Edward I. 
in 1296. ob. 
s. P. and most 
probably be- 
fore his father. 




Sir HERBERT MAXWELL, of; 
Carlaverock, 2nd son, made 
a donation of some lands to 
the monastery of Paisley in 
the lifetime of both his bro- 
thers, between 1273 and 
1300, and a second dona- 
tion to the monastery about 
1300, died before 1312.h 



Sir EUSTACE MAX-=PHELEN MAXWELL, 
WELL, of Carlave- ; of the house of 
rock,eldestson,died ; Maxwell of Pollok; 
before September, ; she survived her 
1347. d husband. 



Alexander de 
Maxwell, wit- 
nessed a do- 
nation of his 
brother, Sir 
Herbert, to 
the monastery 
of Paisley. 



JOHN DE MAXWELL, 2nd son : he is supposed to have suc-=p 
ceeded his nephew, Herbert de Maxwell, as his next heir. 
He possessed the estate of Pencaitland, and granted an 
annuity out of it to the monks of Dryburgh. Was one of 
the prisoners taken at the battle of Durham, 17 October, 
1346, and died soon afterwards. 



HERBERT DE MAXWELL, of Car- 
laverock, probably his son : he is 
considered to have died s. p. e 



Sir JOHN MAXWELL, of Maxwell^CnRis- Eustace Maxwell, ob. 
and Carlaverock, died soon after TIAN. V.P. ; hisbrother John 
November, 1373.* became his heir. 



Sir ROBERT DE MAXWELL, of Carlaverock, died=p 
about 1420.5 | 



Agnes, married Robert Pollock, of 
Pollock. 



b Rot. Scot. p. 110. His arms were, Argent, a sal tire, Sable. 

c The castle of Cavlaverock having been besieged by the English, Sir Eustace Maxwell defended it for some weeks, and forced 
them to retire, but fearing that it might afterwards fall into their hands he dismantled and threw it down, in recompense of 
which service, " pro fractione castri de Caerlaverok," he obtained a grant of an annual rent from King Robert. He signed the letter 
to the Pope, asserting the independency of Scotland, on the 6th April, 1320 ; in which year he was tried for being concerned in the 
conspiracy of the Countess of Strathern against King Robert, but was acquitted. He received 300 marks out of a payment from Ed- 
ward III. to Edward Baliol, King of Scots, 24 March, 1336 ; and was a witness to a charter of Edward Baliol in 1340. 

* Rot. Scot. vol. I. p. 704 b. 

Herbert de Maxwell obtained from David II. a charter of discharge tf the duty of Carlaverock, and in September, 21 Edw. III. 
1347, he received letters of protection for himself and his castle of Carlaverock. (Rot. Scot. vol. I. p. 704 b.) His rebellion was 
punished by David II. who granted to Herbert Murray some lands in Lanarkshire which were forfeited by him. 

' Sir John Maxwell confirmed a grant of his father to the abbacy of Dryburgh, in which lie calls himself, " son of the late John 
rle Maxwell, and heir of Eustace Maxwell his brother." He sat in the parliament at Edinburgh, 26 September, 1357, and received a 
safe conduct to go into England in 1365. Granted some lands, &c. to the monastery of Kilwinning for the health of his soul, and 
the soul of Christian his wife, which was confirmed by King David II. in 1367 j and obtained a grant of some forfeited lands, 
1 1th November, 137:). 

t Sir Ro'iert de M xwcll received letters of safe conduct to go into England, with six horses in his retinue, 5th December, 1363 ; 
again to visit the shrine of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 8th June, 1364; and logo abroad, 16th October, 1365. Obtained from 
Robert II. a charter dated 19 Sept. 1371, by the description of " Robert de Maxwell, son and heir of John de Maxwell, of Carlave- 
rock, Knt." of all the lands which the said Sir John held of the King in capite, and which he had resigned into his Majesty's hands 
on the preceding day, reserving the life-rent of the same to himself, and the terce to Christian his wife if she survived him. Gave 
lands to the monks of Dryburgh for the welfare of his soul and the soul of Herbert his son and heir. He was one of the Ambassadors 
to England in 1413. 



CARLAVEROCK CASTLE. 



XXI 



.Sir IlEitDERT=pMARGAKET, (hm.uiul heiress of Sir John 



MAXWELL, of 
Carlaverock, 
eldest son.g 



do Crapy, of Cragy in Linlithgow, 
widow of Sir Jolin Stewart. Charter from 
Robert Duke of Albany, 2.5th Oct. 1407. 



Amerus de Maxwell, 
2nd son ; called " fruter 
Hi-rberti," in a royal 
charter 14-21- 5. 



Margaret, married 
Sir John de Mont- 
gomery, of Eglis- 
ham. 



MAXWFLL, of Car-^=jANET, dau of Sir 



laverock, eldest son ; ac- 
cording to a pedigree cited 
by Grose he was slain at 15an- 
nockburn in 1 M-8.' 



John Forrester, of 
Cottorphin, Cham- 
berlain of Scot- 
land. 



Eustace Maxwell, of Tcaling, in Jaiut, married 
Forfartliirc, which lands he ac- William Dou- 
quired by his marriage with glas, of Drum- 
Mary, 3rd sister and coheiress of lanrig. 
Hugh Giflbrd, of Yester. 



dau. of sir=pHEKBKRT MAXWELL, of Car-==KATHERiNE, eldest dau. of Sir William Seton, of 



Herbert I Jerries, 
of Terregles ; 1st 
wife. 



laverock. He is considered 
to have been the first Lord 
Maxwell.' 



dTs 
rd w 
|j, 



Seton, and widow of Sir Alan Stewart, of Uarnley, 
>bo was killed in 1439, by whom she was mother of 
John 1st Earl of Lennox ; 2nd wife.'' 



ROBERT, 2nd Lord Max-^=jANET, dau. of George Crich- 
well, eldest son, was j ton, Earl of Caithness. The 

great seal register, however, 
contains a charter, dated 25 
May, 14-60, of lands to George 
Maxwell on the resignation 
of his mother " Janet, dau. 
of the deceased George Earl 



served heir of his father, 
Herbert Lord Maxwell, 
4th February, 1453; was 
guarantee of a truce with 
England, on the 1 1th June, 
1457; again, 12th Sep- 



tember, 1459 ; sat in par- 
liament as a peer 14th 
October, 1467. 



of Caithness, wife of John 
Maxwell." 



Sir Edward Maxwell, 
ofTinwald: obtained 
a charter of the ba- 
rony of Monreith, 
15th Jan.l 481 -2. An- 
cestor of the Mai- 
wells of Monreith, 
Baronets. 

Katherine, married 
Gilbert Lord Ken- 
nedy; they had a 
charter in 1450. 



r i i i i i i 

George Maxwell, 
ancestor of the 
Maxwells of 
Garnsalloch. 

David. 

Adam Maxwell, 
ancestor of the 
Maxwells of 
Southbar. 

John Maxwell. 

William Maxwell. 

Janet. Mariot. 



* Sir Herbert Maxwell was appointed Steward of Annandale by his kinsman, Archibald Earl of Douglas, Jth February, 1409-10; 
was granted lands in the Daruny of Dalswiutuo by Murdoc Duke of Albany, SSth October, 1420 ; obtained letters of safe conduct 
to go to Durham to .lames I. IS Dec. 1423 ; wan arrested with the Duke of Albany, 1425 ; Warden of the West Marches, 1430 and 
1438 ; by the description of " Herbertus Dominus de Carlaverok," was one of the conservators of the truce with England, 
SOth March, 1438. 

h Robert Maxwell obtained a charter of the lands of Liliertoun, in the Barony of Carnwath, from hit cousin Thomas de Somcr- 
ville, l>y the description of" Roberto de Maxwell, filio et heredi Domini Herbert! de Maxwell, Militis, Domini de Carlaverock, et 
Jonet.i', filioe Joannis Forstare, Domini de C'orstorphin," and to the heirs male of their bodies ; failing which, to Herbert, and tht 
heirs male of his body ; failing which, to Amerus de Maxwell, brother of Herbert, 13th Jan. 1424-5. 

1 Herbert Muxwell was one of the guarantees of a treaty with the English, 15 Dec. 1430, when be was styled " Herbertus, Do- 
minus de Maxwell," and again in November, 1449 ; was one of the conservators ofa truce, with England, 14th August, 1451 ; again, 
i.l Ma", 1453, although according to the first edition of Douglas's Peerage he is said to hare died in October, 1453. Captain Rid- 
dell's MS. in the possession of Mr. Nichols, which will be again noticed, gives the following copy of this nobleman's accounts with 
the King's Exchequer for the Stcwartry of Annandale in 1452 : 

" Computtim DTI. Herbert! Domini Maxwell Senescal. Vallis Annsmliir, redditum apud Stryvilin per Herbertum Maxwell, scil. dc 
SSth mcnsis Novembris an Don). 1459, de omnibus debitis suis et expcnsis per firmas et exitu. Vallis suse, a die 26 mensis Junii an. 
Dom. 14-)!), usque in diem presentem, per trcs annns inte^ros ad terminos beati Martini ut infra computum. Imprimis, idem onerat 
>e de xxxvs. de primitiis terrarum dominicarum de Lowchmaben de dictis septero termiu'u infra computum Regi debitis, quia dicta? 
terra: se extendunt annuatim ad decem libras ; et de xxxvs. de firmis terrarum de Hetca et de Sroalhame per dictum imprimis computum 
debitis, quia de dictis terris debenlur d'no Regi annuatim deccm librae, et de xxxvs. de firmis piscari* de Annand d'no Regi, ptr 
tempus computi de dictis septem tcrminis, quia dicta piscaria auuuatim valet decem libr." 

k The marriage of Kat'.ierine Seton with Herbert Maxwell, and her issue by him, are proved by a charter of lands in Dumfriesshire, 
dated 20th March, 1475-6. 



XX11 



HISTORY OF 



JOHN, 3rd Lo 
well : slain at 
Field, 9th Se| 
1513.1 

JANET, dau.= 
of Sir Wil- 
liam Dou- 
glas, of 
Drumlanrig, 
died before 
September, 
1529. 

1 


d Max-= 
Flodden 
timber, 


pAoNEs, dau. of Sir George Maxwell [query?]. 
Alexander Stewart, Thomas Maxwell, ances- 
of Garlics, living tor of the Maxwells of 
February, 1492. Kirkconnel."' 


Janet, wife of John 
1st Lord Carlyle 
of Tortherwald. 


pRoBERT,=Ac,XE.s, natural dim. of James 
4th Lord Karl of Buchan, widow of 
Maxwell, Adam, 2nd Earl of Bothwell. 
died 9th She had a charter of half 
July, of Carlaverock and Mernes 
1546." from her husband Lord Max- 
well, 13th Nov. 1545, mar- 
ried before September, 1529: 
'2nd wife. 


1 l 
Herbert Maxwell, 2nd 
son, ancestor of the 
Maxwells of Clowdon. 
Edward Maxwell, 3rd 
son, was taken prisoner 
at Solway in 1542, and 
released in the next 
yearon the payment of 
a ransom of sglOO. 


i i i 
1. Mary, married 

Sir John John- 
ston, ofjohnston. 
2. Agnes, married 
KobertCharteris, 
of Amisfield. 
3. Elizabeth, mar- 
ried . . Jardine, 
of Applegirth. 



1 This nobleman, on the resignation of his father, received a charter dated 14 Feb. 1477-8, to John Maxwell, son and heir appa- 
rent of Robert Lord Maxwell, of the barony of Maxwell in Roxburghshire, Carlaverock in the county of Dumfries, and Mernys in 
Renfrewshire! he is mentioned in the records of parliament, 12 Dec. 1482, as the son and heir apparent of Robert Lord Maxwell ; 
Steward of Annandale, and was one of the Commissioners appointed to settle border differences by the treaty of Nottingham, 23rd 
September, 1484 ; was one of the Conservators of a truce for the West Marches, 3rd July, I486' ; obtained a charter of lands in 
Wodden to him and to Agnes Stewart his wife, 20th Feb. 1491-2 ; was one of the Commissioners to treat with England, 29th July, 
1494 ; received grants of divers lands, Sth June, 1507, and 2nd March, 1507-8, from the King. 

The following copy of an agreement of man-rent from the Murrays of Cockpool to this nobleman, is of some interest as a specimen 
of those curious deeds : 

" Be it kende till all men be this p'nt 1'res, us Shyr Adam of Murraye, Thomas of Murraye son ande apperande ayr to Cuthbert of 
Murraye of Cockpool, Charlyss of Murrye and Cuthbert of Murrye young' sones to y c said Cuthbert off Murrye off Cockpuil, to be 
bundync and oblyst ande be thir p'nt 1'res ande y e faith and treuth in our bodies lelelye and treuly bjnds and obless us men ande 
servands in manrent and service to ane nobill and mychtie Lorde, John Lorde Maxwell, bay 1 in peace ande wycr. Ande we sal be till 
him leill ande trew and neyde req r his skay' nor see it hot wee sal let it at all cure gudlye power, and gif wee mayen not latt it wee sal 
wayrne hyme in all possibill hest. Ande gif he schawiss us his counsaill, or any ane off us, wee sail consult it, ande gif he asks at us 
any consale wee sail gif hyme the best at we can. Ande at wee sail tak an afauld upry' part wy' hyme in all his Icffull and honest 
actionis causes and querilliss wy' or kyne men and freynds at all or gudly pouer forst befor and againe all y' ciess or dee may als oft ass 
wee salbe chargit be y e saide Lorde or be ony uther in his name exerpe ande o' allegienss till o r Sovracc Lorde the King allandlye for 
all y e dais oft oure life but fraude or guile. In witness heyr off to yis or bande oft maurent ande service lelely and trewlyle to be kepit 
in all poynts ande articles above exprimit. Becauss we had na seyll proper present of yer auyn saidc Shyr Adam Thomas of Murraye 
Cherlyss ande Cuthbert bass wy' the seill oft ane honourabell man Cuthbert Murraye of Cockpule brither to y c saide Shyr Adam 
and fadyr to y" saide Thomas Charlyss ande Cuthbrt to y's p'nt bande of manrent and service for us to be affixit at Carleverock y 
xxvn daye of the monct of August y c zer of Gode a thousande CCCCLXXXVII zcrs befor yir witness Jamess Lymlessayne of Fairgirth, 
Thomas of Carruthers of y c Holmains, Thomas of Cairns of Orchertoane, Gavind of Murraylwaite, Styne S^ott, Herbert of Johnstonc, 
and Adam of Jonestone, wy' uthers many diverss." 

Nisbett, in his Heraldry, vol. I. p. 446, says that Kirkconncll of that Ilk ended about 1421 in an heiress, Janet de Kirkconnell, 
who married Homer Maxwell, a second son of Herbert Lord Maxwell. 

" Robert Lord Maxwell obtaiued a charter of lands in Dumfriesshire, 29th Nov. 1510; knighted and was constituted Steward of Annan- 
dale on his father's resignation, lotlijune, 1513; obtained divers forfeited lauds in 1516, 1526, 1528; to him and to Agnes Stewart, 
Countess of Bothwell, his wife, 29th Sept. 1529; 1530; 1532; to him and his said wife, 31st July, 1534 ; "f the Barony of Max- 
well, Carlaverock, and others, 28th July, 1534; to him and his said wife, 10th June, 1535; 1536; to him and his said wife, 
12 June, 1541; was guardian of the West Marches, 7th Oct. 1517, and in June, 1540; was appointed a Commissioner of Regency, 
Tflth August, 1536; Bent as ambassador to France to negociate the marriage of James V. with Mary of Lorraine, in December, 1537 ; 
cnaiter passed the great seal 6th June, 1540, of the lands and baronies of Maxwell, Carlaverock, ffcc. to him for life, remainder 
to Robert, Master of Maxwell, his son and heir apparent ; John, his second son ; Edward Maxwell, of Tynwall ; Edward Maxwell, of 
Lochruton; John Maxwell, of Cowhill ; Herbert Maxwell, brother german of the said Lord Maxwell; and Edward Maxwell, like- 
wise his brother german ; and the heirs male of their bodies respectively. Was constituted one of the extraordinary Lords of Session, 
2nd July, 1541 ; taken prisoner at Solway in Nov. 1542, and ransomed Ut July, 1543, for 1000 marks. 



CARLAVEROCK CASTLE. 



XX111 



ROBERT, 5th Lord Maxwell,^ 
was served lieir of his father, 
5th August, 1550; was one of 
the Commissioners to treat 
with the English, 8 May, 1551; 
died It September, 1552. 


pBKATiux, '2nd 
dau. of James, 
!ird Earl of Mor- 
ton, mar. about, 
but after the 
25th July, 1530. 


Margaret, married, 
first, 9 April, 15 1-3, 
Archibald Earl of 

Angus ; secondly, 
Sir William Baillie, 
of Lamington. 


Sir Jons =j 
MAXWELL, 
5th Lord 
Merries, died 
before May, 

IfMtP 


=A(iSES, eldest 
daughter and 
coheiress of 
William, 4th 
Lord Merries, 
of Terregies. 



JOHN, 6th: 
Lord 
Maxwell, 
a posthu- 
mous son, 
slain De- 
cember 
7th, 
1593.P 



ELIZABETH, 2nd 
dau. of David Dou- 
glas, 7th Earl of 
Ang\is,mar.inl572. 
She mar. secondly, 
John Wallace, of 
C'raigie, as appears 
by a charter dated 
5th Aug. 1598, and 
died at Edinburgh, 
in Feb. 1637 ; bur. 
at Lincluden. 



WILLIAM MAX-: 
WELL, 6th Lord 
Herries, was in- 
feft as heir of 
his father in 
May, 1594, and 
died 10th Octo- 
ber, 1604. 



:KATHE- James Maxwell, of Brnchinside, 2nd 
RINE, son. ^. For his issue see Wood's 

sister of Douglas's Peerage, vol. II. p. 319. 
Mark 1. Elizabeth, married in 1563 Sir John 

Kerr, Gordon, of Lochinvar. ^ 

first Earl 2. Margaret, married Mark, first Earl 
of Lo- of Lothian. ^~ 

thian. 3. Mary, married William, 6th Lord 

Hay of Yester. She had a charter 
from him 24th Feb. 1590-1. -f, 
4. Grizel. mar. Sir Thomas Maclellan, 
of Bombie, and was mother of tin- 
first Lord Kirkcudbright. 



Sir John Maxwell, by the description of " John Master of Maxwell," he being then presumptive heir of Robert fifth Lor.l Max- 
well, obtained a charter dated 1st February, 1549-50, to himself and Agnes his wife, one of the three daughters and coheirs of Wil- 
liam Lord Berries, of one-third of Terregies and other lands. Whilst guardian of the West Marches he was one of the Commis- 
sioners to treat of peace with the English, .9 Dec. 1552; was one of the ambassadors sent from the Lords of the Congregation in Feb. 
1560, to arrange a treaty with the Duke of Norfolk ; and concluded another treaty with the English, 23 Sept. 1563 ; obtained charters 
of various lands to himself and his said wife, 22 May, 1561 ; the barony of Terregies and others were erected of new into a lordship 
and barony, and granted to him and Agnes bis wife by royal charter, 8th May, 1 566 ; sat in parliament as Lord Merries, 1 3th April, 
1 567, on which day the Queen of Scotland, in reward of his services for twenty-two years as Warden of the West Marches, confirmed 
to him and Agnes Herries his wife, a charter and infeftrncnt of the baronies of Terregies and Kirkgunzean of the 8th May, 156G, to 
them and the heirs male of their bodies, failing which to his nearest and lawful heirs male whatsoever. He was at the battle of Lang- 
side on the part of the Queen in May, I.'.US ; and was forfeited in parliament, 19 August, 1568, but sentence was deferred; he was one 
of the Commissioners nominated on the part of Mary in September, 1568 ; and in April, 1569. was committed a prisoner to Edin- 
burgh castle, but was soon afterwards released, and continued an active adherent to the Queen ; obtained a charter of lands in Kirk- 
cudbright, lit October, 1572 ; was sent to require Morton to resign the regency in March, 1578. 

In Captain Riddell's MS. the subjoined copy is inserted of a speech delivered by this nobleman " in the presence of Elizabeth 
Queen of England," and transcribed " from the original preserved in the archives of the family of Nithsdale :" 

" Madam, The Queen my mistress, who is nothing subject to you, but by misfortune, doth desire you to consider that it is an 
work of an evil example and most pernicious consequence to give way that her rebellious subjects should be heard against her, who 
being not able to destroy her by arms, do promise themselves to assassinate her, even in your own breast, under colour of justice. 
Madam, consider the estate of worldly affairs, and bear some compassion to the calamities of your poor suppliant, after the most 
liorried attempt on the King her husband, the murder of his servants, the cruel designings on her sacred person, after so many 
prisons and chains, the subjects are heard against their Queen, the rebels against their lawful! mistris, the guilty against the innocent, 
and the felons against their judge. Where are we, or what do we do ? Though Nature hath planted us in the farthest parts and the 
extremities of all the earth, yet she hath not taken the sense of humanity from us. Consider she is your own blood, your nearest 
kinswoman, she is one of the best of Queens in the world, for whom your Majesty is preparing bloody scaffolds in a place where 
she was promised and expected greatest favours. I want words to express so barbarous a deed, but I am ready to come to the effects, 
and to justify the innocence of my Queen by witnesses unrcproachable, and by papers written and subscribed by the hands of the 
accusers. If this will not suffice, I offer myself, by your Majesty's permission, to fight hand to hand, for the honour of my Queen, 
against tl.e must hardy and most resolat of those who are her accusers. In this I do assure myself of your equity, that you will not 
deny that favour unto her who acknowledge herself obliged to your bounty." 

' John Lord Maxwell was served heir of his father, 24 May, 1 56!) ; with consent of his curators granted a charter of the lands of 
Mantles, Carlavcrock, S.c. 4th Feb. 1571-2, to Elizabeth, sister of Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, in her virginity, for the 



XXIV 



HISTORY OF 



Jons, 7th Lord Max- 


ROBERT, =pKLiz A BETH, 


2. Agnes, 


-\ i 


i i 
1. Sarah, married, first, 


well, eldest son, was 


8th Lord 


daughter of 


married 


ZA- 


MAX- 


Sir James Johnston, of 


served heir male of his 


Max- 


Sir Francis 


William 


liF.TII, 


WELL, 


Johnston, who was kill- 


father, llth Apr. 1601, 


well, 


Beaumont, 


Douglas, 


eldest 


7th 


ed by Lord Maxwell 


13 Sept. 1603, and 19 


died in 


and a near 


of Pen- 


d i. ligh- 


Lord 


in 1608 ; Sndly, John, 


Sept. 1604; married 


May, 


relation of 


zie. 


ter. 


Her- 


1st Earl of Wigton ; 


Margaret, only dau. of 




George Vil- 


3. Marga- 




ries, 


Srdly, Hugh Montgo- 


John, first Marquess of 




liers, Duke 


ret, mar- 




only 


mery, Viscount of Airds 


Hamilton: hekilledSir 




of Bucking- 


riedHugh 




son, 


in Ireland ; buried 29th 


James Johnston, 6th 




ham. 


Wallace, 




died 


March, 1636. 


April, 1608, in a feud, 






of Crai- 




about 


2. Margaret, married 


for which he was tried, 






gie. 




1627.r 


Robert Glendonwyn, 


and beheaded at the 












of Glendonwyn : mar- 


cross of Edinburgh, 21 












riage contract dated 


May, 1613, died s. r. 




<r 








14 Jan. 1605. 



matrimony to he contracted between them ; obtained charters of various lands in 1 573, 1 674, and 1 58 1 ; on the execution and attainder 
of the Regeut Morton, he, as representative of his mother, obtained a charter of the eaildum, barony, and regality of Moiton, of new 
erected into the Earldom of Morton, 5th June, 1581, and which was ratified with consent of parliament, 19th Nov. 1581, but the 
attainder being rescinded, he was deprived of that title in January, 1585 ; was guardian of the West Marches, but being deprived of 
it, a feud commenced between him and the Laird of Johnston to whom it was grunted, and though restored to that office the ani- 
mosity continued, and he was killed in an engagement with the Johnstons on the 7th Dec. 1593, " when, being a tall man, and 
heavy with armour, he was struck from his horse and dispatched ;" buried at Lincludeu. The following account of this affair occurs 
in Captain Riddell's MS. 

" The Laird of Johnstone, Warden of the West Marches, opposed Lord Maxwell in his being re-elected Provost of Dumfries ; 
but Lord Maxwell, with his numerous and armed friends, preoccupying the town on the day of election, had himself continued 
Provost of Dumfries. Upon this, complaint being lodged against Lord Maxwell at court, where he was out of favour, and being in 
vain commanded to present some of the Armstrongs for whom he was bound, he was denounced a rebel, and the Laird of Johnstone 
had orders to pursue him, some soldiers, well officered, being sent to his assistance ; but these ere they joined him were defeated 
by Lord Maxwell's bastard brother. To revenge this, Johnstone carried fire and sword into the territories of the Maxwells, which they 
repaying, a destructive war was carried on by the two clans, until the Laird of Johnstone was taken j risouer, when he soon died of 
grief for his disaster. Lord Maxwell fled to Spain to let the storm blow over. When he returned, the King determined to march 
against him, for Lord Maxwell had many alliances on the West Border, and the broken men of the Border had repaired to him in 
Mich numbers that the Warden [then the Lord Herrics] was unable to contend with him. Upon the King's approach Lord Max- 
well fled to Galloway, and the houses of Langholm, Thrieve, and Carlaverock surrendered to his Majesty. Lochmaben only re- 
isted till a train of artillery was brought from Cumberland, when the garrison capitulated for life, from which the Governor was 
excepted. His name was Maxwell ; he having refused to deliver the castle to the King in person, he was shown no mercy. Castle 
Milk and Morton Castle James ordered to be burned, and he ordered Sir William Stewart to bring him Maxwell dead or alive, who 
pursued Lord Maxwell from Kirkcudbright to the Isle of Sky, and from thence to Carrick j he seized him in a cave near the Abbey of 
Coxcraqwel, and carried him to the King at Edinburgh, who afterwards pardoned him on hi:, giving bond not to disturb the esta- 
blished religion on pain ofjl()0,000 sterling. He was again appointed Warden; for some of the name of Johnstone having, ia 
July, 1590, committed great depredations in the barony of Sanquhar and Drumlaurig, and killed many who pursued to recover the 
booty, Lord Maxwell, the Warden, was commissioned to pursue the plunderers with the utmost hostility. But not long before the 

Laird 



i Robert Lord Maxwell was restored to the title and estates, of his family by letter under the great seal, 13 Oct. 1618, and was 
served heir of his brother 13 July, 1C1S). Created Earl of Nithsdale, Lord Maxwell, Eskdale, and Carlyle, by patent, dated at 
Farnham, 20th August, 1640. to him, " suosque hreredcs masculos," with precedency from the 29th October, 1581, the date of 
the charter of the earldom of Morton to his father. Was appointed a Commissioner to obtain an unconditional surrender of tithes by 
Charles I. in 1625 ; was, on the 1 1th May, 1630, served heir in general of John Lord Maxwell, abavi, and Robert Lord Maxwell 
proavi. He joined Montrose in 1644, for which he was excommunicated by the general assembly. 

' John Maxwell, 7th Lord Herries, was served heir of his father, 26th Jan. and 26 Dec. 1604 ; and of his grandfather, John Lord 
Herrics, 2oth Jan. 1609. and 28th Oct. 1617; obtained a charter ofTrailtrow, 31st May, 1610 ; and of Craigley. 5th Jan. 1611. 



CAHLAVEROCK CASTLE. 



XXV 



ROBERT, 2nd Earl Elizabeth Maxwell, JOHN MAXWELL, 8th=;=ELizABETH, eldest dau. Elizabeth, 



of Nithsdale, and died unmarried in Lord Herries, only 



9th Lord Maxwell, 
only son, diedunm. 
in October, 1667. s was in that town. dale 1667, ob 



1623, at Dumfries, son,t succeeded as 
when the plague third Earl of Niths- 



of Sir Robert Gordon, married 

of Lochinvar, Bart, sis- George, 2nd 

ter of the first Viscount Earl of Win- 

Kenmure. toun. ,-* 



ROBERT MAXWELL, fourth==LucY, 8th dau. of Wil- 
Earl of Nithsdale, &c. eldest I liain, first Marquess of 
son, died in March, 1695. I Douglas. 



John Maxwell, 2nd son, and William Max- 
well, 3rd son, both of whom appear to have 
died issueless. 



WILLIAM MAXWELL, fifth Earl of Nithsdale, &c.=pWiNiFRED, youngest dau. of William Herbert, first 
only son, died at Rome, 20th March, 1744." j Marquess of Powis; she died at Rome in 1749." 

I 

Laird of Jolmstone had contracted an intimate friendship with hi> Lordship, and had exchanged bonds of man-rent for their mutual 
defence. Lord Sanquhar and Drumlanrig, knowing how ambitious Lord Maxwell was of being followed, offered him their services, 
which be eagerly accepted, as he thought this an opportunity not to be omitted for rendering all Nithsdale dependent on him. Ac- 
cordingly a mutual obligation was signed by them and many in their friendship. This, however, was not kept so secret as it ought 
to have been. One Johnstone, who served the Warden, carried it to his chief, who, although he was startled with this double dealing 
of Lord Maxwell, resolved to dissemble his knowledge of it, and only to ask the Warden if the report of his entering into such an 
engagement was true. Lord Maxwell at first denied ; but missing the bond, he excused the matter, as be was obliged to obey the 
King, and to do as he was directed. Johnstone now knowing what ho had to expect, associated with the Scotts of Tiviotdale, and 
the Elliots and Grahams of the Esk ; and, hearing that Lord Maxwell had levied a considerable force, part of which he had garrisoned 
Lochmaben with, till he himself could come there, be resolved to prevent him, and cut them off. This he executed with a bar- 
barous precipitation. The Lord Maxwell, to repair this disgrace, entered Annandale with banners displayed, as the King's Lieute- 
nant, followed by two thousand desperadoes, resolving to raze the houses of Lockwood and Lockerby. Johnstone being inferior in 
numbers, kept aloof, and detached some prickers only, in the Border way, to watch opportunities. These performed their orders to 
effectually that they forced back a party who came to attack them with such precipitancy that they even broke their main body. 
This Johnstone observing, completed their confusion by a furious onset; and in the flight, the Warden, being a heavy man and 
loaded with armour, was struck from his horse, and unmercifully murdered. This happened in Dec. 1593." 

. Robert second Earl of Nithsdale was excommunicated by the General Assembly, 26th 

/T\ April, 1644, and was in the same year taken prisoner when Newcastle was stormed by the Scot- 

\/ tish army. On the 3rd February an act was passed restoring him against his father's forfeiture. 

He was commonly called the Philosopher. 

' John Maxwell, eighth Lord Herries, was excommunicated by the General Assembly, S6th 
April, 1644, for joining Montrose; and was proposed to be excepted from pardon by the articles 
of Westminster in July, 1 646. He succeeded to the titles of Earl of Nithsdale and Lord Maxwell, 
&c. and to the family estates, on the death of his kinsman, Robert Earl of Nithsdale, &c. in 
October, 1667, to whom he was served heir male and of entail, 6th April, 1670, " proavi 
fratris immediate scnioris," in his estates in several counties. 

" William Maxwell, fifth Earl of Nithsdale, &c. was served heir male and of line and entail 
of his father, 36 May, 1696 ; and heir male and of entail of Robert Earl of Nithsdale, " vulgo 
nuncupat' le Philosopher, pronepotis quondam Robert! Domini Maxwell, fratris immediate 
senioris quondam Joaunis Domini Herries, proavi quondam Joannis Domini Herries postea 
Comes de Nithsdale, qui fuit frater nuper Robert! Comitis de Nithsdale patris WUIielmi, nunc 
Comitis de Nithsdale pronepotis fratris tritavi," 19th May, 1698. Having engaged in the 
rebellion in 1715, he was taken at Preston on the 14th Nov. in that year, and sent to the 
Tower of London ; was tried and found guilty in January, 1716, and was sentenced to be ex- 
ecuted, with the Earl of Derwentwater and Viscount Kenmure, on the S4th Feb. 1716: by 
the heroism of his wife he, however, effected his escape. By his attainder all his honours 
became forfeited ; but, liaving disponed his estates to his son in Nov. 1712, they were preserved 
from forfeiture. The arms of this nobleman were, Argent, an eagle displayed Sable, beaked 
nnd membcred Gules, surmounted by an escutcheon of the First, charged with a saltire of the 
Second, and surcharged in the centre with a hedgehog Or. His crest: a stag Proper, attired 
Argent, couchant before a holly bush Proper. His supporters; two stags Proper, attired 
Argent : and his motto j " Reviresco." 
1 See the next pge. 

g 




XXVI 



HISTORY OF 



JOHN MAXWELL, son and heir, succeeded to=pKATHERiNE, fourth dau. of 



his father's estates on his death in 1744, and 
assumed the title of Earl of Nithsdale. He died 
at London, 4-th August, 1776. 



Charles Stewart, 4th Earl of 
Traquair. She died at Lon- 
don, 6th March, 1773. 



Anne, married John 
Lord Bellew, of Ire- 
land, at Rome in De- 
cember, 1731. 



MARY MAXWELL, 
eldest dau. and 
coheiress, died at 
Terregles, unmar- 
ried, 31 December, 
1747, an. 15. 



WINIFRED MAXWELL, 2nd dau.=pWiLLiAM HAGGERSTON CONSTABLE, of Ever- 

inpham Park, second son of Sir Carnaby Hag- 



and eventually sole heiress, suc- 
ceeded to all her father's estates, 
including CARLAVEROCK ; mar. 
at Terregles, 17 Oct. 1758; died 
at Terregles, 13 July, 1801,8=1.66. 



gerston, of Haggerston, in the Bishopric of 
Durham, Bart. He assumed the name and 
arms of MAXWELL, and died at Terregles, 20th 
June, 1797. 



MARMADUKE WIL-= 
LI AM HAGGEHSTON 
MAXWELL CONSTA- 
BLE, born 2nd Jan. 
1760, assumed the 
name of MAXWELL, 
and succeeded to 
CARLAVEKOCK and 
the other estates of 
that family, married 
26th Nov. 1800, died 
30th June, 1819. 



THERESA 
APPOLO- 
NiA,dau.of 
Edmund 
Wakeman, 
Esq. bro- 
ther of 
William 
Wakeman, 
ofBeckford 
Place, in 
Worcester- 
shire, Esq. 




Charles Haggerston Constable, 3rd and 
youngest son, assumed the name and 
arms of Stanley only, of Ackham; mar- 
ried, first, in Sept. 1793, Elizabeth, 
sister and heiress of Sir William Stan- 
ley, of Hooton in Cheshire, who died in 
1792, died at London, 23 June, 1797; 
2ndly, Miss Macdonald, mar. at York, 
24 Feb. 1800. 

Mary, mar. 24 June, 1794, John Webb 
Weston.of Sutton Place in Surrey, Esq. 
who died s. p. She living Jan. 1828. 

Theresa, unmarried. 



William = 
Hagger- 
ston Con- 
stable,2nd 
son, assu- 
med the 
name of 
MIDDEL- 
TON, of 
Stockeld 
Park, in 
Yorkshire, 
Esq. 



:Clara 
Louisa, 
only dau. 
ofVVilliam 
Grace, 
Esq. and 
aunt of 
the pre- 
sent Sir 
William . 
Grace, 
Bart. 



WILLIAM 2. Marmaduke Constable 
CONSTA- Maxwell, of Terregles, 

BLEMAX- co. Dumfries, Esq. born 1 

WELL, of Jan. 1806. 
Evering- 3. Peter Constable Max- 
ham Park well, born 7th Feb. 1807. 
in York- 4. Henry Constable Max- 
shire, well,ofMilnhead,co.Dum- 
Esq. fries, born 28th Dec.1810. 
Present 5. Joseph Constable Max- 
LORD OF well, born 27th Oct. 1811. 
CARLA- Mary, married, 1st May, 
VEROCK, 1821, Hon. Chas. Lang- 
eldestson, dale, 4th son of Charles, 
born 25th 16th Lord Stourton. 
August, Theresa, m. Jan. 15, 1822, 
1804.y Hon. Chas. Clifford, 2nd 
son of Charles, 7th Lord 
Clifford of Chudleigh. 
Ann, born 17th March, 
1808,diedl5thJune,1811. 



Peter Middelton, of 
Stockeld Park, in 
Yorkshire, Esq. eld- 
est son ; married 
Hon.Juliana, daugh- 
ter of Charles, 16th 
Lord Stourton. 

Francis Middelton, 
Esq. 2nd son ; mar- 
ried Alice, daughter 
and coheiress of 
James Taylor, of 
the county of Lan- 
caster, Esq. 

Ann, died unmarried, 
30th Dec. 1826. 

Barbara Clara Mid- 
delton. 



1 A circumstantial and most interesting narrative of the escape of the Earl of Nithsdale, from the pen of his Countess, in a letter 
to her sister Lady Lucy Herbert, was printed in the first volume of the Transactions of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and 
some other publications. It has lately been beautifully printed, from a MS. in the possession of Lord Arundel, with illustrative notes 
and a pedigree, by Sheffield Grace, of Lincoln' Inn, Esq. brother of Sir William Grace, Bart. 

' The arms of this gentleman are, 1st and 4th, Argent, an eagle displayed Sable, beaked and membered Gules, surmounted by an 
escutcheon of the First charged with a saltire of the Second, and surcharged in the centre with a hedgehog Or: MAXWELL. 2nd, 
Barry of six Or ai.d Azure : CONSTABLE. 3rd, Azure, on a bend cotised Argent three billets Sable, a crescent for difference : 
HAGGERSTON. 



CARLAVEROCK CASTLE. XXV11 

The little which is known of the history of the Castle after the reign of 
Edward the Third is detailed in the following narrative of Grose : 

" This Castle again experienced the miseries of war, z being, according 
to Camden, in his Annals, in the month of August, 15/0, ruined by the 
Earl of Sussex, who was sent with an English army to support King 
James VI. after the murder of the Regent. The same author, in his 
Britannia, written about 1607, calls it a weak house of the Barons of 
Maxwell, whence it is probable that only the fortifications of this Castle 
were demolished by Sussex ; or that, if the whole was destroyed, only the 
mansion was rebuilt. 

" The fortifications of this place were, it is said, once more reinstated 
by Robert, the first Earl of Nithsdale, in the year 1638 ; and, during the 
troubles under Charles I., its owner nobly supported the cause of royalty, 
in which he expended his whole fortune ; nor did he lay down his arms 
till he, in 1640, received the King's letters, directing and authorizing him 
to deliver up the castles of Thrieve and Carlaverock upon the best condi- 
tions he could obtain ; in both which castles the Earl maintained con- 
siderable garrisons at his own expense ; namely, in Carlaverock an hun- 
dred, and in Thrieve eighty men, besides officers. The ordnance, arms, 
ammunition, and victuals, were also provided at his cost. 

" The following particulars respecting the articles of capitulation, and 
furniture left in this castle, are copied from a curious manuscript in the 
possession of Captain Riddell. 



z In a letter from the Earl of Hertford to Lord Wharton and Sir Robert Bowes, April 1544, the Earl 
desires them to send " Patie Grayme or other trustie and wise felowe, under colour of some other mes-- 
sage, for to view the castles of Lowmaban, Tress, Carlavroke, and Langholme, being within the rule and 
custodie of Robert Maxwell," as the King wished " to knowe the strength and scitualions" of them, 
" whether the same, or any of them, stonde in such sorte, and be of such strength, as, if they were in 
the King's Majesties hands, they might be kept and holden aynenst the enemyes." In case either of 
them was tenable, the said messenger was to " ernestly travaile with Robert Maxwell for the delyverie 
of the same into his Majestie's hands, if with money and rewarde, or other large oflers, the same may be 
obtayned ;" and Lord Wharton and Mr. Bowes were further instructed, as opportunities might be given 
them, " to feale the mynde and inclination of the said Robert Maxwell in the same." Hayne's Burleigh 
Papers, pp. 27-8. 



XXVlil HISTORY OF 

" Copy of the Capitulation between the Earl of Nithsdale and Colonel Home, at Dumfries, the 1st 

day of October, 1640. 

" The q'lk day, p'ns of the Committee of Nithsdale, residing at Dumfries, compeared Lieute- 
nant-Colonel Home, and gave in and produced the articles of capitulation past betwixt Robert 
Earl of Nithsdale and the said Lieutenant-Colonel, at the Castle of Carlaverock, the 26th day of 
September last by past, and desired the said articles to be insert and registrate in the bukes of the 
said Committee, and that the extract y r of might be patent to any party havand interest, and the 
principal articles re-delivered to him, q'lk the said Committee thought reasonable ; of the q'lk 
articles the tenor follows, viz. 

" Articles condescended upon betwixt the Earl of Nithsdale and Lieutenant-Colonel Home, the 
26th day of September, 1640, at the Castle of Carlaverock. 

" For the first article it is condescended on that for my Lord, his friends, and followers, that 
there shall no other course be taken with him and them in their religion, than with others of his 
and their professions. 

" Wheras it is desired be my Lord, that he, his friends, and followers, be no farther trouble in 
their persons, houses, and estates, house guides therein, then according to the common course of 
the Kingdom ; it it is agreed unto, that no other course shall be taken with him and his foresaids, 
then with others of his and their professions. 

" Wheras it is desired he and they may sorte out with bag and baggage ; it is agreed, that he, 
his friends, and followers, and soldiers, with each of them their arms and shotte, with all their 
bag and baggage, trunks, household stuff, belonging on their honour and credit to his Lordship 
and them, w* safe conduct to Langholm, or any other place within Nithsdale, is granted. 

" Wheras it is desired be my Lord, that guides intromitt with, belonging to his Lordship's 
friends and followers, restitution thereof be made ; it is agreed to, what course shall be taken with 
others of his and y r condition, shall be taken with him and them. 

" It is condescended upon be my Lord, tokened the burden on him for himself, his friends, and 
followers, that he nor they sail not hi any time coming, tack arms in prejudice of this kingdom, 
nor shall have any intelligence with any prejudice thereof, upon their honour and credit. 

" It is condescended on be my Lord, and his friends, and followers, that they sail contribute 
and do every thing lying incumbent on them, according to the general course of the kingdom. 

" Lastly, it is condescended on be my Lord, his friends, and followers, that he and they sail 
deliver up the house and fortalice of Carlaverock to Lieutenant-Colonel Home, w' the cannon, 
superplus of ammunition, and other provisions ; and that he shall remove himself, officers, and 
whole garrison and followers, out of the said castle and fortalice. 

" And this his Lordship obliest himself and his to perform upon his honour and credit, betwixt 
this and the 29th day of September instant, 1640. 

(Sic subscribitur,) NITHSDALE. 
JO'N HOME. 

" This is the just copy of the said articles of capitulation, extract forth of the Books of the said 
Committee, by me, Mr. Cuthbert Cunninghame, notter clerk y r of undescribing. 

(Signed,) CUTHBEKT CUNNINGHAME, Clerk. 



CARLAVEROCK CASTLE. XXIX 

" A note of such things as were left in the house of Carlaverock at my Lord's departure, 

in the year of God, 1640. 

" Imprimis, in the wine sellar, 4 barrels of seake. Item, in the other seller, 3 hogsheads of 
French wine, and an iron grate. Item, more, 30 bolls of meal. Item, in the end of die kitchen, 
2 barrels of herring. Item, in the high wardrop, 1 locked trunk, and three timber beds, and 1 
iron window. Mare, 1 stoller, 1 old katell, and 2 picks and a moald. Item, up high, four 
cubards and a crucifix. Mare, in the warehouse, an crokpin. Item, in chamber, a cubard. In 
my Lord Maxwell's chamber, two beds and a cubard, and a locked chest, and another chest. The 
outer room, two trunks and a bed, and a great tow. Mare, in the musket chamber, a bed and a 
belows : in the turnpike a cupbord. Mare, in the new wardrope, 3 beds. Item, in the master's 
chamber a bed and a cupbord. Mare, in the damask bed chamber, a bed, and acupbord, and a targe, 
and a fire chuvell. Item, in the kitchen, a chimney and grate, and a pair of long raxes. In the new 
hall, a leid, and a masken fatt, and a study, and a pair of bellies. Item, in the long hall, 6 cases 
of windows, with 22 pikes, 13 lancies, and 2 sakes of white stules. Item, mare in Sander's cham- 
ber, 4 beds. Mare, in my Lord's hall, 2 burds and 6 turkies-fowls. Item, mare in the round 
chamber, without my Lord's chamber, 5 feder beds, 9 bolsters, 4 cods, 5 pair of blankets, and 4 

rugs, 6 pieces of buckram, with my Lord's arms, and 2 and another bed with black fring 

and a painted brods, a cuburd, 9 stooles covered with cloth of silver, 2 great chairs of silver cloth ; 

mare, a green caniby bed ; mare, a sumber cloth ; mare, 3 great and little , and 4 stoles, 

and a long coussin, all of black and white stuff; mare, 4 stooles and 2 chairs, coveret with brune 
cloth passemenlet yealow ; mare, a great locke and a wauroke net ; mare, there is one great chair, 
4 stules coveret reid with black passment ; mare, 22 curtain rods, a trunk locked full, and 2 of 
virginals ; mare, in the drawing room, a brace of iron and canaby bed, with a fender, bed, and a 
bolster, and 3 tronks locket, a Turky stule, and a rich work stule, and ane old chair, with a cod 
nailed on ; mare, a frame of a chair. Item, in fire house, is 7 covers of Turkey work for stules, 
and a coffer, 2 chests, 15 chamber pots, 5 pots for easements, a mortar and a pistol, a brazen pot, 
a brazen ladle, a bed pan, 4 wine sellers, a little chopin pot, and my Lord and my Ladies pic- 
tures ; mare, a chest, with some glasses, and 5 fedder beds, 5 bolsters, 3 char pots, 2 red window 
curtings ; mare, there is in the dining room before my Lady's chamber, a burd, and a falling bed, 

2 Turkey stooles, a blue on the case of the knock ; mare, in my Lord's chamber there is 

a bed furnished of damask, and lead our with gold lace ; mare, there is 2 chairs, and 3 stools of 
damask, and a ciiburd, and a carpet, and a chair coveret with brune cloth, and a chamber all 
hanged, a water pot, a tongs and bellies, 1 knoke, 28 muskets, 28 handlers, and 2 2-handed 
swords, and 9 collers for deggers; mare, in Conheathe's chamber, a bed, and cuburd, and sundries ; 
mare, in the ould house, 38 spades of iron. 

" This is the true inventory of the goods left in Carlaverock, taken there be Ardiur M'Machan 
and William Sleath; there was one locked trunk in the high wardrop, which was full of men's 
cloaths ; and in that great trunk which was mentioned to be in the round chamber, there was a 
great wrought bed, a suit of cloaths of silver, chairs and stools to be made up, and an embroidered 
cannabic of grey sattin to be made up too ; as for the other trunks, which were left in the open 

h 



XXX HISTORY OF 

rooms, it cannot be remembered in particular what was left into them ; and that this is all true 

we underwritten can witness, 

(Signed,) WILLIAM WOOD, witness. 

WILLIAM MAXWELL, witness. 
THOMAS MAXWELL, witness. 

" A note of the household stuff intromitten with by Lieutenant-colonel Home of Carlaverock. 

" Imprimis. He has intromitten with five suit of hangings, there being eight pieces in every 
suit, the price of every suit overheid estimate threescore pounds sterling. 

" Item. Has intromitten with five beddies, twa of silk and three of cloth, every bed consisting 

of five coverings, course rugs, three over ballens, and ane long , with masse silk fringes 

of half quarter deep, and ane counter pont of the same stuff, all laid with braid silk lace, and a 
small fringe about, with chairs and stools answerable, laid with lace and fringe, with feather bed and 
bolster, blankets and rug, pillers, and bedsteid of timber answerable ; every bed estimate to be 
worth an hundred and ten pounds sterling. 

" Item. He was intromitten with ten lesser bedies, q r of four are cloth cortens, and six with stuff 
orferge, every bed furnished with bottoms, vallens, and testers, fedder bed, bolster, rugge, 
blankets, and pillows, and bedsteid of timber answerable ; every bed estimate to fifteen pounds 
sterling overheid. 

" Item. He has intromitten with seventy other beds for servants, consisting of fether bed, bol- 
ster, rug, blankets, and estimate to seven pound sterling a-piece. 

" Item. He has intromitten with forty carpets, estimate overheid to forty shillings sterling 
a-piece. 

" Item. He has intromitten with the furniture of ane drawing room of cloth of silver, con- 
sisting of an entire bed cobbert and six stools, all with silk and silver fringe, estimate 

to one hundred pounds sterl. 

" Item. He has intromitted with twa dozen of chairs and stools covered with red velvet, with 
fringes of crimson silk and guilt nails, estimate to threescore pounds sterling. 

' ; Item. He has intromitten with five dozen of Turkey work chairs and stools, every chair esti- 
mate to fifteen shillings sterling, and every stool to nine shillings sterling. 

" Item. He has intromitten with an library of books, q lk stood my Lord to twa hundred pounds 
sterling. 

" Item. He has intromitten with twa ope truncks full of Holland shirts, and pillabers, and 

dorock damask table cloths, and gallons, and towells, to the number of forty pair 

of shittes or thereby, and seventy stand of neprey, every pair of sheets consisting of 7 ells of cloth, 
at six shillings sterling the ell, amounts to ,5. 2s. sterling the pair. Inde .704 sterling. 

" Item, the stand of neprey, consisting of ane table cloth, of twa dozen napkins, twa long towells, 
estimate to xx pound ster. 

" Item. He has intromitten with an knock that stands upon ane table, estimate to xx pound 
sterling. 



CARLAVEROCK CASTLE. XXXI 

" Item. He has suffered his followers to spoil me ane coach of the furniture q lk 

stood me fifty pounds sterling. 

" Item. He has intromitten with other twa trunks full of course sheets and neprie, to the 

number of forty pair or thereby of sheets, and twenty stand of coarse neprie or 

thereby ; the pair of sheets and the furniture consisting of twelve ells, at half a crown an ell, 
amounts threttie shillings sterling the pair. Inde vu and xx pound. 

" Item. The stand of neprie, consisting of table cloth, twa do/en of nepkins, and ane towell, 
estimate to the stand. Inde 

" Item. He has intromitten with an trunk full of suits of apparel, q r of there was eight suits of 
apparell or thereby, some of velvet, some of saten, and some of cloth, every suit consisting of 

cloaths, bricks, and close dublets with velvet, estimate at the suit. Inde 

ii viij iiij lib." 

" To this and other complaints of a breach of the articles of capitulation, 
Col. Home, among various excuses, answered that what he did was by 
order of the Committee of Estates ; by whose particular directions this 
place was demolished, on their being informed that the Earl's officers and 
soldiers had broken their parole, and were then actually in arms. 

" This castle, like the old one, is triangular, and surrounded by a wet 
ditch ; it had a large round tower on each angle ; that on the east is de- 
molished; that on the western angle is called Murdoc's tower, from 
Murdoc Duke of Albany having been confined there, as has been before 
mentioned. The entrance into the castle yard lies through a gate on the 
northernmost angle, machicollated, and flanked by two circular towers. 
Over the arch of the gate is the crest of the Maxwells, with the date of 
the last repairs, and this motto, " i BID YE FAIR." The residence of the 
family was on the east side, which measures 123 feet. It is elegantly 
built, in the style of James VI. It has three stories, the doors and win- 
dow cases handsomely adorned with sculpture ; over those of the ground 
floor are the coats of arms and initials of the Maxwells, and the different 
branches of that family ; over the windows of the second story are repre- 
sentations of legendary tales ; and over the third, fables from Ovid's 
Metamorphoses ; in the front is a handsome door case leading to the great 
hall, which is 91 feet by 26. 

" At a considerable distance towards the north-east of the area on 
which the castle stands, and near the farm-house, is a handsome gate of 
squared stone, having a circular arch." 



XXX11 HISTORY OF CARLAVEROCK CASTLE. 

Several views of the remains of the second castle occur in that work, 
and others will also be found in Pennant's " Tour in Scotland," in 
Cardonnel's " Picturesque Antiquities of Scotland," and in Daniell's 
" Voyage round Great Britain." Mr. Pennant evidently considered the 
castle of which he speaks as the one which was besieged in 1300. 

A MS. account of Carlaverock, by Captain Riddell, in 1/87, thus 
describes the present building. 

" The present building is triangular. At two of the corners had been 
round towers, one of which is now demolished ; and on eacli side of the 
gateway, which forms the third angle, are two rounders. Over the arch 
is the crest of the Lords Maxwell, and this motto, ' i BID YE FAIR.' This 
castle yard is triangular ; one side, which seems to have been the family 
residence, is elegantly built ; has three stones, with very handsome win- 
dow cases. On the pediments of the lower story are coats of arms carved, 
with different figures and devices. The opposite side of the court-yard is 
plain. In the front is a handsome door-case that leads to the great hall, 
which is ninety feet by twenty-six. The whole internal length of that side 
is 123 feet"" 

a Now in the possession of J. B. Nichols, Esq. F. S. A. 



2 le fege tie ftatlafcetofe* 



i a millime b tregenteigime c an be 

; au iour be geint Sjoiin d 
atint a Carbuel <btoarb grant courte 6 
<E comanba q' f a terme court 
arout e gi ome ge appareillaggent 
EngettibIe obeoc Ii alaggent h 
&ur leg <gcog geg enemig 
ebemg ' te iour que k leur J fu mig 
Jpu pregte tout le ogt bame m 
< Ii bong iSopg o ga maigine n 
Cantogt ge bint berg leg gcog 

g en coteg et gurcog 
lig gur leg gra'g c^ebaug be prig 
: ceo q' it ne feuggent gurprig P 
arme bien tt i geurement 
%a ont meinte riclje garnement * 
25robe gur cenbeaug et gamig * 
lEeint beau penon en lance mis 
JEteint baniere begploie u 
loing egtoit la noise oie x 



tote tgtotent moung e baulg z 
ng "* oe gommerg bb e be cljarroi 



The copy of the poem in the Cottonian Library commences with 
these Una: 31 tconjclr# be orans mou?titcj# 

5Cru et (en he tiois Cfteuiars It fns 

b Milem. treiceniaine an 

De Grace au iour, &c. 

A Joban. Fu a Carduel e tint grant court. ' Ke. 8 tint. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 



IN the year of Grace one thousand three 
hundred, on the day of Saint John, Edward 
held a great Court at Carlisle, and com- 
manded that in a short time all his men 
should prepare, to go together with him 
against his enemies the Scots. 

On the appointed day the whole host 
was ready, and the good King with his 
household, then set forward against the 
Scots, not in coats and surcoats, but on 
powerful and costly chargers ; and that 
they might not be taken by surprise, well 
and securely armed. 

There were many rich caparisons embroi- 
dered on silks and satins ; many a beau- 
tiful penon fixed to a lance ; and many a 
banner displayed. 

And afar off was the noise heard of 
the neighing of horses : mountains and 
vallies were every where covered with 



h E ensemble ovee li alassent. ' Dedens. k Ke. ' iour. 

m banie. E li roys o sa grant maisnie. e sou'cos. 

P This line is omitted in the copy in the Cottonian Library. <i ben e. 

guarnement. * Erode sur sendaus et samis. 

Meint banier deploie. * Se estoit la noise loign oie. 

y De henissemens de chevaus. * Par tout estoient mons e vaus. 

* Plein. bb somiers. 



le @>fege He ftattafcerofu 

<ue a la bitatle et b la couroi 
e tente^ et de pabillong c 
It tour egtoit beau e longs! 
4be erroient d petite^ iourneeg 
n quatre e.ScfrielejS 6 ordineeg f 
3teg s quelesS bou# h fcetotfrcaf 
<8ue ' nulle n'en k tte^pa^erat 

m tie n compatgnon? 
et fe 

fcaniere^ nomement P 
nier coment 




IJfenti fe bon Conte de Biri3<tfe r 
e protoe^e enbra^e $ a cole s 
en gon coen * le a goutoeraine u 
Haenan^ le e^c^tele x primeraine y 
25antere ot de un cendall ^affrin z 
< un lion rampant porprin bb 





ri Robert le fit? toautier cc 
<e bien iet oe arme^ le meatier " 
^>t ee en fegoit qanq'sS ff il deboit 
n la taune banier ss aboit 

entce deu^ cijebron^ bermaug 



erroint. Echeles. 
k 



ne en> 

" 



b e c B e tentis e de pave i loni9 
' ordenis. e Le. h vos- i jj e 

m diray. n d es foutes les 

P De banerez nomement. q Si vo' volez oir coment. 



ainz. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 5 

sumpter horses and waggons with provi- 
sions, and sacks of tents and pavillions. 

And the days were long and fine. They 
proceeded by easy journeys, arranged in 
four squadrons; the which I will so describe 
to you, that not one shall be passed over. 
But first I will tell you of the names and 
arms of the companions, especially of the 
banners, if you will listen how. 

Henry the good Earl of Lincoln, burn- 
ing with valour, and which is the chief 
feeling of his heart, leading the first squa- 
dron, had a banner of yellow silk with a 
purple lion rampant. 

With him Robert le Fitz Walter, who 
well knew the use of arms, and so used 
them when required. In a yellow banner 
he had a fess between two red chevrons. 

r Enris H bons quens de Nicole. Ki proueste enbraste e acole. 

< cuer. " soueraine * escbele. ? premeraine. 

* Baner ont de un cendal safrin. " lioun. bb purprin. 

cc O lui Robert le fiz Water. dd Ke ben sont dez armes le master. 
ee Se. ff Kanques. 88 baner jaune. 

C 



s>iege Be fcarlafcerofu 





a It Ulare^cljau^ b 
ont en 3jrelanbe c ot fa baillie 
3ta benae tie or engreillie d 
$ortoit en la rouge baniere 



*|ue 23arboulf e be grant maniere 
Jlicije^ fyam$ preu e courtoijS f 
Hn a^ure s quint fuelled h 
&e fin or emere 



grant seigneur mout bonore ' 
i^ k ie bein ' nom'er le cinfiime 

le Seigneur oe ftime m 
<Bui n portoit rouge obe un cfjeberon 
e or croi^elle tout enbiron P 



be Brai tt ie la 
$ti ben e noblement ala 
<bec ^on bon jJeigneur r Ie Conte 
SSanier aboit e par Droit conte 
De bi s pieci^ l la bouji mejfur 
23arre u be argent e be aur 



Guillems. b Marescaus. c Irlande. <l engreellie. Bardoul. 
( Riches horns e preus e cortois. I asur. h fullez. 

1 Une grant seignour mu'lt honnore. k p us< i (, en- 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. / 

And William le Marshall, who in Ire- 
land had the chief command. He bore 
a gold bend engrailed in a red banner. 



Hugh Bardolf, a man of great appear- 
ance, rich, valiant, and courteous. He 
bore, azure, three cinquefoils of pure 
gold. 

A great lord, much honoured, may I 
well name the fifth, Philip the Lord of 
Kyme, who bore red, with a chevron of 
gold surrounded by crosslets. 

I saw Henry de Grey there, who well 
and nobly attended with his good Lord 
the Earl. He had a banner, and rec- 
koned rightly you would find it barry of 
six pieces of silver and blue. 



"> Phelippe le seignur de Kyme. " Ki. O. 

P De or croissillie tot en viron. 1 Henri. * seignour. * sit. 

< pecys. u Barree. 



8 



JLe fcffe He 





AAA 



Robert De JJion^aut i etott 
ftt mout jjaute entente i mettoit * 
e faire a ijaute Ijoneut b ateinte c 
25aniere abort en agure teinte d 
<ue un Ipon rampant t> 'argent e 



< compaigneg a cele gent f 
CfjomajS De lEuItone #e fu 
aboit baniere 1 ee^cu 
argent obe k treig faar^ 1 De goule^ m 



" armcs' ne f urent pas 
5^e giente en la parellement 
<Cac teller ou regemfalement 
He %ongater entre 
ftc en (ieu tie une barre mcins 
Quarter r rouge e iaune luppart s 

be telle me^me part ' 

jpu <5ui[[emi)S u It 

Jti Darme.si ne^t muet ne 

aboit bein z conoi^abte 
or fin oue (a baunce tie sable a 



Ky m'lt haute entent metoit. b honur. c atainte. 

d This line is omitted in the copy in the Cottonian Library. 
c O an lyoun rampant de arge't. ' Acompainiez a eel gent. 

5 Moukon, h Ky. ' baner. k O. ' barres. m gouly's. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 9 

Robert de Montalt was there, who 
highly endeavoured to acquire high honor. 
He had a banner of a blue colour, with 
a lion rampant of silver. 



In company with these was Thomas de 
Multon, who had a banner and shield of 
silver with three red bars. 

These arms were not single, for such, or 
much resembling them, were in the hands 
of John de Lancaster ; but who, in the 
place of a bar less, bore a red quarter 
with a yellow leopard. 

And of this same division was William 
le Vavasour, who in arms is neither deaf 
nor dumb. He had a very distinguishable 
banner of fine gold with a sable dauncet. 



Ses. le apparellement. P Kar teles ot re&emM.tntme't. 
1 Johans de Langastre. ' Quartier. lupart. < E le cele meUpart. 
u Guillames. x Ky de armes ne cst muet tie sours. y Bauer, 

i ben. la De or fyn o la dance de sable. 

D 



10 



le @fege He 






ens>ement 
ft i bicn e aDe.^ement b 
HI a sarnie;* c touted le.si s>aionj 
3u Counte d e.s'tott gi et ration?' 
ftc nome e $oit entre f ^a gent 
fiouge portoit frette D'argcnt s 



bon Robert le fit? Jlogier b 
ie jia baniere a rengtet ' 

cefe au Counte 1 en cele alee 
or et m oe rouge e^quartelee 
une benDe taint en noier u 



on fit? et P #on Jbeir i 
ftt r Oe Ctabering a ^urnom s 
Drter^e tie ricn non u 
Dtun label! x bert jjeulement 



^>e e.^totent DU retenement 
2u bon Jlonte et au bien ame? 
Cuit ctl fee ci boujS ai nome 
e.sf companijS 2 fu li Cone^tablejs 

ricj]e.b j e mctable^ bb 
e^toit &e J^erefort 
SSaniere ot dd oe 3fnbe cenDal fort 
< une blandje benbe lee 



Johans de Odilslaue. b K/ ben e adesscemellt . c de armes. 

Rjbert le fiz roger. i arenger. t Let. 1 cunte. m e . 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 1 I 

Also John de Holdeston, who at all 
times appears well and promptly in arms. 
He was with the Count, which makes it 
proper that he should be named among his 
followers. He bore gules fretty of silver. 

I saw the good Robert Fitz Roger's 
banner ranged with that of the Earl in 
the march : it was quarterly of gold and 
red with a black bend. 

That of John his son and lieu-, who has 
the surname of Clavering, was not at all 
different, excepting only a green label. 



All those whom I have named to you 
were the retinue of the good and well- 
beloved Earl. His companion was the 
Constable, who was Earl of Hereford, a 
rich and elegant young man. He had a 
banner of deep blue silk, with a white 

O un bende uintc en noir. La. v t. i boir. ' Ky. 

claveringhe a surnoun. ' Ne estoit. u noun. * label. 
> Le bon conte e le hen ame. * compaigns. " boms. 

* mectables. Ky. " ont. 



le S>fep ce 

e beu eo^ticeji entre alec 
e or fin bont au beijor^ a.sgig 
<t en rampant [ponceau.;! $i$ b 





be <t>egrabe n It 
foe nature aboit embeli 
e corp c et d enricl)i oe cuet 
maitfant pere ot fti getta puer 
garbed et d le Ipon prijst 
e^ enf aun e enjst aprijSt 
coragou a re.^cmfalec 
<z o les nobler a^emblec f 
il$ s ot la faaniete h ^on pere 
2u label rouge por ^on frere 
gio^an fee li ain^ne? e^toit 
fet entere la portoit 
%i pere^ ot &e la moitfier 
Cnfe fit? 1 1 ^toient c^ebalier k 
^rue et d Ijarbt et d befen^able 
< un tpon l be argent en able 
Rampant et d be or fin coronne m 
jFu la bamere h bel ainjne 
foe li <ueng ^EacejSc^ausi atiott 

el ^erbice feil " beboit 
r ce fee feil ne i pooit benir 
ne me? puet pa^ ^oubenir 
baneret t fuiiS^ent pluji 
$i It boir boujs en conclug 
bacheler^ i ot bien cent 



1 asis. b This line is omitted in the copy in the Coltonian MS. c cors. 
e enfans. I This line is omitted in the copy inthe College of Arms. 



THE SIEGE. OF CARLAVEROCK. 13 

bend between two cotises of fine gold, on 
the outside of which he had six lioncels 
rampant. 

With him was Nicholas de Segrave, 
whom nature had adorned in body and 
enriched in heart. He had a valiant father, 
who wholly abandoned the garbs, and 
assumed the lion ; and who taught his chil- 
dren to imitate the brave, and to associate 
with the nobles. Nicholas used his father's 
banner with a red label; by his brother 
John, who was the eldest, it was borne en- 
tire. The father had by his wife five sons, 
who were valiant, bold, and courageous 
knights. The banner of the eldest, whom 
the Earl Marshal had sent to execute his 
duties because he could not come, was 
sable with a silver lion rampant, crowned 
with fine gold. I cannot recollect what 
other Bannerets were there, but you shall 
see in the conclusion that he had one 



r Cil. k buner. ' fiz. * chivalier. ' lyonn. 

couronne. Ke il. " li. r This wordu omitted in tht 

copy in the Cottonian fllS. ' ben. 

E 



14 



He >iege te ftarlatierofc. 





ont nul en o^tell a tie 

b foij tant fie il aient tou? 
)ie c leg pa.^age.S Doutou? 
< en rbebaudjent rbe.Scun iour 
lit mare^djal li ficrfaergour d 
Jtt fibrent placet a logiet 
a ceu^ fie Doibent e Ijerbcrgier f 
par tant ai Dit De abant e gartie 
ftt ^ont DeDetn? h et s fii la gacoe ' 



It bong <uenag be B^arene k 
5^e lautre egrfjele 1 abott la rene m 
& tugtider et gouborner n 
<Com til W P bten gcabot't i mentr 
Ben geignourie $ ijonnouree r 
5^e or et s be a$>ut egcljequeree * 
5fu ga baniere noblement 

$Jl u ot en gon aggemblement 
^enrt be $erci gon nebou 
e fei P gemblott fee eugt fait bou 
e aler leg egcog be rampant x 
3|aune o un bleu Ipon rampant 
jfu ga baniere y faien buable 



Robert le $il? ^ajine z jJiebable 
t ^a baniere y flanc a flanc 
J?ouge a pa^anjS Ipon.^ 6e blanc 
i be un ba.s'ton ^ bleu urgette? 



Ostel. i> Nule 

f herberger. 
' chel. renne. 



Cerchiez. 
lavant. h dedenz. 

a iusticer e governer 



d hetbirgour. c devent. 

guarde. k Warenne. 



cum. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 15 

hundred good bachelors there, not one 
of whom would go into lodgings or tent 
until they had examined all the sus- 
pected passes, in which they rode every 
day. The Marshal, the harbinger, as- 
signed lodgings to those who were enti- 
tled to them. Thus far I have spoken of 
those who are in and form the vanguard. 

John the good Earl of Warren held the 
reins to regulate and govern the second 
squadron, as he who well knew how to 
lead noble and honorable men. His ban- 
ner was handsomely checquered with gold 
and azure. 

He had in his company Henri de Percy 
his nephew, who seemed to have made a 
vow to humble the Scots. His banner 
was very conspicuous, a blue lion rampant 
on yellow. 

Robert le Fitzpayne followed them ; 
he had his red banner, side by side, with 
three white lions passant, surcharged with 
a blue baton. 



savoit. ' Gent segnonrie e hounouree. ' e. ' eschei|uere. 
E. rompant. -' baner. * Robert le fiz paien. " bastoun. 



16 



le Siege te 




*3autier be Monti a aiou^te? 
t.sitoit en cele ccmpaignie b 
<ar c tuit f urent be une mai^nie d 
ct baniere e esSc^eiiucree 
blanc et f rouge couluree s 



%t h Valence apmar li 
SBelle ' baniere t fu baiKan^ 
<e argent et f be a.^ure burlee k 
< la faorbure poralee 
3Tout entour be rouge ' meroloji m 

14n bailliant Ijom et be grant Io^ 
<8 lui ^icSoIe be ftarru 

meinte foi? orent paru 
fait en coutert et f en lanbe 
la f elloune gent Oirlanbe 
SSaniere ot iaune bien payable 
troi.s pa##aniS Ipon.^ be 



fiogter 1 be la JEare obec eu^ 
JUng cjjtoaller ^age et jreu^ r 
ftp s Ic.s; arme.sJ ot fcermeilfecteg * 
O blanc Ipon et rrotjtfelectejS u 



Wautiers de Money'. ' compaigneye. Kar. d maisine. 

* Cil ot baiier. ' e. e couloure. h De. ' Bele. k burelee. 
1 roug. s. merlus. Un vaillant home e de grant los. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 17 

Add to these Walter de Money, who 
was in this company because they were 
all of one household. He had his banner 
chequered of silver and red. 

The valiant Aymer de Valence bore a 
beautiful banner there of silver and azure 
stuff, surrounded by a border of red mart- 
lets. 

With him Nicholas de Carew, a valiant 
man of great fame, which had often been 
displayed both in cover and on the plains 
against the rebellious people of Ireland. 
He had a handsome yellow banner with 
three lions passant sable. 

With them was Roger de la Ware, a 
wise and valiant knight, whose arms were 
red, with a white lion and crosslets. 



This line is omitted in the copy in the Cotlonian MS. 

' treis lyuiuis pa>s iris de sable. 1 Rogers. 

' Uus cbevalers iagis e preus. Ki. ' vermelleclis. 

O blunc Ijoun e croissellectei. 

F 



18 



lc fege ae ftatlafcerofu 









e SDartoift le Count <Bup * 
Coment hen ma rime De gup b 
Be atooit boi^in c De Iui d mellour 
2?aniece e ot de rouge toulour f 
< fea^e e De or et croi^ifie 



o croi^ noire engreelie 
portoit h 



Cele De STate^ale a oun 

por sa lialour o cits' tirce 
<De or De rouge eiScljequeree ' 
2u ci)ie j De ermine outrement k 



ftauf le fit? 5ut[Ieme autrement l 
fte cil De Walence portoit 
Car en lieu De merleg metoit m 
2Croi^ cjjapeau^ De rosSeg n bermeillesi 
fte bien ^eoient a merbetlle^ 



D'l Warewik le conte Guy. b Coment ke en ma rime le guy. 

" ' Baner. colour. * fesse. " Johans. 



vesyn 



1 luy. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 19 

Guy Earl of Warwick, who of all that 
are mentioned in my rhyme had not a 
better neighbour than himself, bore a red 
banner with a fess of gold and cmsilly. 



John de Mohun bore there, yellow, 
with a black cross engrailed. 



Tateshal, for valour which he had dis- 
played with them, has one of gold and 

red chequered, with a chief ermine. 



Ralph le Fitzwilliam bore differently 
from him of Valence, for instead of mart- 
lets he had three chaplets of red roses, 
which became him marvellously. 



1 De or e de rouge eschequere. I chef. " outreement. 

1 Tkis line is omitted in the copy in the Cottonian MS. 
"' Car en lieu des merlos mettoit. * roiis . 

" Ki bien auienent a mervellez. 



lc fege De ftatlattetolu 






de fto 
fu rouge a a troi.S bou? blanj* 



< la bantere '{ 

tt barre b tie bin c pom? 
or et d de goule^ otoelment 



fJ 



Tin, 



in/ 



Oe 25eauc:bamp proprement e 
it le f baniere de fcair 
dou? tensS et d au 



a fancier h le^ 

aroutent le 
ont ia be beuiS oi 
<r de la tierce oier deue^ m 



O. b barree. c viiij. d e. e propirment. ' la. 

* soucf far. k bascier. ' ventailef. k batailes. ' avez. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 21 



That which William de Ros displayed 
there, was red with three white bougets. 



And the banner of Hugh Pointz was 
barry of eight pieces of gold and red. 



John de Beauchamp bore handsomely, 
in a graceful manner, and with inspiring 
ardour, a banner vair. 

The ventailes were soon lowered, and 
the battalions proceeded on their march. 
Of two of them you have already been 
told, and of the third you shall hear. 



" E de la terce oir Jerez. 
G 



22 



3Le Siege He 




*I 



<btoarb a &ireg be 
e Egcoce b et c tie .aijjleterre d roig 
$rince}> ^Bualoig uc tie acquitaine' 
3la tierce egrfjile un pot Iain8tatne f 
ConDuit et c gupe arreement 
,|>i bet e # ^errements 
ite nuf# He autre ne ^e i Depart h 
n ;Sa baniere' troi# Iupatte k 
e oc fin e^toint J mig en rouge 
Courant felloun fier et tiarouge m 
^ar tel jSijjntffantt misf 
fte auiSt et ber# ^ejS enemi^ 
Et ro# fiet^ feloun^" et c 
Car ga morjSure ne^t? 
Bul# fet nen^ #nit enbenime? 
porqanf tot s ejt ralume? 
bouce befaonairete 

U requerent je amtsSte 
<ct c a ga pai^ faeullent benir 
Cel prince boit bien abenir 
e grans* $tn$ e^tre c^eberaigne . 
<f>oun nebou 3io:ban be 
ce fie plug be fui et 
z ie plug tojSt noumer^ apreji 
<ti le aboit it bien bb be^erbi 
Com cit fit gon oncte ot gertoi 
cc enfance peniblement 



* Edewars. b escos. e. d engleter. 

Princes Galois Dues de Aquitaine. ' La lerce eschel un poi longtaine. 
* serreenient. h Ke nuls de autre ne se depart. ' banier. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 23 

Edward King of England and Scotland, 
Lord of Ireland, Prince of Wales, and 
Duke of Aquitaine, conducted the third 
squadron at a little distance, and brought 
up the rear so closely and ably that none 
of the others were left behind. In his ban- 
ner were three leopards courant of fine 
gold, set on red, fierce, haughty, and cruel; 
thus placed to signify that, like them, 
the King is dreadful, fierce, and proud 
to his enemies, for his bite is slight to 
none who inflame his anger ; not but his 
kindness is soon rekindled towards such 
as seek his friendship or submit to his 
power. Such a Prince was well suited to 
be the chieftain of noble personages. 

I must next mention his nephew John 
of Brittany, because he is nearest to 
him ; and this preference he has well 
deserved, having assiduously served his 
uncle from his infancy, and left his father 



k lupart. ' ettoient. ** Courant feloun fier e harouge. 

" felons. liaustans. P ne est. i ne en. ' porquant. 

tost. ' Kant. " De granz genz estre chievetaine. 

" bretaigne. ' Pur ce ke plus est de li pres. * Doi. ** nomer. 
<< ben. De te. 



24. 





JLe @fep He ftartafcerofe* 

(t tie guerpi a outreement 

pere et b on autre lignage 
Demourer tie gon matfnage 
foant li iSoi.^ ot beiSoi0ne c be 
<t b it fie esstoit faeau^ et b 
25aniere atooit cotnte et b paree 
e ot tt b De ajuc d e^equeree 
2u e rouge ourle o iaune^ luparjS 
ermine f tftoit fa quartes parg 



h oe 25ac iloec' e^tott 
$ten k la baniere 1 2inDe portoit 

bar^ De or et b u 
la rouge ourte engreetltie" 




oe iBrant ^on palee 
e argent et b oe a^ur ^ureatee 
e benbe rouge o troi^ eigfeau.^ 
portoit oe oc fin bien fate e beau.s 



23ien Doi mettreP en mon 
$te <EIt i De aufaigni ti courtoi^ 
25aniere ot rouge ou entaillie 
blanche engreellie 



d-guerpi. b e. bosoign. 



1 De ermine. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 25 

and other relations to dwell in his house- 
hold when the King had occasion for his 
followers. He was handsome and amiable, 
and had a beautiful and ornamented ban- 
ner, chequered gold and azure, with a 
red border and yellow leopards, and a 
quarter of ermine. 

John de Bar was likewise there, who, in 
a blue banner, crusilly, bore two barbels 
of gold, with a red border engrailed. 



William de Grandison bore paly silver 
and azure, surcharged with a red bend, 
and thereon three beautiful eaglets of fine 
gold. 

Well ought I to state in my lay, that 
the courteous Elias de Aubigny had a red 
banner, on which appeared a white fess 
engrailed. 



quart. k Johans. ' iluec. k Ke en. ' baner. 

m Deuz. " eiijjreellie. suralee. mctttru. i Elys. 

H 



26 



le fcgc He J&arlafcerotu 



<urmcniong be la 23recte a 
bantere eut route rougecte b 




eug c ct truig en mon conte 
iflfue oe Uec le fil? au Conte 
e ^enfortj d et e frece #on feoir 
< le ourle entente f oe noic 
3boit baniere e long ets lee 
e ot h et e oe rouge e^uartelee 
<?c bon renoai none ya.s oe toile 1 
^e ot oebant un falanctie egtoite k 




De Jf5fter^ m le appareil 
t ma^cle oe or et oe iiermetf 
t u par tant compare le a oun 
2u faon Hlorice Oe Crooun? 



Robert le Seigneur f i oe CItffort 
a fei rai^on^ oonne confort 
e ^e.iS enemi^ encombrer r 
outejS Ie^ foi^ fie remembrer 8 
Hi puet Oe on noble lignage 
pregn a tetftmoignage * 



* Mes Eumenions de la Brette. 
d Oxinfort. e. 



c ceus 



b La baner ot tout rougette. 
endentee. f &. h ore. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 2J 



But Eurmenions de la Brette had a 
banner entirely red. 

After these I find in my account Hugh 
de Vere, son of the Earl of Oxford, and 
brother to his heir. He had a long and 
narrow banner, not of silk but of good 
cloth, and quartered gold and red, with a 
black indented border, and in the upper 
part a white star. 

John de Rivers had his caparisons mas- 
cally of gold and vermillion ; and they 
were therefore similar to those of the good 
Maurice de Croun. 

Robert, the Lord of Clifford, to whom 
reason gives consolation, who always re- 
members to overcome his enemies. He 
may call Scotland to bear witness of his 
noble lineage, that originated well and 



1 De bun cendal non pas de toyle. k E derant une blanche ettoyle. 
1 Jobans. m Riviers. E. on. T Croon. i teignour. 
' emcombrer. Toutes le foiz ki remembrer. ' ttismuignage. 



28 



He iege te 

fte bien a et b noblement comence 
Com c cil fci e#t tie la gemence 
He Conte jaaregrball d It noble 
$U par oela Con^tanttnoble e 
21 unicotne f ge combati 
<t b De gou? lujs mort le abati 
e It De par mere et bemtjj 
SL fei fu bien a pareil tenug 
%\ bon jSo!jier h pere on pere 
ne ot profce^e 1 fti ne apere 

el fit? Du fit? k 

coi faien iSai fte onque^ ne en ft? 
lloenge Dont il ne goit 
Car en li egt au^i bon 
5^e e#tre preuDom Sen nut co'boie m 
Ee iSot jSon bon Seigneur" conboie 
,a faanier moult Jonnouree 
e or et b oe a^ur e^cijequeree P 
^ une fe^e bermellette 
<f)j ie e^toie une pueellette 
5je li oonroie ceuri et b coriS 
Cant e^t de lu r bonjS It record 




ae s bon l^ue le 

Stt ba^^aument ^ur Ie curlier 1 

^aboit oe^rompre une mellee 

3La baniere ot e^quartellee" 

e une noir x ba^toun ^urblane gette 

t b ue bermeil iaune frette 



ben. u e. c cum. d Mareschal. c costcntinuble. 

1 unicorn. li. h Rogers. ' value. k Resusciteeel filzdelfilz. 
1 This line, though omitted in the copy in the College of Arms, occurs in 
the Cottonian MS. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 29 

nobly, as he is of the race of the noble Earl 
Marshal, who at Constantinople fought 
with an unicorn, and struck him dead be- 
neath him ; from whom he is descended 
through his mother. The good Roger, his 
father's father, was considered equal to 
him, but he had no merit which does not 
appear to be revived in his grandson ; for 
I well know there is no degree of praise of 
which he is not worthy, as he exhibits as 
many proofs of wisdom and prudence as 
any of those who accompany his good 
Lord the King. His much honoured 
banner was chequered with gold and azure, 
with a vermillion fess. If I were a young 
maiden, I would give him my heart and 
person, so great is his fame. 

The good Hugh le Despenser, who 
loyally on his courser knows how to dis- 
perse an enemy, had a banner quarterly, 
with a black baton on the white, and the 
gules fretty yellow. 



"> De estre preudom ke en mil ke en voie. seignour. 

Sa baniere mout honource. eschequere. ' quer. ' li. 

Uu. ' coursier. " Fu la baniere esquartelee. noier. 

I 



30 



&e 



Be 




/w\ 



4. flj* 



bon $ue be <ourtenat a 
%a faaniere obliee b nc ai c 
e or fin o troig rouged rondeau? 
Et d assuring 6 fu It Iafoeau 



E le aumart f oe ^aint amant 
ti ba proue^ees reclamant 
e or et d De noir ftette a h cjjtef 
tcoi ! ronoeau^ k be or oerecfyef 



engaigne' te ot iolie 
o Dance be or croijSgtIie m 



i ot JBautier be S&eaudjampe" 
merlog be or el rouge cljampe 
< une fe^e en lieu be bance 
Chattier gelon ma ebibance? 
beji mellour^ fut r entre 
[ ne fut trop fier et d 
ne orre? parler it 
fee" ne ait une 



Del bon Hue de Courtenay. b oubliec. c ay. d e. 

c asurins. ' Amauri. ? prouesie. h au. ' trois. k gasteaus. 
1 Johans lie Engaigne. m Rouge dance de or croissillie. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 31 



I have not forgotten the banner of the 
good Hugh de Courtenay, of fine gold 
with three red roundlets and a blue label. 



And that of Aumary de Saint Amain!, 
who advances, displaying his prowess, of 
gold and black fretty, on a chief three 
roundlets, also of gold. 

John de Engaigne had a handsome one 
of red, crusilly, with a dancette of gold. 

Next, Walter de Beauchamp bore there, 
six martlets of gold in a red field, with a 
fess instead of a dancette. A Knight, 
according to my opinion, one of the best 
of the whole, if he had not been too rash 
and daring ; but you will never hear any 
one speak of the Seneschal that has not 
a but. 



" Wallers c'e beauchamp. cbamp. ' Thii line it omitted 

in the copy in the Cottonian MS. 1 uns. ' fust. touz. 

1 eiifscal. " ki. 



He 



He fcarlafcerofc. 







O"V" 




t( he a tout lucn taicc a ruer lie 
3lu autour noir engreellie 
3[aune ot et baniere et penoun a 
25outourte ot a nom b 



2Baniere bel 

3Jaune a d crotf rouse engreellie 

ILa u^tacl]e e tie ilatbe e^toit 



oe Jelleg f la pottnit 
o unes noire h (pon 1 rampant 
ont la coue en Doublet jie egpant 



Robert tie t>cale# bel et gent 

3Le ot rouge a coptliejS 1 " tie argent 



Jaune baniere ot c penon. b Johan , Boutetourte ot a noun, 

apparellie. - o. Eustace. ' Adam de Welle. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 33 

He, who with a light heart, doing good 
to all, bore a yellow banner and pennon 
with a black saltire engrailed, was called 
John Botetourte. 

The banner of Eustace de Hache was 
well ornamented : it was yellow with a 
red cross engrailed. 



Adam de Welles bore there, gold, a 
black lion rampant, whose tail spread 
itself into two. 



The handsome and amiable Robert ,de 
Scales bore red with shells of silver. 



h noir. ' lyoun. k double. ' Robert de Scales. 

" cokillei. 



34, 



le 



Be fcatlafcetofe. 



# c^ebalicc De bon [Os? a 
5le ot toernuiUe o b iaune^ merfo? 




Cele att onte He 

fiougc o une d blanc Ipoun connoiiS e 
n eg'toit te ouerloure f 
Del emcljampeure h 




atrifi DC unbar fit? 1 ie Conte 
Be la portoit par nul aconte 
De une label De a.^ure 




.Steuart 1 ftc o eu.^ conber^'e 
baniere ot apreiStee 
1 n croi$i bfancbe a bou.sf ffouretce 



Emlam Thouchez chevaliers de bon los in the copy in the Cottonian 
MS. but the word Emlam hns been subsetjuentty added, though in an 
ancient hand. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 35 



Touches, a knight of good fame, bore 
red, with yellow martlets. 



That of the Count of Laonis was known 
as red with a white lion, and a white bor- 
der with roses like the field. 



Patrick of Dunbar, son of the Count, 
bore in no way different from his father, 
excepting a blue label. 



Richard Suwart, who was in company 
with them, had a black banner painted 
with a white cross, flowered at the ends. 



b a. e Lnoiioh. d un. * conois. ' ourleure. A. 

k enchampcure. ' fi*. k inde. ' Riehart Suwart. Noirt. 
" o. boui. 



36 



le @>fege Be tetofcerofe. 







tm foegel be cele gent 
lie ot noir a a ro^ette^ tie arjjent 



Ee beau 25rian le ffl? 

e courtoi.siie et b oe j]onouc 

3! i>i o baniere barree 

e or et b oe 0oule# bien paree 

J&ont DC chalange d e^toit It potn? 

gac entre Iut e tt b $ue goin? 

ftt portoit eel ne piujs ne mein# 

marbetlle aboit meinte qe mein?' 



t fu Cosier f He Jiortaigne 
$ti #e peme fee Jjonnouc a taigne 
3faune le ot o m bleu# [ P onji 
ont Ie^ couejS Double^ 



I I I 1 



n.t t 



1 



c Oe Jlontercombe li beaujr h 
e ermine o DeujS roujjeji jumeauji 



e. honnour. <i chalenge. li. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 37 



Simon de Fresel, of that company, bore 
black with roses of silver. 

The handsome Brian Fitz Alan, full of 
courtesy and honour, I saw with his well- 
adorned banner, barry of gold and red; 
which was the subject of a dispute be- 
tween him and Hugh Pointz, who bore 
the same, neither more nor less, at which 
many and many marvelled. 

Then there was Roger de Mortaigne, 
who strives that he may acquire honour ; 
he bore yellow with six blue lions, the 
tails of which we call double. 



And of the handsome Huntercombe, 
ermine with two red gemelles. 



' Rogiers. I dioms. k beiui. 

t 



38 



le 



te 





OuiUcmc tie tfiQrc t c.stoit 
uc en [a bantere in tie porroit 
tie or enlumine? 



u^ fu 

%i beau c boma^ tie 
fti ftant d ^eoit #uc le cjjebal 
Be ^embloit ijome fie e siomeille 
o^ tt f bentie bermeiHe 
it en la bantere blancfce 




t>e la JEace une manege 
goctoit tie argent en rouge ouforee. 




e le dE^trange le ot libree 
liouge o oeu^ ll blant? ' lyon.s 



Avoec. b aclieminez. beaut. d quant. ki. ' e. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 39 



William de Ridre was there, who in 
a blue banner bore crescents of brilliant 
gold. 

With them marched the handsome Tho- 
mas de Furnival, who, when seated on 
horseback, does not resemble a man 
asleep; he bore six martlets and a red 
bend in a white banner. 



John de la Mare bore a silver maiinch 
worked on red. 



John le Estrange had red caparisons 
with two white lions passant. 



Johans. K deuz. > blapi. 



40 



Lc fege He 




\7T7TTT7T 




/T7T7T 



/X/XA. 




ncore i I u a ie ronnoi.^ang 
3>l)an be <Brai b fit biree c 
3J ot j$a bantere barree 
argent ct &e agur entatflie e 
rou0e cngceeUic 



oBuilfeme^ de Canteto 
ifte te pac ce^te raijJon fo 
fce en ^onncuc f a tou^s tenji 
baire nt el rouge ecu 
floured h tt li$ tie or 
De tejSte^ be fupar 



tie 

iHe bien ^e ^tatioit' faire k amer 
O ocu.s fee DC batr (eboit 
%a baniere fie rouge aboit 



a jimon De 
fte 1 abott baniere et d 
e inbe au grifoun rampant De or fin 
$ernoit la tier^ egc&iet ffn m 



fiu. b Gray. c virree. d e. 
' bunnour. touz. h flours. 



c De argent e de asur entallie. 
savoit. k fere. ' Ki. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 41 

Also I know John de Grey was there, 
who I saw had his banner barry of silver 
and blue, with a red bend engrailed. 

And William de Cantilupe, whom I for 
this reason praise, that he has at all times 
lived in honour. He had on a red shield 
a fess vair, with three fleurs de lis of 
bright gold issuing from leopards' heads. 

And then Hugh de Mortimer, who well 
knew how to make himself loved : he bore 
a red banner with two fesses vair. 



But by Simon de Montagu, who had 
a blue banner and shield with a griffin 
rampant of fine gold, the third squadron 
was brought to a close. 



This line is omitted in the copy in the Coltonian MS. 
M 






Ita quart e^cbiet ou gon courop' 
ConDuit ^DluarD b it fi'I? c le 
5[oubenceaug De Dip et cpt ai 
(t c De noutel arme portan.^ 
|>e corpg f fu beau.^ et e 
e cuer courtoi.^ et e 
<Et e De^iran.s De lieu h trouber 
u pou^t' #a force e^prouter 
>i c^ebaucljoit merbeille^ bel 
(t e portoit o un bleu lafaell k 
arme.^ le bon ilop 1 ^on pere 
li Doint Dieu^ grace fee tl pcre 
baillan^ et e non pa^ mein^ 
porront en gesS mein^ m 
OTel fit nel beent faire oan 



Ei prettf ^tfyan" tie 

j?u pat tout o lui 

W ^ur tou? #e# sarnemen^ 

ct cijief rouse ot fie or Deu^ molette? 1 * 



cote et e blanci)e^ alette 
blanc et e baniere blanche 
8 o la bermeille manege 

tie 3Tonp fei bien ^ipe 
fte il jSt ou cbe\jatiet a ctgne" 



* 11 quarte eschiele o son couroi. 
A Jovencaus de dis e set ans t e e. 
' peust. k label. ' roi. 



b Edewars. c fielz. 

' cors. s ensegniez. b ben. 

m Lors iiorront chair en ses meins. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 43 

The fourth squadron, with its train, was 
led by Edward the King's son, a youth of 
seventeen years of age, and bearing arms 
for the first time. He was of a well 
proportioned and handsome person, of a 
courteous disposition, and intelligent ; and 
desirous of finding an occasion to display 
his prowess. He managed his steed won- 
derfully well, and bore with a blue label 
the arms of the good King his father. 
Now God give him grace that he be as 
valiant and no less so than his father: 
then may those fall into his hands who 
from henceforward do not act properly. 

The brave John de Saint John was every 
where with him, who on all his white 
caparisons had upon a red chief two gold 
mullets. 

A white surcoat and white alettes, a 
white shield and a white banner, were 

borne with a red niaunch by Robert de 

K>77n/**f */rf4* 

Tony, who well evinces that he is a Knight 
of the Swan. 

" Julians. guarnt niem. P bUncs. i mulectci. 

' alectes. ' Purtoit. ' Ruben. tie il est clu cbevtler u cigne. 



JLe Siege fce fcarla&erofc. 




Sanicre ot $enri li 

bfancbe De un poli lioig b 
un cjbiebron bermeil en mi 




fie abort fait ami 
e ^uilleme De d ttatimier 
$te e la rroi^ patee De oc miec 
^octoit en rouge bien poctcaite f 
^>a baniere ot cele part traite 



oe Eepbourne 
omg jSan^ e me# et h 

23aniere i ot o 

3|noe o gi.3 blanc 



rampant 1 



*. 



Sogier k De .mortemer 
mer 1 et h Defa mer 
a porte quel part fie ait ale 
3Cecu barree m au cfref pale 
E le^ corniere# 0ironnee n 
e oc et h tie atfur enfumine^ 



Raniere ot Henris li Tyois. > 
' pourtraite. 



lyois. t Prouesce. 'i ] e . Ki. 
' De incle o sis blans lyouns raropans. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 45 



Henry le Tyes had a banner whiter 
than a smooth lily, with a red chevron in 
the middle. 

Prowess had made a friend of William 
le Latirner, who bore on this occasion 
a well-proportioned banner, with a gold 
cross patee, pourtrayed on red. 

Also William de Leyburne, a valiant 
man, without but and without if, had 
there a banner and a large pennon, of blue, 
with six white lions rampant. 

And then Roger de Mortimer, who on 
both sides the sea has borne, wherever he 
went, a shield barry, with a chief paly and 
the corners gyronny, emblazoned with 
gold and with blue, with the escutcheon 



k Rugiers. ' Ki beca mer e deU mer. " barre. n gyrounces. 

N 



46 Le fege He 

< le esjttttf)oun a butfcie tie ermine 
<bec b leg autreg ge arijemme 
Cat it et c It Defcant nomeg d 
2u fit? le flop furent rome e 
e gon ftein 0uiout f et c guaroein 
j&eg coment fte ie Ie^ orDein 
3Li ^>ein^ 5fotan^ It Hatimurg 
2BatlIte h It furent tie^ premier^' 
ftt ^e e^ctitele areec Dcbotent 
om k cil fit plu^ ue ce 
Cat cuere m ailfourg ne ^eroit 
5^eu^ n plu# batllang ne tieujc" 
ami lout furent et c botjsin 

n frete au fit? le lUot cousin 
et c ^entpp Ie# nome on 
%t futent fit? mon 
jftete Ie ?Sot le mieug amei 
He onque^ oi^e engt nome 



De ILangca^tre egtoit conte^ 
r e^t De ge arme^ ttel^ s It tonte^ 
<BnsIeterre au label De Jrtante 
c ne ieul plug mettte en goufftance 




escuchon. b Ovoer. 

' Guyour. * sains. b Bailie. 



c e. 

1 primers 



A nomez. 
k Cum. 



reroez. 
1 savoient. 



THE SIEGE OF CAHLAVEROCK. 4? 

voided of ermine. He proceeded with the 
others, for he and the before named were 
appointed to conduct and guard the King's 
son. But how can I place them ? The 
St. Johns, the Latimers, were leaders from 
the first, who ought to have been in the 
rear of the squadron, as those who best 
understood such matters, for it would not 
be wise to seek elsewhere two more valiant 
or two more prudent men. 

Their friends and neighbours were two 
brothers, cousins to the King's son, named 
Thomas and Henry, who were the sons of 
Monsieur Edmond, the well-beloved, who 
was formerly so called. 

Thomas was Earl of Lancaster : this is 
the description of his arms ; those of Eng- 
land with a label of France, and he did 
not wish to display any others. 



m querf. deui. veisin. r Henri. 

i Frere le Rui miclz ame. ' Se. ceui. 



48 



He fcjje tie &atlatierofe. 




fte De ^enri ne boug rcDie 
fti tou? iourg toute ge e^tubie 
Mi$t a rcgemblec gon bon pere 
<t a portoit leg avmeg jSon fme 
2u bleu ba^toun gan^ label b 




bel 

<Et a noblement i fu rcme^ c 
<Se armeg toermeilleg bien d 
i ma^cle^ De or Ou c cijamp 





Celui f oont bien fucent 
ct a acljiebeeg leg amourg 
apreg gtangs boubteg h et a cremourg 
OCant fie Dieug ten toult 1 Delibre egtre 
for la Contc^e tie (Sfoucegtre 
pir lons k teng gouffri grang? maug 
e or fin o trotg djiobrong ' iiennaug 
51 ot m baniere geulement" 
&i ne faigoit pag malement 
ftant geg propreg armeg tegtoit 
5Cauneg ou le egle beroe egtoit 
t nt nomP Sauf De 



e. b sanz le label. c remez. d ben. del. ' Cely. 

granz. u duubtt z. ' le en volt. k Por ki long. ' chiverons. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 49 

Those of Henry I do not repeat to you, 
whose whole daily study was to resemble 
his good father, for he bore the arms of 
his brother, with a blue baton, without the 
label. 

William de Ferrers was finely and nobly 
accoutred and well armed, in red, with 
gold mascles voided of the field. 

He by whom they were well supported, 
acquired, after great doubts and fears 
until it pleased God he should be deli- 
vered, the love of the Countess of Glou- 
cester, for whom he a long time endured 
great sufferings. He had only a banner 
of fine gold with three red chevrons. He 
made no bad appearance when attired in 
his own arms, which were yellow with 
a green eagle. His name was Ralph de 
Monthermer. 



J ut. soulement. Ke ses propres armet n'estoit in the 

MS. in the College of Armt. Se avoit non. 

O 



50 



le 



rUX, 



mi 



pcru 



Iui a bi ie tout premier 
%t baiUant Robert oe la 
$te faien b ga baniere retoarDe 

e^t De blanc e &e noir 



fflllP 



DC <lt. 3Io-bn d ^on Ijoir 
3lour ot batttie a compaiflnon 
Sti De ^on pete aboit It noum e 
<Et f Ie^ arme^ au bleu label 




[e onte tie 3rounDel h 
Xeau c^itatier 1 et f bien ame 
51 bi je ridjement arme 
n rouge au tyon rampant De or 



oe la ^oucfee tremor 
&ignifioit k fee u^ 
&a rouge baniere a 1 
Car bien gcai ftil m a 
3Eres5or n plu^ fee en burce penDu 



ben. ' banier. '' Jubans de Seint Julian. e n 
ichart. h Arontlel. ' ebevalier. k signefi 



' Richart. 



11011. 
oii. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 51 

After him . I saw first of all the valiant 
Robert de la Warde, who guards his 
banner well, which is vaire of white and 
black. 

The heir of John de St. John was there 
a companion ; he bore the name of his 
father, and also his arms with a blue label. 



Richard the Earl of Arundel, a hand- 
some and well-beloved Knight, I saw 
there, richly armed in red, with a gold 
lion rampant. 

Alan de la Zouche, to shew that riches 
were perishable, bore bezants on his red 
banner ; for I know well that he has spent 
more treasure than is suspended in his 
purse. 

' o. Kar bien sai ke il. " Tresour. bouree. 



52 He @>iege 5e fcartafcetofc. 

fat amouc a et b pat compagnie 
< eug fu jointe la matfmie c 
%e noble beq. tie outaume d 
%t ptu baillant cletfee 6 t>e f toiaume 
^.oite boires ne cregtiente 
Si tiou.s en Ditai ncntc 

coj h j(e entenote me bole? 
fu et b bien enpatle? 

Ocoitute[^ k et b 
Be onque^ ticlje Jjome ne 
ftt plu^ bel otDena^te ^a bie 
tguel coubottjie 1 en b enbie 
aboit it ou m tout gette putt 
J^on potqant ;bautem te cuet n 
fot $t$ Droitout^ memtenietP 
Si Wt ne laiggoit conbenieti 
Se.s cncmis pat pacience 
at Dune' ptopte conscience 
Si ^autement se con^eilloit 
He cjje.tfcuniS ^en e^metbeilloit s 
<n touteg Ie 4 guette^ u te 
ilboit e^te oe noble aroi 
2. 8tan x gen^ et b a gran^ 
Uae^ ie ne scai z pat queM aa outtage^ 
<85ont un^ plaij li fu entamejS 
n 3ngletette bb fu cc 



amours. b e. e maisnie. d Eveske de dureaume. e clerk. 

' du. t Voire voir. b Parcoi. ' atcmprez. k droituriers. 

1 covetise. del. " Non porqu't hautein ot le quer. droitures. 

" meinlenir. 1 Si ke il ne lessoit convenir. ' Car de UIIP. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 53 

With them were joined both in com- 
pany and affection, the followers of the 
noble Bishop of Durham, the most vigilant 
clerk in the kingdom, a true mirror of 
Christianity ; so, that I may tell you the 
truth, I would be understood that he was 
wise, eloquent, temperate, just, and chaste. 
Never was there a great man, nor like 
person, who regulated his life better. He 
was entirely free from pride, covetousness, 
and envy : not, however, that he wanted 
spirit to defend his rights, if he could not 
work upon his enemies by gentle measures, 
for so strongly was he influenced by a just 
conscience, that it was the astonishment 
of every one. In all the King's wars he 
appeared in noble array, with a great and 
expensive retinue. He was detained in 
England in consequence of a treaty which 
was just entered into, but I know not 
about what wrong, so that he did not come 

1 Ke checuns se ensemerveilloit. 'le. " guerrers. 'grant. 
7 This line is followed by the wordi Dont uns plai, but they are 
dotted under, to tketv that they were inserted fry mistake, * sai. 

* queut. bk Engletere. " estoit. 

P 




&e iege tic ftarlafcetofe* 

i fcen a <coce lorg ne bint 
Bon puniant b # bien li gaubint c 
u ftoi fie emprise la boie d a 
fte &e geg geng It enboia 
Cent et e $sots^ante f ^omeji a arme 
nque^ artour^ s pot tou? 
^i beau present ne ot De 
HUnminie b o un fet DC molin' 
ermine k i enbofa ^e en^eigne 1 




fti tot Jjonnour engei0ne m 
De J^a^tingue^ a nom 
ILa oeboit conouire en gon non? 
Car il ejStoit o lui n reme^ r 
3Lt plu^ ptibe^ 6 li plusS amesS 4 
e qanque^ u il en i aboit 
<t e boic bien etre te Deboit 
at x conneu^ egtoit oe tou^y 
Slu fait He armesS fier^ et e^tou? z 
Jen o^tel dou? et e bebonnaireg aa 
Be onquejS ne fu justice en aire^ 

boluntierg bb De tiroict" iugiec 

aboit fort et e legiet 
baniere oe oeure pareilte dd 
e or fin o la manege bermeille 



Li ke en. b porquant. <= eouvint. d vol. c e. 

1 seisante. s Arturs. h vermeille. ' molj n. k De ermine. 

1 ensegne. m 7% line w omitted in the copy in the College of Arms. 

" Joban. non. 



THE SIEGE OP CARLAVEROCK. 55 

into Scotland ; notwithstanding, being well 
informed of the King's expedition, he sent 
him of his people one hundred and sixty 
men at arms. Arthur, in former times, 
with all his spells, had not so fine a pre- 
sent from Merlin. He sent there his en- 
sign, which was gules with a fer de moulin 
of ermine. 

He who all honour displays, John de 
Hastings, was to conduct it in his name ; 
for it was entrusted to him, as being 
the most intimate and the best beloved 
of any one he had there. And assuredly 
he well deserved to be so ; for he was 
known by all to be in deeds of arms 
daring and reckless, but in the hostel mild 
and gracious ; nor was there ever a Judge 
in Eyre more willing to judge rightly. 
He had a light and strong shield, and a 
banner of similar work of fine gold with 
a red inaunch. 



-i' La conduit o meint compaignon, in the copy in th* College of Arms. 
i li. ' remez. privez. amez. kanques. ' Kar. 

r touz. * An fair dcs armes fi-ris e estous. " debonaires. 

bl > volentris. " druit u pareile. 



56 



le Siege tie fcarlafcerofc. 





a a a a 




n 5 a 





cs frereg 
%e [abet noir i fu cuellang 
3 fei pa ne oeboit faitlic 
$onnour tinnt ge penott cuetlir 



ioltf et b cointe 
e amour^ et b barmen c bien acointe 
atjotent d il a compaignon 
3|o]}an e gaignel atooit a nom f 
[a bautcce tcrDe tainte h 
Oe or fin la mancfce painte h 



<t feant li bon^ a pmon amcourt ' 
j^e pout mie benir a court ^ 
^c^ Deug bon^ fil? en ^on lieu ' mt?'t k 
m ^a baniere o eu^ trami^t 
<De inDe coulour De or biletee" 
O un Dance ^urgette 



Be 3oljan le fit? 
JHe touti priiSoient pince et b 
<Et m autre fee It connoi.sJ^oient r 
5U baniere rembelli^oint s 
?La fe^e et b li troi.^ papegai 
fte a octree 4 blanch en rouge ai 



Eymuns. b e. c de armes. d avoint. e Johans. ' non. 
* Ke en. '' peinte. ' E q'nt li bons Eymo's deincourt. k These 
lines are transposed in the copy in the College of Arms. ' leu. m E. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 5J 

Edmond, his valiant brother, chose there 
the black label. He could not fail of those 
honours which he took so much pains to 
acquire. 

They had a handsome and accomplished 
bachelor, well versed in love and arms, 
named John Paignel, as a companion, who 
in a green banner bore a maunch of fine 
gold. 

And, as the good Edmond Deincourt 
could not attend himself, he sent his two 
brave sons in his stead, and with them 
his banner of a blue colour, billette of 
gold with a dancette over all. 

Of John le Fitz Marmaduke, whom all 
esteemed, Prince and Duke and others 
who knew him, the banner was adorned 
with a fess and three popinjays, which 
were painted white on a red field. 



11 billetee. une. P fiz mermenduk. tuit. 

conoissoient. renbellissoient. ' daviser. 

a 



58 



3Le Siege He 




< J&orictg tie 23erftelee 
fti compaipig fu tie cele alee 
Saniere o bermeille cum ganc 
<roiggillie o un chjebron blanc 
<u un label tie agur aboit 
force q' cess a pete^ inherit 

|Ee^ aii^antireji tie 25aioel 
Ute a tout bien fere b metoit c le oel 
3jaune baniere d abort el cfc,amp 
31 rouge egcu botDie Du c^amp 

a cegtut tiaerain 6 nomme f 

leg Doubles? astfome 
et h bint et h ^et bantered 
3Bti tienent leg boieg pleniereg 
3u chattel be ftarlaberoft 
fti pag neit 1 prig tie egcf)eft de rofe 
in? i aura trait &e k lancie 
^njjin 1 lebe et h balancie 
om m noug boug en abiggerong" 
ftant le aggaut en oebiggerong 



Force ses i part of the word however is obliterated and a correction 
inserted in the margin. b faire. c gettoit. d Blanche banier. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 59 

And Maurice de Berkeley, who was a 
companion in this expedition, had a ban- 
ner red as blood, crusilly with a white 
chevron, and a blue label because his 
father was alive. 

But Alexander de Balliol, who had his 
eye on doing every good, bore a banner 
with a yellow ground and a red escutcheon 
voided of the field. 

To those last named, without reckoning 
double, were eighty-seven banners, which 
quite filled the roads to the castle of Car- 
laverock, which was not taken like a 
chess rook, but it will have thrusts of 
lances, and engines raised and poised, as 
we shall inform you when we describe the 
attack. 



= daerein. ' nome. t sanz. h E. ' Ne pas ne ert. 

> e. ' Engin. '" Cum. " ariseroms. deriseromi. 



60 te @>fe0e De 

fcartaberofe cagteaug* egtoit 
<f>i fort b fee jj'iege ne Douhtott 6 
3in? fee li ftotg tluec benigt 
Car renDte ne te conbenigt d 
Sameg mate ftil e fugt a gon Droit 
Oarni? qant f be^oign^ en benDroit 
e jjensii De engine et? De bitaiU 
Com h ting ecu e^tott De taile 
Car ne ot fee troi^ cojte? entouc 
<t en ctiejScune' angle une tour 
JBeg fee It une egtoit jumelee 
Cant aute k tant tongue e tant lee 
lie par fcegou? e^toit la porte 
3 pont tourni.^ bien faite et forte 1 



<t ot n bong murg ets 
STretou? plaing De eaue re? a re? 
t s croi fee iameg ne berreg P 
Cljagtet plug bet De tui geoir 
Car a luni puet on beoir 
eberg le toegt la mere' De "SretanDe* 
2te berg te norrt) fa bele lanDe 
e un brag De mere r enbironnee* 
&i feil ne u e.s't creature nee 
fti De Deug x parg puigt aprigmer 
goi mettre en peril De mer 



chasteaus. " f ors . c dou toit. > counvenist. 

James mes ke il. ' Guarnys kai.t. <s e . h C un,. i chescun. 
" haut. ' A punt tourniz bien fait e fort. E autres deffenses assez. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 61 

Carlaverock was so strong a castle, that 
it did not fear a siege, therefore the King 
came himself, because it would not con- 
sent to surrender. But it was always fur- 
nished for its defence, whenever it was 
required, with men, engines, and provi- 
sions. Its shape was like that of a shield, 
for it had only three sides all round, with 
a tower on each angle ; but one of them 
was a double one, so high, so long, and 
so large, that under it was the gate with a 
draw-bridge, well made and strong, and 
a sufficiency of other defences. It had 
good walls, and good ditches filled to the 
edge with water ; and I believe there never 
was seen a castle more beautifully situ- 
ated, for at once could be seen the Irish 
sea towards the west, and to the north a 
fine country, surrounded by an arm of the 
sea, soi that no creature born could ap- 
proach it on two sides, without putting 
himself in danger of the sea. 



" S nvoit. Tres touz pleins de eawe reza rez. ' verrez. 

i Car al vules. ' de Irlande. mer. avirunne. 

Si ke il nc. s deuz. i Sanz. 

R 



62 Lc iege tie ftarlafcerofc. 

eberg Ie gu legter n'e.s't a pag 
Cat it i a meint maubai^ pag 
e faotg be more et b oe trenchjeg 
5ta ou c fa tmre d le^ a cerchjeg 
<u geult la ribtere encontrcr 
3t b por ce conbiHt Io^t c entree 
^lerjJ Ie et ou pendant f e^t It mon.^ 
jEt b tluec a It roM ^omoniS 

arengiecs 

com h oebott Ijerbergiet 
arengterunt baneout 1 
<f>t tet.^t on meint poigneour 
3jl Ioet k ^on r^ebal e^proubec 
Et b puesSt on iluec trouber 

mil tiome.^ De armee gent 
on Ie or et b Ie argent 
De tou.^" ricjbe^ colour^ 
plug nobleg et b leg meillourgp 
Cregtout Ie bal enlumincr 
^ar cot bten trot fte a oebiner 
tl ou eba.stelli pu^ant r oonqueg 
ften tel pereil 3 ne furent onqueg 
ont it lour peugt goubenir 
ftant engt noug birent bentr. 
com engi fumeg rengie 1 
l" orent Ijerbergie 



ne est. b e. c Si cum. d mer. " Ie ost. ' pendans. 

K Ses bauiles a arengier. h En trues con. ' ..ors se arengierent 

baneour. k Ilvec. l Troi. m vest. " toutes. coulours. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 63 

Towards the south it was not easy, be- 
cause there were numerous dangerous de- 
files of wood, and marshes, and ditches, 
where the sea is on each side of it, and 
where the river reaches it ; and therefore it 
was necessary for the host to approach it 
towards the east, where the hill slopes. 

And in that place by the King's com- 
. mands his battalions were formed into 
three, as they were to be quartered ; then 
were the banners arranged, when one 
might observe many a warrior there exer- 
cising his horse : and there appeared three 
thousand brave men at arms ; then might 
be seen gold and silver, and the noblest 
and best of all rich colours, so as en- 
tirely to illuminate the valley ; conse- 
quently, those of the castle, on seeing 
us arrive, might, as I well believe, deem 
that they were in greater peril than they 
could ever before remember. And as soon 
as we were thus drawn up, we were 



v mellours. i chaste). ' peussent. Ke en tel peril. 

1 E tant cum si fumes rengie. Mart-seal. 



64 JLe &iege tie 



<t a tout pac tout placed 
3lorg beigt on maigong oubreeg c 
&ang d djarpentierg et a 
e mult ae &ibereg faconj. 
e toile falandje et a totfe tetnte 6 
Ita ot tenoue coroe mdnte c 
lEeint poiiS^on en tcrre f ficijie s 
iaeint h grant arbre a terre f trencljie 
faire { logesS et a f ueUies* 

et a floury t$ botsS cuellie! 
furent join 



31 In tanto.st ?i bten aiunt 
Ke la nabie a tetre f tint 
< Ie^ engine et a la tntaile 
<Et a ja comencoit la pietaile 
au tebant &u cijajttel aler 

on entce eup m bolet 
jJagettesi 11 et a quacreauji 
tant cljiec djangent louc 
Cil Deben? a ceujc P tiejbor# 
ften peti^t tymt plu.^oure 
31 tt et ble^cie? et nabre? r 
t ne gcat qan;S s a moct libre? 
2^e.^ quant leg geng* De armeg pecturent" 
fte li jSergant tel# mau^ recurent 



e. b liverees. c 77,^ /j ne ^ omitted in the copy in the College 

of Arms. <> Sanz. ' tainle. ' tere. B fiche. ' Mairit. 

1 fere. k dedenz. > genz. eus. saiettes. quareau?. 



THE SIEGE OP CARLAVEROCK. 65 

quartered by the Marshal, and then might 
be seen houses built without carpenters 
or masons, of many different fashions, and 
many a cord stretched, with white and 
coloured cloth, with many pins driven into 
the ground, many a large tree cut down 
to make huts ; and leaves, herbs, and 
flowers gathered in the woods, which were 
screwed within ; and then our people took 
up their quarters. 

Soon afterwards it fortunately happened 
that the navy arrived with the engines and 
provisions, and then the foot-men began 
to march against the castle; then might 
be seen stones, arrows, and quarreaus to 
fly among them; but so effectually did 
those within exchange then* tokens with 
those without, that in one short hour there 
were many persons wounded and maimed, 
and I know not how many killed. 

When the men at arms saw that the 
foot-men had sustained such losses who 



p Cil de dedenz a ceus. i Ke en petite hocire plusours cors. 

' 1 ot blesciez e navirez. E ne sai quanz. Kant les gem. 

u percurent. 



le fegc He 




$ti comencie orent It a&Jaut 
j&eint tn i court meint en i gaut 
<t a meint $i Ijasrte $i oe alec 
$e a nul i nen Daigne parler b 
i peut on reteoic 

e piere^ cyanic 
om d ^i on en Deugt pouorec 

et Jieaumesi effonDrec e 
et target &epeciet f 
Car oe tuec et oe blejScier 
<2^toit Ii jujss oont til iuoient 
Itt a gran? cri? b #e entre ijuoient 
teuant 1 mal beoient abenic 

Ea W je tout premier k benir 

5Le bon Bertram de naontboucTjier 

e gouleg furent troi^ pirljier 

<n ^on esScu oargent 1 Iui^ant m 

<n Ie ourle noire li bezant 




5erarb De ^oun&rontile n o li 
25adjeler legier et a j-oli 
lie egcu ot bair ne plu ne 
i^t ne orent pa oi^eu^eiSP 
Car meinte pierei amont offrirent 
<t a meinte pedant coup t jsouffrirenf 



" e. b Ke anulli ne enclaigne parler. ausi. d Cum. 

' E chapeaus e heames effrondrer. ' depescier. t ju. k cris 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 67 

had begun the attack, many ran there, 
many leaped there, and many used such 
haste to go, that they did not deign to 
speak to any one. Then might there be 
seen such kind of stones thrown as if they 
would beat hats and helmets to powder, 
and break shields and targets in pieces ; 
for to kill and wound was the game at 
which they played. Great shouts arose 
among them, when they perceived that 
any mischief occurred. 

There, first of all, I saw come the good 
Bertram de Montbouchier, on whose 
shining silver shield were three red 
pitchers, with besants hi a black border. 

With him Gerard de Gondronville, an 
active and handsome bachelor. He had a 
shield neither more nor less than vaire. 
These were not resting idle, for they threw 
up many a stone, and suffered many a 
heavy blow. 



Kant. * primer. ' de argent. " luisant. " Gondronrile. 
meini. r oieu. '' pcre. ' coup soffrirent. 



GS 



le Siege He 




SBretoung egtott It premeratng a 
< It gecon b u EoberainjJ 
ont nulg ne troebe lautre c lent 
ain$i d &onent e baufcour et f talent 
31? autrcsi tie g'e i acuelltrs 

bint le rf^agtel a^aillet b 
fit? IKlatmaDuc 1 a faamere 
un k grant route e pleniere 
bon^ batfjeler^ 



Robert tie 

3j fu tn oc tie intie frette 




Robert tie ^aun^art 1 tout 
2i bt bentr o bet" gent 
iiottjje o troi.s cstoiic.c' De argent 
Cenant le^cu par lt$ enarme^ 



J^enri tie ^raljam unejS 

2bott bermoilleji come? 

< une r gautour et f au cljef blaunc 8 

<u ot trots* bermeitles? 



primerains. b secunds. c leatitre. d ainz. e donnent. 
' acuellier. h assaitlir. ' Li fiz mermenduc. k une. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 69 

The first body was composed of Bre- 
tons, and the second were of Lorrain, of 
which none found the other tardy ; so that 
they afforded encouragement and emula- 
tion to others to resemble them. Then 
came to assail the castle, Fitz-Marmaduke, 
with a banner and a great and full troop of 
good and select bachelors. 

Robert de Willoughby, I saw, bore 
gold fretty azure. 

Robert de Hamsart I saw arrive, fully 
prepared, with fine followers, holding a 
red shield by the straps, containing three 
silver stars. 



Henry de Graham had his arms red as 
blood, with a white saltire and chief, on 
which he had three red escalop shells. 



1 Hamsart. ' apresle. " bele. le eicu. f cume. 

i sane. ' un. ' blanc. 



70 



Le @>iege ne ftatlafeerofc. 



V 



7 



De :d)emonD a fei 
aiott b De lancet be relief 
Deu jumeau De or ct c au 
fltooit bermeiUeiS armcures 
Ci.st ne tent com gcng meureg d 
Be com 0cti!> f De ^en alumee^ 
Mt$ com ar^e^ ct c enfumee^e 
e ocfluel et c DC mclancolie h 
Ca: oroit ont leuc' t>o:e acoutie k 
5Jufe a la ritie Du fo$$t 
Ct cil De ftidjcmono a pa^e 
3 meintenant jups au pont 
Ite entree Demanae oti Ii re.spont 1 
e arostfeg ptere^ et c cocnue^ 
ip([ebp m en jSe^ abenue.^ 
<Dt un n peice en mi le pijS 
ont bien Detroit porter (e pig 
&on e$icu ^i te Daignoit faire 
Ite Gl? .BiiarmaDucP cet affaire 
ant entrepri^t a enDurer 
Com 6 li autre i porent Durer 
Car il e$itoit^ com 6 line r^taclje 
;Sa baniere ot meinte tacije 
meint pertui?! r mat a reconiStre 
tant noblcment ^i mon#tre ! 
De $ttm e^cu moult goufcent 
Woit on boler Ie taint au bent 



Richmont. b fesoit. c e. d Cist ne vont pas cum gens meures. 
c cum. ' genz. 6 enfumes. h nialencolie. ' lour. 

k acuellie. ' Le entre demande on li respont. ra Wilebi. une. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 71 

Thomas de Richmont, who a second time 
collected some lances, had red armour, 
with a chief and two gemells of gold. 
These did not act like discreet people, 
nor as persons enlightened by understand- 
ing ; but as if they had been inflamed and 
blinded with pride and despair, for they 
made their way right forwards to the very 
brink of the ditch. 

And those of Richmont passed at this 
moment quite to the bridge, and demanded 
entry ; they were answered with ponderous 
stones and cornues. Willoughby in his 
advances received a stone in the middle of 
his breast, which ought to have been pro- 
tected by his shield, if he had deigned to 
use it. 

Fitz Marmaduke had undertaken to en- 
dure as much in that affair as the others 
could bear, for he was like a post ; but his 
banner received many stains, and many a 
rent difficult to mend. 

Hamsart bore himself so nobly, that 
from his shield fragments might often be 



piere. ' Le fiz mermenduc. 1 estut. ' percuii. 

Hamsart tant noblement se i monstre. ' Ke. 



72 He >iege He fcarlafcerofc. 

Car it et a cif be Sttbemont 
ftuent h$ b picre# contrement c 
om d gi ce fugt ag enbtaile e 

til beben.se a beffiaife 
h endjargent tete et a cou 
encombrance ' tie gran? cou k 
Cit tie <3ra5jam' ne fu pa.^ quite# 
Cat ne toauara beuji promesJ quiteji 
<Banque^ entier n enpocteta 
et e^cu quant jSen partira 
<#P bou^ la noi^e comencie 
<boet euis ^e^ti entre lancie 
eg 0eng le Sos un grant 
ont gi ie toug 8 leg nom.^ 1 
<Et a reconta^e" leg bnn 
Crop men genroit 1 pe^an^ H 
Cant furent et a tant bien It? ferent 
non pottant 2 pa# ne ^oulfitent 
^an# aa la maijfnie au fit? bb Ie &op cc 
fti moult i bint tie noble arop dd 
at ee meinte targe fte^tljement 
et a guatm ff ricibement 
ijeaume et a meint cijapeau burni 
Uleint rid]e gamfaoi^on garni ss 
e #>ie hh et a cabag et a toton 
En lour benue bei^t oun" 
e oiber^e^ tailed et a forged 



e. b lour. c contremont. d cum. e euviales. l E. 

i dcdenz. h Lour. ' emcombiaiice. k cups. ' Cil Graham, in 
the copy in the College of Arms. m pomes. " Kanques entere. 

kan t. P Es. i se est. ' De genz le Rui une grant masse. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 73 

seen to fly in the air ; for he, and those of 
Richmont, drove the stones upwards as 
if it were rotten, whilst those within de- 
fended themselves by loading their heads 
and necks with the weight of heavy blows. 

Those led by Graham did not escape, 
for there were not above two who returned 
unhurt, or brought back their shields entire. 

Then you might hear the tumult begin. 
With them were intermixed a great body 
of the King's followers, all of whose names 
if I were to repeat, and recount their brave 
actions, the labour would be too heavy, 
so many were there, and so well did they 
behave. Nor would this suffice without 
those of the retinue of the King's son, 
great numbers of whom came there in 
noble array ; for many a shield newly 
painted and splendidly adorned, many a 
helmet and many a burnished hat, many 
a rich gambezon garnished with silk, tow, 
and cotton, were there to be seen of divers 
forms and fashions. 



touz. ' nons. " recontaisse. scroll. r It. 

* porquant. " Sanz. bb fiz. " roi. " aroi. Kar. 
" guarnie. ** guarni. bb soi. u on. 

U 



He @>fege Be 






3floegue.!S a bi ie $auf De 
C|)ebalier b noubel a Doube 
e ptereg c a terre d tumbe 
<t e tie foule plug De une foig f 
Car tant e.Stoit De grant buffoigs 
M h ne en Oatgnoit' Depattic 
Cout jnon tiarnoi^ et e ^on atit k 
ma^cle tie or et e oe a^ut 
fii e^toient jiur le muc 
Robert tie iJTonji moult greboit 
Car en ^a compaignie aboit 
3Le faon ^icijart De la tHoKele 
Dti ceuji oeDen? # enparfiele 
Jte moult ^oubent le fait retraire 
il ot gon e.^cu fait portraire 1 
JBia^cle tie gouleg et e be ermine 
3bam De la j?orDe au mut mine 
n tel maniere com" il puet 
Car augi Dru com n pluie pluet 
Wolent #e# piereji enji et e fcorg 
ont moult fu Defoule^P It orjS 
e troi^ lionceauji'i couronnejs r 
ftil 8 ot rampant en inDe ne? 
%e bon 23aroun De JDpgnctone' 
^erbeillc^" ejt fte tout ne e^tone 
lit faijS Dejs coupe^ x ftt y il i recoit 
Car ia ce fee benu i #oit 



* Ilveques. b Chevalier. c peres. * I 
' bufoiz. h Ke il. ! deignoit. t atire. 
in (he copy in the College of Arms. m maner. 



e. ' e. f foiz. 

' This line is omitted 

" cum. enz. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 7^ 

There I saw Ralph de Gorges, a newly 
dubbed Knight, fall more than once to 
the ground from stones and the crowd, 
for he was of so haughty a spirit that he 
would not deign to retire. He had all 
his harness and attire mascally of gold 
and azure. 

Those who were on the wall Robert de 
Tony severely harassed ; for he had in his 
company the good Richard de Rokeley, 
who so well plied those within that he 
frequently obliged them to retreat. He 
had his shield painted mascally of red and 
ermine. 

Adam de la Forde mined the walls as 
well as he could, for his stones flew in 
and out as thick as rain, by which many 
were disabled. He bore, in clear blue, 
three gold lioncels rampant crowned. 

The good Baron of Wigtown received 
such blows that it was the astonishment 
of all that he was not stunned ; for, without 



defoulcz. ' lyonceaus. ' couronnez. ' Ke il. ' \Vignetone. 
Merveilleis. * coups. 1 ke. 



le 





.an? Seigneur a Ijorg de retenance 
31 a b plug nen a la contenance 
oej-ibarfjie c ne egpoentee 
t il d portoit borbure enbentee 
< trotg egtotleg tie or en gable 
IKleint e pedant piere tt f qua^abfe 
Ctt te iftirfebribe h t porta 
^leg le e^cu blancjje Debant beta' 
< la croig bcroe' enoreUie k 
<f>i fte moult fu bien 
gac lui la porte m Du 
Cat onque feureiS t>e martel 
&i ^our jon fee ne mattela n 
Com il et f li gten ffrent la 
porqantP tant i ont ete 

yctt$$t$ piere^ tempe^te 

De quarreau.si et f tie 

De bfejscure^ r et f 

It 8 lag et f gi amortt 
Ste a moult grant peine en gont parti 
Haeg am? ftil gen u fuggent parti? 
Cil be Cltffort com aberti? 
com cil fti ne a eu pourpcg 
$te ctl beDen? aient repog 
31 a ga baniere entooie 
ct f tant com bien le ai x conboie 



segnour. 
t quaissable. 
k engreellie. 



b Ja. f Esbahie. d Cil. e Meinte. ' e. 

'' Kirkebricle. ' Mes les escu blancdrvant buuta. 

1 assallie. " De li la porte. " Si sur son fer martela. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 77 

excepting any lord present, none shewed 
a more resolute or unembarrassed coun- 
tenance. He bore within a bordure in- 
dented, three gold stars on sable. 

Many a heavy and crushing stone did 
he of Kirkbride receive, but he placed 
before him a white shield with a green 
cross engrailed. So stoutly was the gate 
of the castle assailed by him, that never 
did smith with his hammer strike his iron 
as he and his did there. Notwithstanding, 
there were showered upon them such huge 
stones, quarrels, and arrows, that with 
wounds and bruises they were so hurt and 
exhausted, that it was with very great 
difficulty they were able to retire. 

But as soon as they had retreated, he 
of Cliiford, being advised of it, and like 
one who had no intention that those 
within should have repose, sent his banner 
there, and as many as could properly 



cum. >' purquant. ' quareaus. ' blessures. 

1 Ke a m'lt grant peine sont parti. eg aim ke il se en. * a. 

X 



78 




He fege tie telafcerofu 

e J&abelegmere SBartljolmteug a 
3jojbanjj be Crometoelle au mieu 
<ue b puet i a mige ge entente 
Car nui.si be ceu ne fait atente 
e afae^ter et c pieces* cuelltr d 
Et c be ruer et c be aggaillir 
Cant com 6 surer lour puet aleine 
Mt$ leg sen f a I fl cibe.^teleine e 
He lour lei^ent h abotr ^ouiour 
2Babel.^mere fit tout le tout 
3fluec ^e conttnt bien et c bel 
portoit en blanc au bleu label 

rouge entre ocus 1 jumcau? 

It prcu.s It beau 
fte entre le ptere^ ba trtpant 
n tnbe ot blanc lpoun k rampant 
Couronne be or au 1 double coue 
Mt$ pag ne croi m fie il la regcoue 
lie iluec ne It jSoit recoupee 
Cant fut n be piereg egtampee 
brote ain? fill ?'cn a laf 

cejS beugi rebtnbrent la 
ilDarbe et c 5Ii)ati^ be s!3rai r 
be noubet ont enbai* 

bcben? fit bten atenbent 
<t arc^ et u arfaale^teg tenbent 



De Badelsmere Bartbolmieuis. b Ke. c e. d cuellier. 

* cum. ' gcnz. i cbasteleine. '' Icssent. ' deuz. 

k lyon. ' o. m Mes ne croi pas. " fu. estampe 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. ?9 

escort it, with Bartholomew de Badles- 
mere, and John de Cromwell, as those 
who could best perform his wishes; for 
whilst their breath lasted, none of them 
neglected to stoop and pick up the stones, 
to throw them, and to attack. 

But the people of the castle would not 
permit them to remain there long. Bad- 
lesmere, who all that day behaved him- 
self well and bravely, bore on white with 
a blue label a red fess between two ge- 
melles. Cromwell, the brave and hand- 
some, who went gliding between the 
stones, bore on blue a white lion rampant 
double -tailed, and crowned with gold; 
but think not that he brought it away, 
or that it was not bruised, so much was 
it battered and defaced by stones before 
he retreated. 

After these two, La Warde and John de 
Gray returned there, and renewed the at- 
tack. Those within, who were fully expect- 
ing it, bent their bows and cross-bows, 



Ebroie ainz ke il se en ala. i Apres ecus deux. ' Gray. 

Ke. ' envay. " E ars e. 



so 



He fep te ftatfafcerofc* 

<t a traient oe lour e^ptingaut 
<t a bien e tienent patingaut 
<t a au iectet b tt a au lanciec 
font le a^aut recomencit c 
geng le geigneout oe 25dtatgne d 
Corn 6 Ii fpon^ f De la montaisne 



&^& 




cbecun h iout apernang 
fait be armg' et a le megtier 

togt coubrent li portier 
rfjagtel lout acointement 
autte plug folonnement k 
1 ne leg otent aggaili m 
porqant n ne ont mie faiKi 
fte fii fie preg biegne ne ait part 
3e lout libtee aing 1 qil gen patt 
2Cant fie plug fie agge? li ensemble 
2pteg i ceugp ilbec ge 
3Ca gent mon geignout be 
<u je bi Slogan oe Ctetinqueg r 
>!Hn peril be perbre un cjjebal 
ftant gout 5 Ii un bint tontte bal 
gperounant au gagette? * 
J&eg pag ne gemble egtre feintie?" 
3fti tant ge Ijagte au fait attainbre* 
>n gon blanc egcu ot fait tainbre^ 
^In cl)iebron touge o ttoig moletteg 



e. b getter. c recomencier. d Le gens mon segnour de Bretaigne. 
' cum. ' lyon. f Coraiouses. h chescun. ' armes. 

k felounement. l Ainz. m assilll. porquant. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 81 

and prepared their espringalls, and kept 
themselves quite ready both to throw and 
to hurl. 

Then the followers of my Lord of Brit- 
tany recommenced the assault, fierce and 
daring as lions of the mountains, and every 
day improving in both the practice and 
use of arms. Their party soon covered 
the entrance of the castle, for none could 
have attacked it more furiously. Not, 
however, that it was so subdued that 
those who came after them would not 
have a share hi their labours ; but they 
left more than enough for them also. 

After these, the people of my Lord of 
Hastings assembled there, where I saw 
John de Cretinques in danger of losing a 
horse. When upon it, one came beneath 
pricking it with an arrow ; but he did not 
seem to be dissembling, he used such 
haste to strike him. On his white shield 
he had caused to be depicted a red chevron 
with three mullets. 



ke il se enpart. f E apres ceus. segnour de Hastingues. 

' Crttingues. sur. ' saietiz. " fainliz. ' ateindre. 

r teindre. 

V 



a a a a 






le iege He fcarlafcerofc. 

fci porte bance et a billettesS 
or en agur at aggaut court 

aboit a nom b SBaincourt 
W treg c bien i figt gon beboir 
3ugi li d ffrent bien por boir 
n recebant meinte cotee 
%i bon ftere be 2Berfeelee 

ont li aingne? portoit engt 
tyt ermine au c}jie rouge enbente 
e troi^ molette^ be or ente 
3li autre^ be roMie.iS 
<&])tmm$ troubeoierent e 

xLU OvOvtlp ^C UL Jnt vll 

Car toua'iourri com' li un se 
3utre i rebienent fre^ et a froit 
.^ porqanque^ k on lour offroit 1 

t^^au^ ne ^e renbirent 
beben^ ra ain? ^e beffenbirent 
<t a ge tinbrent fei fee il anuit 
Cout eel iour et a toute" la nuit 
Ht a lenbemain iuqueiS a tierce P 
Mt$ burement eu^ et a lout fierce 
ntre leg a.s^au.sJ cssmaia 
frere Robert fei enboia 
JBeinte piere par robinet 

au .soir beg le matinct 



e. b non. * m'lt. d le. " E li ij frere, but the 

figures ij have been subsequently added. ' ausi. I trouveroient. 

' Cil de dedenzse or sen alassent. ' touz iourscum. k porquanques. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 83 

He who bore a dancette and billets of 
gold on blue, John Deincourt by name, 
rushed to the assault, and there extremely 
well performed his duty. 

It was also a fine sight to see the good 
brothers of Berkeley receiving numerous 
blows ; and the brothers Basset likewise, of 
whom the eldest bore thus, ermine, a red 

chief indented, charged with three gold 

'A 
mullets ; the other, with three shells ; found 

the passages straitened. Those within 
continually relieved one another, for al- 
ways as one became fatigued, another re- 
turned fresh and stout : and, notwithstand- 
ing such assaults were made upon them, 
they would not surrender, but so de- 
fended themselves, that they resisted those 
who attacked, all that day and night, and 
the next day until tierce. But their cou- 
rage was considerably depressed during 
the attack by the brother Robert, who 
sent numerous stones from the robinet, 
without cessation from the dawn of the 



1 offrit. " Cil dedenz. " tout. lendemein. 

t terce. ' Juk. 



84 le S>fep He 



3le tour octant tegge ne atooit 
<T>c autrc pacte a oncore i lenott 
Croig autreg enpig b moult plug jjran c 
<t d it pentble^ et d engran^ 
fte Ie dja.stcl Du tout ronfonoc 
Cent et d reent e met piere enfonDe f 

et fiangjss ateint fent 
g coupj! rien ne #e beffent 
bretejSc?)e h ne groiS fug 
potquant ne fierent' refutf 
Slin? tinQrent toug k ^ejS enbiaug 
Cil oeDen^ 1 tant fie en mi aug 
n fu un$ feru# a la mort 
UlejS lorjS tljecun^ Dau^ m ge remort 
<Se ^on orguel et d ge e^bacl)t n 
Car au.s'i It combleg cljai 
par tout pat ou la piece entca 
t quant a^cunp de eu^ cncontra 

oe fec^ targe de fujit 
gauba fte blende? r ne fu^t 
^ant s toirent fte plu^ otirec 
porent* ne plu^ enDurer 
tequiterent" li compaignon 
t bouteront x ijorg uney penon 

relui z fci fjorg Ie bouta 
gcai quelg 



part. b engiiu. granz. d e. retent. ' en fonde. 
< Descocbe e quanques. h Bors dc bretesche. 'nenfirent. k touz. 
1 Cil de dedenz. de eus. " esbabi. chay. PEkantacun. 
i Nel pout quarir, in Me copy in the College of Arms. 



THE SIEGE OP CARLAVEROCK. 85 

preceding day until the evening. More- 
over, on the other side he was erecting 
three other engines, very large, of great 
power and very destructive, which cut 
down and cleave whatever they strike. 
Fortified town, citadel, nor barrier no- 
thing is protected from their strokes. Yet 
those within did not flinch until some of 
them were slain, but then each began to 
repent of his obstinacy, and to be dis- 
mayed. The pieces fell in such manner, 
wherever the stones entered, that when 
they struck either of them, neither iron 
cap nor wooden target could save him 
from a wound. 

And when they saw that they could not 
hold out any longer or endure more, the 
companions begged for peace, and put 
out a pennon, but he that displayed it 
was shot with an arrow, by some archer, 
through the hand into the face. Then he 



' Ke maintenant blesciez, in the copy in the College of jtrmi. ' Equant. 
< porrent. Pas requistrem, in the copy in the College of Arms. 

* buutercnt. ' un. * celuy. Ne sai ques scrguis saitrta. 

Z 



86 le feffe tie ftatlaftcrofc. 



$armi la twin iuq a en fa face 
3Lor^ requtgt qe b plu; ne It face 
Car le tfya$ttl au $05 c renoront 
<t d en jto grace bor bient>ront e 
<t d Jlare#cjbausi et d onetable 
fte a oej! ifuec furent e^tableg 
3. eel mot f le a^autte Deffen&irent 
Ht d cil le ci)atel lour renoirent 

^en i^trent ce e^t la 
tie unjS fie oe autreg 
grant merbeille 

tenu furent e d suartie 
Cant fee li iftoig en ordena 
fte 1 tie et d membte lour Donna k 
<Ht d a c^agcun 1 robe noubele 
3Lor^ fu ioieu^e m la nouViete 

i 

2 toute la ogt Du cJja.^tel prig 

fti tant e^toit tie noble pas 

^uiiS fi#t le ffiop n porter amont 

^a baniere et d la ^>eint <:pmont 

51 a &cpnt George et d fa ^eint Otoart 

Ct d o celeji par broit e^toart 

3la ^egrate et d fa ^erefort 

teleP au ^eignour De Cliffort 
li Cbateau futi DonnesS r 



Par mi la mien jok. b com. c Roi. d e. ' vendront. 

1 moult, in the copy in the College of Arms. i assault. h scisaut. 

' Ki. k doiia. ' cliescun. m ioiuuse. " Rois. seint. 
P tcel. i fu. ' dunnez. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 87 

begged that they would do no more to 
him, for they will give up the castle to 
the King, and throw themselves upon his 
mercy. And the marshal and constable, 
who always remained on the spot, at that 
notice forbad the assault, and these sur- 
rendered the castle to them. 

And this is the number of those who 
came out of it; of persons of different 
sorts and ranks sixty rnen, who were 
beheld with much astonishment, but they 
were all kept and guarded till the King 
commanded that life and limb should be 
given them, and ordered to each of them 
a new garment. Then was the whole host 
rejoiced at the news of the conquest of 
the castle, which was so noble a prize. 

Then the King caused them to bring up 
his banner, and that of St. Edmond, St. 
George, and St. Edward, and with them, 
by established right, those of Segravc and 
Hereford, and that of the Lord of Clifford, 
to whom the castle was entrusted. 



88 Le iege tie 

t a puf^ a li Soiji oroeneg b 
oiii cil c fci oe guerre d et moult js' 
<EouiS f $t$ cijeminjf et a 
Comente ira parmi h 
ele forte 1 tcrre k locc. 



5[ci' fintjit le ic0e m De ftarlaberofi. 



" e. b ordentz. l Cum ciU. '' guere. e mut. ' Touz. 
f Comment. h mie. ' fort. k tere. ' Ci. "' Assault, 

in the co/iy in the College of Arms. 



THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK. 8.9 

/ 

And then the King, who is well skilled in 
war, directed in what way his array should 
proceed. 

Here ends the Siege of Carlaverock. 



2 A 



MEMOIRS 



OF 



Cije $eetfii anti 



MENTIONED IN THE POEM. 



The particulars contained in the following Memoirs are throughout taken from 
Sir William Dugdale's " Baronage," excepting where other authorities are cited 
in the notes. 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



HENRY DE LACY, EARL OF LINCOLN. 

[PAGE 5.] 

THIS distinguished nobleman, whose name occupies so prominent a place in 
the records of almost every public event of his time, was the eldest son of Edmund 
de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, by Alice, the daughter of the Marquess of Saluces in 
Italy. He succeeded his father in the Earldom 8 in 1257, at which time he was 
probably about nine years of age, his parents having been married in May, 1247. b 
The first circumstance relating to the Earl after his birth, of which we have any 
notice, was his marriage, in 1256, to Margaret, the eldest daughter and coheiress 
of William de Longespee ; the covenants of which are given by Dugdale. In 1269 
the Earl became involved in a dispute about some lands with John Earl Warren, 

a Dugdale says, vol. I. p. 103, that " Edmund de Lacy, the father of Henry, never used the title 
of Earl of Lincoln, nor was it ever attributed to him in any grant, though he enjoyed the tertium 
denarium of that county, as may be seen by a record of after time." The late Francis Townsend, 
Esq. Windsor Herald, in his valuable collections for a new edition of Dugdale's Baronage, has, 
however, proved that this assertion is erroneous, for he observes, " In the record referred to by 
Dugdale, relating to Henry his son, this Edmund is expressly described as Edmundus de Lacy, 
pater ejusdem Henrici, quondam Comitis Lincolniae ;' and he is also so designated in the patent of 
safe conduct to the King and Queen of Scotland, dated 5 September, 39 Hen. III. 1255. Fadera, 
tome I. p. 563." Dugdale's statement, that Henry de Lacy was " made Earl of Lincoln" at the 
same time that he received the honour of knighthood, does not appear to be supported by evidence, 
and even if he had been so created, it would not be conclusive that his father had not enjoyed the 
same honour. Some remarks on the descent of Earldoms at that period, connected with this 
remark, will be found in vol. XXI. of the Archaeologia. 

b Mr. Townsend's " MS. Collections for Dugdale's Baronage." 

2B 



94 HENRY DE LACY, EARL OF LINCOLN. 

and each party prepared to establish his claim by force of arms, but their intention 
becoming known to the King, he commanded his Justices to hear and determine 
the cause, who decided it in favour of the Earl of Lincoln. William de Long- 
espee, his wife's father, died in the 52 Hen. III. and soon afterwards the Countess 
and her husband performed homage for, and obtained livery of, all the lands which 
had in consequence devolved upon her. In her right he is considered to 
have become Earl of Salisbury, the said William de Longespee having been en- 
titled to that dignity, though he was never allowed it, as son and heir of William 
de Longespee, the natural son of King Henry the Second by the well known 
Rosamond Clifford, who obtained the Earldom of Salisbury by his marriage with 
Elizabeth, the daughter and heiress of William d' Evereux. On the feast of St. 
Edward, 18 March, 1272, the Earl of Lincoln received the honour of knight- 
hood, and in the same year was appointed governor of Knaresborough Castle. 
To follow Dugdale in his account of this Earl would not only be a useless repe- 
tition, but the limits which it is proposed to assign to each of the individuals 
who are mentioned in the preceding Poem would be considerably exceeded; hence 
the principal circumstances of his life only will be noticed, and even these 
must be alluded to as concisely as possible. In the 5 Edw. I. he had livery of 
the fee which his ancestors had usually received nomine comitat&s Lincoln, with 
all the arrears from the time he was invested by King Henry the Third with the 
sword of that Earldom. Upon several occasions between the 6th and 10th Edw. I. 
he obtained grants of fairs, markets, and free-warrens in different parts of his do- 
mains ; and in the year last mentioned he accompanied the expedition then sent 
into Wales. Leland asserts that the Earl built the town of Denbigh, the land of 
which had been granted to him " from his having married into the blood of 
those princes, and that he walled it and erected a castle, on the front of which 
-was a statue of him in long robes ; and that anciently prayers were offered in 
Saint Hillary's chapel in that place for Lacy and Percy." 

Dugdale considers that his surrender of the castle and barony of Pontefract 
to the King, with all the honours thereto belonging, in the 20th Edw. I. arose 
from his " having been long married, and doubting whether he should ever have 
issue, but upon condition as it seems," for the King by his charter, dated at 
Newcastle on Tync, 28 Dec. 21 Edw. I. re-granted the same to him and to the 
heirs of his body, with remainder to Edmund Earl of Lancaster, the King's bro- 
ther, and to the heirs of his body, failing which to the King and his heirs. In 



HENRY DE LACY, EARL OF LINCOLN. 95 

almost the next paragraph, however, that eminent writer says, " that in the 22nd 
Edw. I. the Earl received a grant of several manors from the King, with remainder 
to Thomas, the son of Edmund Earl of Lancaster, and Alice his wife, sole daugh- 
ter of the Earl, and to the heirs of their two bodies lawfully begotten, and failing 
such issue, to the right heirs of the said Thomas," from which it would appear 
that at the time of the surrender by the Earl of Lincoln to the King, the said 
Alice was living ; and which is further confirmed by his saying in a subsequent 
page, that she was twenty-eight years of age at the death of her father in 1312, 
in which case she must have been above seven at the time in question. In the 
20th Edw. I. the Earl was sent as ambassador to the King of France to treat on 
the subject of the restraint of those pirates who robbed some French merchants ; 
and in the 22nd year of that monarch he again attended him into Wales, 
and was likewise in the expedition sent into Gascony. He accompanied the 
Earl of Lancaster in the 24 Edw. I. into Brittany, and was present at various 
successes of the English forces. On the death of that nobleman he suc- 
ceeded him in his command, and besieged the town of Aux with great vigour, 
though without success, and was forced to retreat to Bayonne ; from which place 
he marched with John de St. John towards Bellegard, which was then besieged 
by the Count d'Artois. The engagement which took place in the vicinity of that 
town, does not, from Dugdale's relation of it, appear to have added to the repu- 
tation of the Earl, as he informs us, upon the authority of Walsinghain, that 
" approaching a wood about three miles from Bellegard, he divided his army 
into two parts, whereof the van was led by John de St. John, and the rear by 
himself; but having past the wood where St. John, meeting the enemy, began 
the fight, discerning their strength, he retreated to Bayonne, leaving the rest to 
shift for themselves, so that St. John and many others were by reason thereof 
taken prisoners." Whatever stain this circumstance might have cast upon his 
military character, seems to have been partially removed towards the end of that 
year, by his having obliged the enemy to raise the siege which they had laid to St. 
Kathcrine's in Gascony ; soon after which he proceeded into Flanders, and thence 
returned to England. In the ensuing year, 27 Edw. I. he was summoned by 
writ, tested 17 Sept. 27 Edw. I. 1299, to be at York with horse and arms on the 
morrow of the feast of St. Martin, to serve against the Scots, and in the next 

c Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 112. 



96 HENRY DE LACY, EARL OF LINCOLN. 

year he is stated to have been sent to the Pope, with Sir Hugh Spencer, to com- 
plain of injuries received from the Scots ; and about the same time he was ap- 
pointed Lieutenant of Gascony. In the 29th Edw. I. he was made governor of 
Corfe Castle, from which year, until the 31st of Edw. I. when he was joined in 
commission with the Bishop of Winchester to treat of peace between England 
and France, Dugdale gives no account of him. 

It was, however, on the 24th June, in the 29th Edw. I. anno 1300, when the 
Earl must have been above fifty years of age, that he commanded the first 
division of the army which besieged Carlaverock Castle. The only charac- 
teristic trait recorded of him by the Poet, is that of valour, which we are told 
was the principal feeling that animated his heart, and in so rude an age this 
attribute was perhaps the highest and most gratifying praise that could be 
imagined. His name does not afterwards occur in that production, from which 
we may conclude that his services at the siege and assault were not very conspi- 
cuous. In 1305 the Earl was again employed on a mission to the Pope, being 
deputed with the Bishops of Lichfield and Worcester to attend the inauguration 
of the Pontiff" at Lyons, and to present him, in the name of the King, with se- 
veral vessels of pure gold. After having executed this command, it appears that 
he was once more in the wars in Gascony, and in the ensuing year was similarly 
employed in Scotland. Upon the death of the King, at Burgh in Cumberland, 
the Earl was one of the peers who attended him in his last moments, and received 
his solemn request to be faithful to his son, and not to allow Piers de Gaveston 
to return into England. Immediately after Edward's demise, he joined some 
Earls and Barons in a solemn engagement to defend the young King, his honour 
and authority ; and at his coronation he is recorded to have carried one of the 
swords borne at that ceremony ; d shortly after which he was appointed governor 
of Skipton Castle. His conduct seems to have secured the confidence of the 
new monarch, for upon his expedition towards Scotland in the 3rd and 4th years 
of his reign, the Earl of Lincoln was constituted Governor of the realm during 
his absence. 

The preceding account of this personage has been almost entirely taken from 
Sir William Dugdale's Baronage. The only facts which have been ascertained 
relating to him, not stated in that work, are, that he was one of the Main- 

d Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. part 1, p. 36. 



HENRY DE LACY, EARL OF LINCOLN. 97 

pernors for the Earl of Gloucester in 1292 ; that he was a Receiver and Trier of 
Petitions in 1304 ; that he was present in the parliament held at Carlisle in 
February, 35 Edw. I. 1307 ; and that he was one of the Peers appointed to regu- 
late the King's household in May, 3 Edw. II. 1309. 

His works of piety were proportionate to his extensive possessions, and, adopt- 
ing this criterion of his religious sentiments, we may conclude that he was not 
behind his contemporaries in superstition or devotion. Amongst his more sub- 
stantial gifts to the church was his large contribution to the " new work" at St.' 
Paul's cathedral in London ; f and three gilt crosses and a carbuncle, and a cup 
of silver gilt which was said to have belonged to St. Edmund, to the shrine of 
St. Edmund in the abbey of Salley. 

The Earl of Lincoln closed a long and active career, in 1312, at Lincoln's Inn,s 
in the suburbs of London, being then about sixty-three or sixty-four years of 
age, and he is reported to have called his son-in-law, the Earl of Lancaster, to 
him upon his death-bed, and after representing how highly " it had pleased God 
to honor and enrich him above others," he told him that " he was obliged to love 
and honor God above all things ;" and then added, " Seest thou the Church of 
England, heretofore honorable and free, enslaved by Romish oppressions, and the 
King's wicked exactions ? Scest thou the common people, impoverished by tri- 
butes and taxes, and from the condition of freemen reduced to servitude ? Seest 
thou the nobility, formerly venerable throughout Christendom, vilified by aliens 
in their own native country ? I therefore charge thee by the name of Christ to 
stand up like a man for the honor of God and his church, and the redemption of 
thy country, associating thyself to that valiant, noble, and prudent person, Guy 
Earl of Warwick, when it .shall be most proper to discourse of the public affairs of 
the- kingdom, who is so judicious in counsel and mature in judgment. Fear not 
thy opposers who shall contest against thce in the truth, and if thou pursuest 



e Rot. Parl. vol. I. pp. 75, 76, 159, 188, 443. f Dugd. St. Paul's, ed. 1818, p. 11. 

g This celebrated Inn of Court is recorded to have been the town residence of the Bishops of 
Chichester, from the reign of Henry the Third to that of Henry the Eighth. It seems, however, 
to have been for a short time possessed by the subject of this memoir, who, although the only Earl 
of Lincoln who resided there, left it the name which it has permanently retained during the five 
subsequent centuries. The arms of Lacy on the gate-house in Chancery-lane were erected by Sir 
Thomas Lovel, together with his own, in the year 1518. 

2c 



98 



HENRY DE LACY, EARL OF LINCOLN. 



this my advice, thou shalt gain eternal honor !" This patriotic speech, which is 
attributed to him by Walsingham, who wrote in the fifteenth century, is worthy 
of attention as conveying the view taken of the affairs of the period by a monk 
about one hundred years afterwards ; for it would require extraordinary credulity 
to consider that it was really uttered by the dying Earl, whose whole life does not 
appear to present a single action indicative of the sentiments there attributed to 
him. His body was buried in the eastern part of St. Paul's cathedral in London, 
between the chapel of our Lady and that of St. Dunstan. 

The Earl of Lincoln was twice married, first to Margaret de Longespee be- 
fore mentioned, by whom he had a son, Edmond de Lacy, who was drowned in 
a well in a high tower, called the Red Tower, in Denbigh Castle, in his father's 
life-time ; and a daughter, Alice, the. wife of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, who was 
his sole heiress, and at the Earl's death was twenty-eight years of age. His 
second wife was Joan, sister and heiress of William Baron Martin, who survived 
him, and was re-married to Nicholas Baron Audley. 

Alice, Countess of Lancaster, whose romantic life has been made the subject 
of a popular novel, styled herself, as sole inheritrix of the extensive possessions 
of her father and mother, Countess of Lincoln and Salisbury. She was thrice 
married; first, to the Earl of Lancaster; secondly, to Eubolo le Strange; and, 
thirdly, to Hugh le Frenes ; but died without issue on the Thursday next after 
the feast of St. Michael, 22 Edw. III. i. e. 2nd October, 1348, when the repre- 
sentation of the powerful house of Lacy became vested in the descendants 
of Maud, the sister of Henry Earl of Lincoln, who mar- 
ried Richard de Clare Earl of Gloucester. 




The arms of the Earl, on the authority of this Poem, and 
of a contemporary MS. in the British Museum, Cotton MSS. 
Caligula, A, xvij. as well as upon that of several of his seals, 
were, Or, a lion rampant Purpure. 



99 



ROBERT FITZ WALTER. 

[PAGE 5.] 

There is not one name in English history with which our political liberties 
are so intimately associated as with that of FITZ WALTER, from its having been 
borne by the illustrious individual to whom we are chiefly indebted for Magna 
Charta. Robert Fitz Walter, " Marshal of the army of God and the Holy 
Church," the inflexible leader of those Barons who extorted that palladium of 
the constitution of this country from King John, was the grandfather of the sub- 
ject of this memoir ; and although his deeds bear no comparison to those of his 
renowned ancestor, they were neither few nor unimportant. 

Robert Fitz Walter was born in 1248, and succeeded his father Walter Fitz 
Walter in the Barony in 1258, being then ten years of age ; and in 1274 he re- 
ceived the honour of knighthood. As Constable of Baynard's Castle, or, as it 
was then called, the Castle of London, to which office he succeeded by 
inheritance, he was banner-bearer of the city, and in time of war was to serve 
it by riding upon a light horse, with twenty men at arms, having their horses 
covered with cloth, into the great door of St. Paul's church, with the banner 
of his arms carried before him ; and having arrived there, he was to be met 
by the Mayor, together with the Sheriffs and Aldermen of London, when several 
cm-monies were to be performed, which are minutely detailed by the historians 
of London. 

He was present in the parliament which met at Westminster on the feast of 
St. Michael, 6 Edw. I. 1278, in which Alexander King of Scotland did homage to 
Edward ; f and in the 8th Edw. I. he married his second wife, Devorguil, one of 
the daughters and coheirs of John de Burgh, son of Hubert Earl of Kent, from 
which time until the 21st Edw. I. when he was appointed Governor of the castle 
of de la Bere in the county of Merioneth, nothing is recorded of him excepting 

f Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 224 a. 



100 ROBERT FJTZ WALTER. 

what relates to his lands. In 1292 he was a Mainpernor for the Earl of Glou- 
cester, s and in the 22nd and 23rd Edw. I. served in the retinue of the Earl of 
Lancaster in Gascony, and also in Scotland in the 25th of that monarch. He 
received a summons, tested at Berwick, 29th Dec. 28th Edw. I. 1299, to be at 
Carlisle with horse and arms on the feast of the nativity of St. John next ensuing, 
to serve against the Scots, in obedience to which writ he joined the King, and was 
present with the forces sent to besiege Carlaverock ; at which time he must have 
been fifty-two years old. Dugdalc states that in the 28th Edw. I. he served in 
Scotland in the retinue of the Earl of Lancaster, and in the next year in that of the 
Prince of Wales, but the Poet asserts that he was in the squadron led by the Earl 
of Lincoln. The merit which he attributes to him is that of expertness in the use 
of arms, an expression which we may consider as synonymous with the character 
of a good soldier in the most extensive meaning of the term. 

In February in the following year he became a party to the letter written at 
Lincoln by the Barons of England to the Pope, relative to his Holiness's claim to 
the sovereignty of Scotland, to which important document his seal is still at- 
tached. He was summoned to parliament from the 23rd June, 23rd Edw. I. 1295, 
to the 10th of October, 19th Edw. II. 1325, and was also summoned to serve 
against the Scots in the 34th and 35th Edw. I. and in the 4th, 6th, and 8th Edw. 
II. In 1304 he petitioned the King that a certain chapel, called a Jew's synagogue, 
might be granted to him ; h and in the same year he also prayed his Majesty to 
institute an inquiry relative to his debt to the Crown, and that, after an allowance 
was made for it out of the sum which was then due to him for his services in Gas- 
cony, the difference might be determined: 1 and a parliament having been ordered 
to meet at Carlisle in the octaves of St. Hilary, 35th Edw. I. 1306, it is recorded 
that " he would come with the Cardinal." k 

This Baron was twice married, first to Eleanor, daughter of Earl Ferrers, and 
secondly to Devorguil de Burgh ; and died about the 19th Edw. II. 1325, leaving, 
by his first wife, Robert, his son and heir; and, by his second, a daughter, 
Christiana, who became heiress to her mother, and married John Baron le 
Marshall. The barony of Fitz Walter continued vested in the male heirs of the 
said Robert until the reign of Henry VI. when it passed to the family of Ratcliffe, 
by marriage with the daughter and heiress of Walter Lord Fitz Walter, who 

e Rot. Part. vol. I. p. 76. h Ibid. p. 162. i Ibid. p. 169 a. k Ibid. p. 288. 





WILLIAM LE MARSHALL. 101 

died in 1432, and from them to that of Mildmay in 1 669, but 
fell into abeyance between the coheirs of Mary, the aunt of 
Benjamin Mildmay, Baron and Earl Fitz Walter, who died 
in 1756, s. P. 

The arms of Fitz Walter were, Or, a fess between two 
chevronels Gules. m 



WILLIAM LE MARSHALL. 

[PAGE 6.] 

William le Marshall was the son and heir of John le Marshall, a Baron in the 
reigns of Henry the Third and Edward the First, and was born in 1280, being 
three years old when he succeeded his father in the 12th Edw. I. 1283; about 
which time his wardship was granted to John de Bohun." 

Dugdalc's account of this Baron, who was lineally descended from the ances- 
tor of the Earls of Pembroke, though the latter assumed different arms, is ex- 
ceedingly imperfect ; as he merely states that he was in the wars of Scotland in 
the .'Uth Edw. I., that he was summoned to parliament from the 2nd to the 
7th Edw. II., and that he departed this life about that time ; and unfortunately 
there arc but few materials for giving a more enlarged memoir. 

The Poem informs us that he was present at the siege of Carlaverock, when 
he could not have been much above twenty years of age, and that he held some 
office of considerable importance in Ireland, though of what nature does not 
appear ; but there is little doubt that it referred to his situation of Hereditary 
Marshal of Ireland, which had been granted in fee, in 1207, to his great-great- 
grandfather by King John ; for upon his seal attached to the Barons' Letter to 
the Pope in 1301, are two batons, one on each side of his shield, a distinction 
which still belongs to the office of Marshal, but of the use of which this seal 
presents the earliest example. 

m P. 5. Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. and the seal attached to the Barons' Letter, a<> 1301. 
n Blomefield's Norfolk, ed. 1805, vol. I. p. l:H. 



102 WILLIAM LE MARSHALL. 

In February, in the 29th Edw. I. 1301, the Baron was a party to the Letter to 
the Pontiff, and though that circumstance is sufficient evidence of the consideration 
in which he was held, it is singular that he was never summoned to parliament 
until the accession of Edward the Second, the earliest writ addressed to him being 
tested on the 9th Jan. 2 Edw. II. 1309, and the last on the 26th Nov. 7 Edw. II. 
1313. No other fact connected with him appears to be recorded, excepting that 
he bore two gold spurs at the coronation of Edward the Second;" that in the 5th 
year of that monarch's reign he was involved in a personal quarrel with Nicholas 
de Segrave, which will be more particularly alluded to when speaking of that 
Baron ; that he was one of the Lords appointed in May, 1309, to regulate the 
King's household;? and that he died in the year 1314, leaving John le Mar- 
shall his son and heir, who was never summoned to parliament, and died in 
1316 without issue, when Hawyse his sister was found to be his heir, at that 
time wife of Robert Baron Morley, and fifteen years of age, whose descendants 
are consequently the representatives of this family. 

In the Letter to the Pope, William le Marshall is described as " Lord of 
Hengham," a manor in Norfolk, which, with other lands in that county, he in- 
herited from his father. 



The arms of Marshall have been uniformly painted, Gules, 
a bend lozengy Or, which agrees with the appearance of them 
upon his seal attached to the Barons' Letter ; but they are 
described in the Poem, as well as in the contemporary MS. 
so frequently cited, as Gules, a bend engrailed Or. It has 
been suggested that this discrepancy may be explained by 
the resemblance which a bend lozengy would present on a 
banner to a bend engrailed, that what is always considered 
a bend lozengy might in fact have been a bend engrailed, and, therefore, that 
the mistake has arisen from the imperfect manner in which the lines have been 
marked, i 




n Feeders, N. E. vol. II part I. p. 36. o Ibid. p. 140. P Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 443. 

q Archaeologia, vol. xxi. p. 214. 



103 



HUGH BARDOLF. 

[PAGE 6.] 

The particulars which have been preserved of this individual are exceedingly 
few and unsatisfactory. His ancestors had been possessed of baronial rank by 
tenure of the lordship of Bradwcll in Suffolk from the reign of Henry the Second 
and that of Wcrmegay in Norfolk was acquired by the marriage of his great 
grandfather, Doun Bardolf, with Beatrix, the daughter and heiress of William 
de Warren. Upon the death of his father, William de Bardolf, in 1290/ those 
lands devolved upon him, and from his being stated to have been forty years of 
age at the decease of his mother Julian, daughter and heiress of Hugh de 
Gourney, in the 23rd Edw. I. he was probably born about the year 1255. 

In June, 1294, Hugh dc Bardolf was summoned to attend a great council on 
the affairs of the realm, and afterwards accompanied the King into Gascony. He 
was taken prisoner by the French at the siege of Risunce, but his captivity ap- 
pears to have been of short duration, for in the 25th Edw. I. he was again 
in the King's service in Gascony, and in the 28th and 29th Edw. I. attended him 
in his expedition to Scotland, having been summoned to be present at Carlisle 
with horse and arms for that purpose on the feast of the nativity of St. John, in 
1300. The first attempt against the Scots was the siege of Carlaverock Castle, 
when Bardolf was present in the division led by the Earl of Lincoln, at which 
time he must have been nearly forty-five years of age. The Poem states that 
he made a handsome appearance, and describes him to have possessed some 
estimable qualities. 

He was summoned to parliament from the 6th February, 27th Edw. 1. 1299, to 
the 2nd June, 35 Edw. 1. 1302, and was a party to the Letter from the Barons of this 
country to the Pope in 1301, in which he is styled " Lord of Wirnicgeyc." He 
was again in the wars of Scotland in the 32d Edw. I. and in the same year he 
died. His wife was Isabel, daughter and heiress of Robert de Aquilon, who sur- 
vived him, and, in 1321, petitioned the King and his council relative to a law- 

r Esch. eod. ann. 



|Q4 PHILIP DE KYME. 

suit respecting some tenements in Emmesworth and Warbledon, of which she, 
her father, and grandfather, had been peaceably seized, under the charters of 
Henry III. and Edward I. s By her Lord Bardolf left issue Thomas, his son and 
heir, then twenty-two years of age, and William, a younger son. 

The Barony of Bardolf continued in the said Thomas and his male desccend- 
ants, until the reign of Henry IV. when it became forfeited by the attainder of 
Thomas, the last Baron, who left two daughters his coheirs ; Anne, who married 
first, Sir William Clifford, and secondly Sir Reginald Cob- 
ham ; and Joan, who became the wife of Sir William Philip, 
K. G. sometimes called Lord Bardolf. 



The arms of Bardolf, according to the Poem and the seal of 
this Baron, as well as the contemporary MS. Caligula, A. xvii. 
were Azure, three cinquefoils Or. 




PHILIP DE KYME. 

[PAGE 6.] 

Although the name of this Baron does not often appear in the records of 
public transactions of his time until about the 22nd Edw. I. his services subse- 
quent to that period were frequent and laborious, and the Fcedcra bears ample 
testimony to his zeal and activity. In that year he was summoned to attend the 
King at Portsmouth, with horse and arms, to accompany him into France, and 
from that time until his death there was scarcely an expedition in which he was 
not a companion, or any event connected with military service in which he was 
not present. It would therefore be tedious to enumerate the different occasions 
upon which he attended his sovereign in council or in the field, but it is pleasing 
to observe that his merits were ultimately appreciated, for Edward the Second, in 
the 10th year of his reign, in consideration of his great services in the wars in the 
time of King Edward the First, as well as to himself, granted him an immunity 
from future attendance ; and in the 12th Edw. II. he obtained a discharge for a 

Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 388 a. 



PHILIP DE KYME. 105 

debt of fifty pounds owing to the King's exchequer by a recognizance, which 
money had been borrowed in the time of Edward the First as a supply for the 
charge of his passage into Gascony. 

At the siege of Carlaverock he served in the squadron which was commanded 
by the Earl of Lincoln, and is said to have been highly estimated by his col- 
leagues. He was also a party to the Barons' letter to the Pope in 1301, and is 
stated to have been specially excused by the King from attending the parliament 
which met at Carlisle in the octaves of St. Hillary, 35 Edw. I. ;* but in the par- 
liament held at Westminster in the 9th Edw. II. he was appointed a Trier of 
Petitions," though he was not summoned thereto." Having been regularly sum- 
moned to parliament from the 23rd June, 23rd Edw. I. 1295, to the 26th Nov. 
7th Edw. II. 1313, he died in the 16th Edw. II. 1322, leaving by .... his wife, 
daughter of Hugh Bigot, to whom he had been a ward, William, his son and 
heir, then forty years old. 

There are no positive data for calculating the age of this Baron when he was 
at the siege of Carlaverock, but as he was a minor in 1258, and had a son born 
in 1282, it would appear that he was very young at the death of his brother, and 
hence that he was about forty-five at the period in question. 

William, the son and heir of Philip dc Kyme, was sum- 
moned to parliament from the 17th Edw. II. to the 9th Edw. 
III. and died without issue in 1338. Lucia, his sister and 
heiress, married Gilbert de Umfrevillc Earl of Angus. 

The arms of Kyme were, Gules, sem6e of cross crosslets, a 
chevron Or.? 




t Rot. PaH. vol. I. p. 188 a. Ibid. p. 350 b. * Appendix to the First Peerage Report. 
y Page 6. Cotton MSS. Caligula, A xvii. and the seal of Philip de Kyrae, ao 1301. 



106 



HENRY DE GREY. 

[PAGE 6.] 

This individual was born in the year 1254, and succeeded his father, John de 
Grey, in the lordship of Codnor in 1271, being then seventeen years of age. 
His life scarcely presents a single occurrence to distinguish it from that of his 
contemporaries of similar rank ; and it consequently does not afford any materials 
for biography beyond a few isolated facts, which are too remote, however, in 
their occurrence to be enlivened either by personal anecdote, or by historical or 
local description. 

Henry de Grey was in the royal army in Wales in the 10th of Edw. I. and had 
scutage from all his tenants in the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Kent, Essex, 
Leicester, Nottingham, and Derby, that held of him by military service. In the 
22nd Edw. I. he was summoned to a great council to be held on the affairs of 
the realm, and likewise in September following to attend the King in his expe- 
dition into Gascony, where he served in the 23rd and 25th of Edw. I. In the 
29th and 31st Edw. I. he was in the wars of Scotland, and in the retinue of the 
Prince of Wales ; and also in the 34th Edw. I., but he was then in the retinue 
of Aymer de Valence. The " Siege of Carlavcrock" states, however, that he 
attended his good Lord the Earl of Lincoln on that occasion ; when, it may be 
added, he was about forty-six years of age. 

In 1301 he was a party to the Letter from the Barons to the Pontiff, and in the 
1st Edw. II. he joined several Earls and Barons in declaring their resolution to 
adhere to the King with their lives and estates in defence of his crown and dig- 
nity, and upon the coronation of that monarch and his Queen, this Baron and his 
wife were specially summoned to attend the ceremony, by writ tested on the 8th 
Feb. 1308." He was summoned to parliament on the 6th Feb. and 10th April, 
27 Edw. I. 1299, on the 10th March, 1 Edw. II. 1308, and on the 6th Aug. 
2 Edw. II. 1308 ; and died in 1308. 

z Foedera, N. E. vol. II. part I. p. 131. 



ROBERT DE MONTALT. 107 

The name of his wife has not been ascertained, but he left issue two sons, 
Richard, the inheritor of the dignity, and Nicholas, to whom he gave the manor 
of Barton in Ilidale in Yorkshire. The Barony of Grey of 
Codnor continued for six generations in the male descendants 
of the said Henry de Grey, and fell into abeyance, on the 
death of Henry Lord Grey in 1496, between the three aunts 
of that nobleman, or their children. 



The arms of Grey of Codnor are, barry of six, Argent and 
Azure." 



ROBERT DE MONTALT. 

[PAGE 6.] 

Robert de Montalt, or Monhaut, whose name has afforded the writer of the 
preceding Poem such an admirable opportunity for that love of iteration, or 
rather of punning, which, in the fourteenth century, seems to have been deeim-d 
a peculiar beauty in poetical composition, was born about 1270, and succeeded 
his brother in his lands in 1297, being then twenty-seven years of age. 

Dugdale says that this Robert was in the expedition into Gascony in the 
same year that he inherited the property of his ancestors, that he was in the 
wars in the 2(>th, 29th, and 31st Edw. I. and again in the 1st, 4th, 7th, 8th, and 
10th, and in Gascony in the 19th, of Edw. II. 

He was present at the siege of Carlaverock in the squadron commanded by 
the Earl of Lincoln, but the description given of him in the Poem, though it 
merely implies that he was /ealous to distinguish himself, so evidently appears to 
have been suggested by his name, that perhaps no reliance can be placed upon it 
as evidence of his personal merits. 

a P. 6. Cotton MSS. Caligula, A xvii. and the seal of Henry de Grey, a 1301. 



108 ROBERT DE MONTALT. 

Lord Montalt was a party to the letter to Pope Boniface in 1301 , in which he 
is described as Lord of Hawardyn, and on the 22nd January, 1 Edw. II. he was 
summoned to attend at Dover to receive the King and Queen on their return 
from France, and to escort them to London. b In the 8th Edw. II. 1314, he 
petitioned the King to he allowed the lands of which his father Robert died 
seised in Enlowe, and which belonged to the castle of Hawardyn, in the county 
of Chester, and which, after the death of the said Robert, fell into the King's 
hands on account f the minority of Roger, his son and heir, the which lands and 
tenements Joan, the wife of the said Robert, held in dower ; that the said Roger 
had received two parts of the lands in question when he became of age, and 
likewise the third part on the death of the said Joan ; that Sir Reginald de 
Grey, then Justice of Chester, without award or judgment, had ousted the said 
Roger, who petitioned the King to be restored to them, but before it could be 
determined he died, in consequence of which, he, the petitioner, as brother and 
heir of Roger, had sued for them from time to time, and from parliament to 
parliament; but that by reason of the war in Scotland, and other affairs in 
which the King had been engaged, his suit had been delayed and impeded: he 
therefore prayed the King graciously to consider his right, and that he would 
remember that he had formerly promised him, when he was with his Majesty in 
his service in Scotland, that he would restore him his lands. In the same year 
Robert de Montalt prayed pourparty as one of the heirs of Hugh Daubeney, late 
Earl of Arundel, d to whom he was related in the following manner : 

William de Albini, 3rd Earl of Arundel.^=Isabel,'dau. of William Earl of Warren. 



_L 



William de Albini, 4th Earl of Hugh de Albini, 5th Earl of Cicely, 2d sister and=pRoger de 
Arundel, ob. 1233. s. p. Arundel, ob. 1243, s. p. coheir. j Montalt. 

John de Montalt, s. and h. ob. s. p. Robert de Montalt, brother and heir.=p 

, , . I 

Roger de Montalt, s. and h. ob. Robert de Montalt, the claimant as coheir of the Earl of 

1297, s. p. Arundel in 1314. 

and in 1320 he was one of the Mainpernors of Henry le Tyes, Constable of Caris- 
brook Castle, in a cause with Ralph de Gorges. 6 

Having no issue, in the 1 Edw. III. he settled all his manors and other landed 

b Fredera, N. E. vol. II. part I. p. 31. 

c Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 294 a. d Ibid. p. 325. < Ibid. p. 385. 



THOMAS DE MULTON. 



109 



possessions, failing issue male by Emma his wife, upon Isabel Queen of England 
for life, with remainder to John of Eltham, the King's brother, 
and his heirs for ever. He was summoned to parliament from 
6th Feb. 27 Edw. I. 1299, to the 13th June, 13 Edw. III. 
1329, and died in 1329 without issue male, when the barony 
became extinct. 

The arms of Montalt were, Azure, a lion rampant Argent. f 




THOMAS DE MULTON. 

[PAGE 8.] 

Thomas de Multon succeeeded his father Thomas in the lordship of Egremont 
in Cumberland in 1294, and on the 26th January, 25 Edw. I. 1297, he was sum- 
moned among other Barons of the realm to attend a parliament, or rather per- 
haps a great council, at Salisbury, on Monday the feast of St. Matthew next 
following. In the same year, and in the 26th, 28th, and 29th Edw. I. he was 
commanded to attend the King with horse and arms in his wars in Scotland, and 
it appears was at the siege of Carlaverock, at which time he must have been 
about thirty-seven years of age, as he was above thirty in the 2lst Edw. I. ;S but 
the Poet takes no other notice of him than to describe his banner. In 1301 he 
was a party to the Barons' Letter to the Pope, in which he is described as " Lord 
of Egrcmond," and in the 1st Edw. II. he was ordered to equip himself to assist 
John Baron of Wygeton and Richard le Brun in defence of the counties of Lan- 
caster, Cumberland, and Westmoreland, against Robert le Brus, and in the 4th 
and 8th years of that monarch he was again engaged in the Scottish wars. 

This Baron, jointly with Thomas de Lucy, petitioned the King in the 9th 
year of his reign to be allowed certain manors which had been held by Aveline 



f P. 8. Cotton MSS. Culigula, A. xvii. and the seal of the Baron, a 1301. 

2F 



K Esch. eod. ann. 



110 THOMAS DE MULTON. 

Countess of Albemarle, they being the coheirs of that personage, as is shewn by 
the following pedigree, which occurs on the rolls of parliament, 1 ' where the pro- 
ceedings on the question are recorded. 

William Fitz Duncan.^= Alicia, his wife. 



William, ,s. p. Alicia, s. p. 


r 
Amabilla. =p 
, i 


Cecilia. =p 

r ' 
Hawyse. =p 

i 


Richard. =p 


Reginald, s. p. 


William, s. p. 


r 
Alicia. =p 
I 


-i 
Amabilla. =p 

Thomas. =p 

1 ' 

THOMAS DE MULTON, 
the Claimant. 


Alicia, s. p. 


William. == 

William. =p 
i 


Thomas. =p 
I 


Thomas, ANTHONY DE 
s. p. LUCY, the 
Claimant. 


1. John, s. 
2. Thomas, 
3. W r illiam, 
4. Avicia, s 


p. 5. AVELINA, who 
s. p. died seised in the 
s. p. reign of Edward 
. p. the First. 



On the 25th May, 10th Edw. II. 1317, he entered into covenants with the 
King, that John dc Multon, his son and heir, should marry Joan, daughter of 
Piers de Gaveston, late Earl of Cornwall, provided the children on attaining a 
proper age should consent. The King gave ,^1000 for her portion, to be paid 
to Thomas de Multon in the following manner ; 500 marks in hand, 500 at the 
feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist next following, and 500 at the en- 
suing feast of St. Michael ; and it was agreed that the said Joan should receive 
400 marks per annum for her jointure. 1 

This transaction is deserving of more attention than at a first view it would 
appear to merit ; for, whilst it affords evidence that Edward's regard for his 
favourite did not die with him, it exhibits the virtues of that . young monarch's 
heart in a striking manner, by providing for the orphan child of the unfortunate 
object of his attachment. The marriage did not however, Dugdale informs us, 
take effect, though he docs not state from what cause ; hut as nothing more 
seems to be known of this lady, she probably died in her childhood. 

In the 14th Edw. II. Thomas de Multon was one of the Mainpernors of Henry 
le Tyes in his dispute with Ralph de Gorges ; J and having been summoned to 
parliament from the 6th February, 27 Edw. I. 1299, to the 15th May, 14 Edw. II. 

h Vol. I. p. 318-9. John de Multon, the son of this Baron, and Ade Lucy, also petitioned on 
the same subject in the 1st Kdw. III. Ibid. vol. II. p. 434. 

' Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 331. j Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 385. 

V 



JOHN DE LANCASTER. Ill 

1320, died in 1322, leaving Eleanor his wife surviving, and John, his son and 
heir, then a minor ; and three daughters, namely, Joan, who married Robert Fitz 
Walter ; Elizabeth, who was first the wife of Walter de Bermicham, and 
secondly of Robert de Harrington ; and Margaret, who married Thomas de 
Lucy, of Cockermouth. 

John dc Multon, the second Baron, on becoming of age, 
was summoned to parliament, and continued to receive simi- 
lar writs until his death, in 1334, without issue, when his 
sisters became his heirs. 



The arms of Multon of Egremond were, Argent, three 
bars Gules. k 



JOHN DE LANCASTER. 

[PAGE 8.] 

The surname of this individual is conjectured to have been derived from his 
ancestor having been governor of Lancaster castle in the reign of Henry the 
Second. Roger de Lancaster, his father, died in the 19th Edw. I. leaving him 
of full age ; and in the 22nd of Edw. I. he was summoned to attend the King 
with horse and arms into France. Dugdale's account of this Baron is so very 
short that it is here given verbatim : 

" In the 25th Edw. I. he was in that expedition then made into Scotland, 
being of the retinue of Brian Fitz Alan of Bedale in Yorkshire. In 34 Edw. I. 
he was again in the wars of Scotland. So likewise in 3, 4, and 8 Edw. II. More- 
over in 1 1 Edw. II. he was employed in guarding the marches of Scotland ; and 
having been summoned to parliament from [26 January] 25 Edw. I. [1296] 

k Page 8. Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. and the seal of Thomas de Multon in 1301. 



112 JOHN DE LANCASTER. 

until [22 Dec.] 3 Edw. II. [1309] inclusive, departed this life in 8 Edw. III. 
then seised (inter alia) of the manor of Rydale in Westmoreland, and of divers 
other lordships in that county, as also in the counties of Northumberland and 
Essex; leaving Richard, the son of Richard de Plaitz, his next heir, then twelve 
years of age." 

To this very little can be added. He was present at Carlaverock in 1300, and 
was a party to the Letter to the Pontiff in the following year, 1 in which he is 
styled " Lord of Grisdale ;" and in the 8th Edw. II. he was involved in a suit 
with John de Yeland. 1 " It appears also that in the 18th Edw. II. he was warden 
of certain forfeited lands in Lancashire ; that he had been forcibly disseised of 
some manors in that county in the early part of the reign of Edw. III.;" that about 
the same time he petitioned the King and his council, representing that he was 
one of his " Serjeants" in the counties of Chester and Flint for Mons 1 '. Richard 
Damory, late Justice of Chester, and had taken as his wages two robes and xl-s. 
for one year, but that three years wages, namely six robes and ,^vi., were then 
due to him, of which he prayed payment. 

Upon his death without issue, in 1334, his barony be- 
came extinct, and though Dugdale states that Richard de 
Plaitz was his heir, other authorities P affirm that his nephew, 
John de Lancaster, son of his brother William, was his next 
heir male. 




The arms of Lancaster were, Argent, two bars Gules ; 
on a quarter of the Second a lion passant guardant Or.i 



1 Appendix to the First Peerage Report. m Rot. Pad. vol. I. p. 344-. Ibid. p. 

n Ibid. vol. II. p 380. o Ibid p. 392. 

P Burn and Nicolson's History of Cumberland and Westmoreland, vol. I. p. 6*. 

q P. 8. Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. and the seal of the Baron a 1301. 



113 



WILLIAM LE VAVASOUR. 

[PAGE 8.] 

William le Vavasour, though the first individual of his name who obtained 
baronial honors, was descended from a family of scarcely inferior rank in 
Yorkshire. 

Like many of his colleagues in arms, his deeds are rather to be inferred from 
the frequency with which he was summoned to the field than from any express 
memorial of them ; and notwithstanding that the praise bestowed upon him by 
the poetical historian of the Siege of Carlaverock is of a negative description, it 
was doubtlessly intended to convey the highest eulogium upon his prowess. 

It is said that he succeeded his father John r le Vavasour, but in what year does 
not appear ; hence there is no positive information as to the time of his birth. 
In the 18th Edw. I. he obtained a license from the King to make a castle of his 
manor house of Heselwode in Yorkshire, and in the 22nd Edw. I. accompanied 
the expedition into Gascony. In the 27th, 29th, and 32nd Edw. I. and 4th 
Edw. II. he was in the wars in Scotland, and at the siege of Carlaverock he 
served in the squadron commanded by the Earl of Lincoln, when we are assured 
that in arms he was neither " deaf nor dumb." On the 6th April, 33 Edw. I. 
he was appointed one of the Judges of Trailbaston, 8 and is so described in the 
list of Peers who were summoned to attend a parliament at Lincoln in the octaves 
of St. Hillary, 33 Edw. I. 1 From the 6th Feb. 27 Edw. I. 1299, to the 7th Jan. 
6 Edw. II. 1313, he was regularly summoned to parliament, after which time 
nothing is known of him. 

He married Nichola, daughter of Sir Stephen le Walais, and by her had issue 
three sons, 1st, Sir Robert," who Kimber says was summoned to parliament in the 
7th Edw. II., though the writ, tested on the 26th July in that year, was ad- 



r Harl. MSS. 24k5. f. 132. containing Glover's Collections, but William in Kimber's Baronetage, 
s Feedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 970. t Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 188 b. " Harl. MSS. 2*5. 

2 G 



114 JOHN DE HODELSTON. 



dressed to Walter le Vavasour," and died s. p. M. leaving 
two daughters and coheirs, Elizabeth, wife to Sir Robert 
Strelley, and Anne ;? 2nd, Sir Henry, ancestor of the late 
Baronet of Haselwood ; and 3rd, William, from whom the 
Vavasours of Deneby in Yorkshire are descended. 2 

The arms of Vavasour are, Or, a fesse dauncette 
Sable." 



JOHN DE HODELSTON. 
[PAGE 10.] 

, \ 

For the little information which we possess relative to this individual, we are 
indebted to a recent work, b professedly treating of persons who in almost every 
other respect appear to have enjoyed the rank of a Baron of the realm in the 
reign of Edward the First, excepting that they are not recorded to have been 
summoned to parliament. 

John de Hodelston was the son and heir of the John de Hodelston, who, in 
the 35th Hen. III., obtained a charter for a market and fair at his lordship of 
Milburn in the county of Cumberland. In the 24th Edw. I. he was summoned to 
attend a great council at Newcastle upon Tyne, and on the 26th of September, 
26 Edw. I. was ordered to attend the King at Carlisle with horse and arms, in 
the record of which he is called a Baron. x From the preceding Poem it is 
manifest that he attended the Earl of Lincoln at the siege of Carlaverock, but 
no particular description is there given of his person or merits. He was a party 



Appendix to the First Peerage Report. y Harl. MSS. 245. 

Kimber's Baronetage, vol. I. p. 335. 

P. 8 ; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. ; and several drawings of seals in Harl. MSS. 245, passim. 
Banks' Stemmata Anglicana, under the division of" Barones Rejecti." 



ROBERT FITZ ROGER. 



115 




to the Letter from the Barons to Pope Boniface in 1301, in 
which he is styled " Lord of Ancys," which was in the lord- 
ship of Milburn before mentioned. In the 30th Edw. I. he 
obtained a license for a free warren in his demesnes at Mil- 
burn, and at Whittington and Holme in Lancashire, about 
which time he probably died, without issue. 

The arms of Hodelston were, Gules, fretty Argent. d 



ROBERT FITZ ROGER. 
[PAGE 10.] 

This Baron succeeded his father, Roger Fitz John, in his barony about Whit- 
suntide in 1 249, at which time he was very young. He was committed to the 
wardship of William de Valence, the King's uterine brother, notwithstanding 
that Ada de Baillol, his mother, offered one thousand two hundred marks to be 
allowed the custody of him, a circumstance which affords ample proof of the 
great extent of his possessions. 

Nothing further appears to be known of him until the 6th Edw. 1. 1277, when 
he entered into covenants with Robert de Tibetot, that John, his son and heir, 
should marry Hawise, the daughter of the said Robert, before the quindesme of 
St. Martin in the same year ; and that he would endow her upon her wedding 
day at the church door with lands to the value of ^100 per annum, her portion 
being 600 marks. In the 19th Edw. I. he obtained a grant of several markets 
and fairs in his different manors. In the 22nd Edw. I. he was summoned to 
attend the King into Gascony, and in the 24th, 25th, and 26th Edw. I. was or- 
dered to serve in the wars of Scotland. In the year last mentioned, he was pre- 
sent at the battle of Falkirk, being then in the retinue of Roger Bigot, Earl of 
Norfolk. 



P. 8 ; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. ; and the seal of the Baron in 1301. 



116 



ROBERT FITZ ROGER. 



By writ tested on the 30th Dec. 25 Edw. I. this Baron was commanded to 
attend the marriage of the Count of Holland with Elizabeth, the King's daughter, 
at Ipswich on Monday in the morrow of the Epiphany next following/ and 
in the 27th Edw. I. he was joined in a commission with other northern 
Barons to fortify the King's castles in Scotland, and also for the defence 
of the Marches, in consequence of which services he had respite for the 
payment of such debts as he owed to the King. In the 28th, 29th, and 34th 
Edw. I. he was also engaged in the Scottish war, and, to use Dugdale's own 
words, " This Robert likewise, and John his son (called John de Clavering by 
the appointment of King Edward the First), were at that notable siege of Kaer- 
laverock in Scotland ;" but though his name and arms are noticed by the Poet, 
no particular circumstance relating to him is stated. He was at that time about 
fifty years of age, and in the following year was a party to the Letter from the 
Barons to the Pope, in which he is styled " Lord of Clavering," but he does 
not appear to have affixed his seal to that important document.? 

Robert Fitz Roger was summoned to parliament from the 
2ndNoy. 23 Edw. I. 1295, to the 16th June, 4 Edw. II. 1311, 
about which year he died ; leaving, by his wife, Margery le 
Zouche, John his son and heir, then aged forty-four years, 
who will form the subject of the next article. 

The arms of Fitz Roger were, quarterly, Or and Gules, a 
bend Sable. h 




f Fcedera, N. E. vol. I. part ii. p. 850. 
'> P. 8; and Caligula, A. xvii. 



S Appendix to the First Peerage Report. 



117 



JOHN DE CLAVERING. 
[PAGE 10.] 

f 

The most remarkable circumstance connected with this individual was, that he 
and his brothers abandoned the mode by which their ancestors distinguished 
themselves, according to which they would have been called " Fitz Roger," and 
adopted the distinct surname of " Clavering," which was evidently derived from 
their father's principal lordship in Essex. This assumption Dugdale, upon the 
authority of some ancient rolls which belonged to Sir William le Neve, asserts 
was made by the appointment of the King. 

At the time of his father's death he was, as has just been stated, forty-four 
years of age, and had been summoned to parliament from the year 1299. In con- 
sideration of the services which he had rendered the King, he obtained a pardon in 
the 25th Edw. I. " for all his debts due unto the Exchequer, as also for the 
scutagc then due from himself." He was in Gascony in the 22nd, and in the 
wars of Scotland in the 26th, 28th, 31st, and 34th Edw. I. and in the 4th and 
6th Edw. II., and, as the Poet informs us, was present at the siege of Car- 
laverock, in the first squadron commanded by the Earl of Lincoln, being then 
about thirty-three years old. In the 6th Edw. II. he was taken prisoner at the 
battle of Strivelyn, or Stirling, but he was released very soon afterwards, for in 
the 8th Edw. II. he was excused from attending parliament, being ordered to 
serve with horse and arms against the Scots, 1 and in the 9th and 12th of Edw. II. 
he was again engaged in the wars of Scotland. He is recorded in the 8th Edw. 
II. to have held view of frank pledge in the manors of Thurgerton and Warton, k 
and to have been appointed, on the 19th January, 14 Edw. II. with several other 
peers, to treat for peace with Robert de Brus. 1 By writ tested on the 30th April 
in the same year, he was commanded to furnish his castle of Wcrk with men 
at arms, victuals, and all other necessaries for its defence against the Scots, m 



Fuedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 260. k Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 299 

1 Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 441. m Ibid. p. 627. 

2H 



JOHN DE CLAVERING. 

which castle, it appears from a petition of Henry Percy in 1331, he held for his 
life." In the 4th Edw. III. 1330, he exhibited a petition, complaining that John 
Payne of Dunwich, and others of that place, had carried away five ships, a boat, 
and goods and chattels belonging to him at Waldcrswyke to the value of <^?300, 
and that they had assaulted his men and servants, and beaten, wounded, and im- 
prisoned them, through which he had been deprived of their services for a long 
time, at a loss to him of ^1000, which " horrible trespass" he prayed that cer- 
tain justices might be appointed to hear and determine. It seems that John 
de Clavering was frequently involved in some dispute with the inhabitants of 
Dunwich, for in that year they petitioned parliament against his bill to establish 
a market at Blisburgh, which was not above two leagues from Dunwich, in 
prejudice of their franchise, and to the impoverishment of the said town.P He 
also petitioned the same parliament to be restored to the possession of certain 
manors, which were held of him by Robert Thorp, by knight's service.^ 

The active and useful life of this Baron then drew near its close. 
Towards the latter part of the reign of Edward the First, being without male 
issue, he conveyed the greater part of his lands to Stephen de Trafford, with the 
intention that he should reconvey some part of them to him for life, with re- 
mainder to that monarch and his heirs, and the other part to him and his wife 
Hawyse during their respective lives, in consideration of which grant the King 
settled several manors upon him for his life. 

He was summoned to parliament from the 10th April, 28 Edw. I. 1299, to 
the 20th November, 5 Edw. III. 1331; and died in the following year, aged 
about sixty-four, and was buried in the quire of the conventual church of 
Langley. By his wife Hawyse, daughter of Robert de Tibetot, to whom, as is 
stated in the account of his father, he was married in 1278, he left issue Eve, 
his daughter and heiress, who was born about the year 1305, and married, first, 
Thomas de Audley, who died s. p. 1 Edw. II. 1307 ; secondly, on the 9th March, 
1309, Ralph deUftbrd; and, thirdly, Robert Benhale, whose wife she was in 
1342. She died 43 Edw. III. 1369, and from the inquisitiones post mortem 
held on her decease, it would appear that she had no issue. 1 



" Rot. Parl. vol. III. p. 63 a. o Ibid. vol. II. p. 33. p Ibid. p. 44. q Ibid. p. 59. 

< Mr. Townsend's MS. Collections for Dugdale's Baronage. 




HUMPHREY DE BOHUN. 

The male line of Clavering still exists in the person of Sir 
Thomas John Clavering, Bart, who is said to be lineally 
descended from Sir Alan Clavering, a younger brother of the 
subject of this notice. 

The arms borne by this Baron in his father's life-time were, 
quarterly, Or and Gules, a bend Sable, with a label Vert;* 
but after his father's death he probably omitted the label. 



HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, 
EARL OF HEREFORD AND ESSEX, AND CONSTABLE OF ENGLAND. 

[PAGE 10.] 

By birth, titles, possessions, and alliance, this nobleman was perhaps the most 
distinguished of his age ; to which advantages he united, at the period when the 
Poet commemorates him, and which he particularly notices, that of youth, being 
then not more than twenty-five years of age. 

He succeeded his father Humphrey, Earl of Hereford and Essex, and Con- 
stable of England, in his honors in 1298, and being of full age, did homage and 
obtained livery of his lands. Excepting that he was included in the usual writs 
to parliament, and to attend the King in his wars, the first circumstance recorded 
of him, after his accession to his father's earldoms, was his presence at the siege 
of Carlaverock, on which occasion he executed his hereditary office of Constable, 
and when he is described as being " young, rich, and elegant." In the following 
year he was a party to the Letter from the Barons to the Pontiff; and in the 30th 
Edw. I. it was determined that he should marry Elizabeth Plantagcnet, widow of 
the Count of Holland, and seventh daughter of the King, for on the 4th August, 
1302, the Pope granted a dispensation for their union, they being related within 

* Page 8, and Caligula, A. xvii. 



120 HUMPHREY DE BOHUN. 

the third and fourth degrees of consanguinity. The grounds for this alliance, 
as stated in that document, were, that there had been great dissention between the 
King and the Earl's father, and that by the proposed marriage the peace and tran- 
quillity of the realm would be effected.* Soon after that event took place, the 
Earl surrendered his earldoms, together with his office of Constable of England, 
and all his lordships, into the King's hands, which were regranted to him and the 
heirs of his body lawfully begotten; failing which, after the death of himself and 
his wife, it was covenanted that certain lordships, with the Constablcship of Eng- 
land, should remain to the King and his heirs for ever, and that the manors 
therein mentioned should revert to his right heirs. 

In the 33rd Edw. I. the Earl of Hereford was appointed to treat on the affairs 
of Scotland," and in the ensuing year the King granted to him and his wife Eliza- 
beth, in tail, the whole territory of Annandale in Scotland ; but in the 35th 
Edw. I. he incurred the royal displeasure for having left the Scottish wars without 
license, and only obtained a pardon by the solicitations of the Queen, his 
mother-in-law. 

Upon the accession of Edward the Second, he joined several Earls and 
Barons in an agreement, dated at Bologne, 31st January, 1 Edw. II. 1308, to 
defend the King's person and the rights of his crown ; and by writ tested on the 
22nd of January in that year, the Countess his consort was commanded to attend 
at Dover to receive the King and Queen upon their return from France." At the 
coronation of that monarch the Earl of Hereford carried the sceptre which had a 
cross on the top ;? and in the next year he was in the expedition into Scotland, 
and was one of the peers who conspired with the Earl of Lancaster to destroy 
Piers de Gaveston. To Dugdale's account of the Earl from this time until the 
8th Edw. II. nothing can be added, and that eminent writer's words are therefore 
given verbatim : 

" In 3 Edw. II. he was the principal person sent by the King from York with 
a sufficient strength for guarding the Marches of Scotland ; and in 5 Edw. II. had 
restitution of the Constableship of England, which the King had for some rea- 
sons seized into his own hands. Furthermore in 6 Edw. II. he was the chief 
person in a commission to continue a treaty begun at Markgate, with Lodovick 

t Fcedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 941. u R o t. Parl. vol. I. p. 267 a. 

* Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 31. y Ibid. p. 36. 



HUMPHREY DE BOHUN. 121 

Earl of Evreux, the Bishop of Poitou, and others, concerning certain matters of 
great moment touching the King himself and some of the great noblemen of 
England, which treaty was to continue at London, but neither the commissioners 
nor their retinue were to lodge in the city. But after this, in 7 Edw. II., being 
in that fatal battle of Strivling in Scotland, and the English army routed, he was 
taken prisoner in the flight near to the castle of Botheville, yet had his liberty 
soon after by exchange for the wife of Robert de Brus, who had been long cap- 
tive in England. In 8 Edw. II. he was with the Earl of Lancaster and others of 
his party at the beheading of Piers Gaveston near Warwick. In 9 Edw. II. he 
was again in Scotland." 

At the parliament which met at Lancaster in the quindecim of St. Hillary, in 
the 8th Edw. II. 1315, he delivered the King's answer to the petition of the 
Bishops, 2 and was one of the Peers appointed in that year to regulate the King's 
household;* and in 1322 he was charged by Amice, widow of Sir Richard Fitz 
Simond, with champarty, in behalf of Simond, the son of Richard, valet to the 
Earl. b The other circumstances recorded of this personage arc not of much im- 
portance, excepting that he was in the wars of Scotland in the 12th and 13th 
Edw. II. ; that on the 19th Jan. 14 Edw. II. he was joined in a commission with 
several other peers to negotiate on the subject of a peace with Robert Bruce ; c 
and that in the same year the King having been informed that he was levying 
forces against Hugh le Spencer the younger, sent him a peremptory command 
to forbear. This he not only disobeyed, but joined the Earl of Lancaster in 
his rebellion, to whom he most faithfully adhered, and having forced the King 
to assent to their wishes, Hereford published the edict for the banishment of 
the Dcspencers in Westminster Hall. 

In the reverse of fortune which soon attended the Earl of Lancaster's party 
the Earl of Hereford lost his life. He was slain at the battle of Borough- 
bridge in Yorkshire on the 16th March, 1322, in the attempt to pass over 
the bridge, by a soldier who was beneath it running a lance through his 
body, and thus escaped the disgraceful fate which awaited his treasonable 
conduct. 

This powerful nobleman, who at the time of his death was scarcely above 

* Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 350. Ibid. p. 443. b Ibid. p. 398. 

c Feedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 441. 

2i 



122 



NICHOLAS DE SEGRAVE. 



forty-five years of age, was buried in the Friars Preachers at York. By the 
Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King Edward the First, he had issue six sons 
and four daughters ; Humphrey, who died young ; John, his son and heir, and 
the inheritor of his dignities ; Humphrey, who succeeded his brother in all his 
honors ; Edward, who obtained a grant of several lordships from Edward the 
Third in 1331 ; William, afterwards created Earl of Northampton ; and ^Eneas, 
of whom nothing is known. The daughters were, Margaret, who died young ; 
Eleanor, who married, first, James Boteler, Earl of Ormond, c 
and, secondly, Thomas Baron Dagworth, c and died in the 37th 
Edw. III. ; c Margaret, the wife of Hugh de Courtenay Earl 
of Devon ; and Isabel, who died in her childhood. 



The arms of Bohun Earls of Hereford were, Azure, a 
bend Argent, cotised Or, between six lions rampant of the 
Second. d 




NICHOLAS DE SEGRAVE. 

[PAGE 12.] 

The large space which is appropriated by the Poet to Nicholas de Segrave and 
his elder brother John, is not more than commensurate with that which they fill 
in the history of their times, and there are consequently ample materials for 
their biography : but a minute account of their actions would be little short of a 
chronicle of the greater part of the reigns in which they lived, for almost every 
thing like individual character is lost, and though we may know that they filled 
certain offices, or were present on particular occasions, none of those interesting 
facts are recorded which afford to personal history its greatest, if not its only, 
interest. 



Esch. 37 Edw. III. No. 24. d p. IQ. Caligula, A. xvii. and the Earl's seal, a<> 1301. 



NICHOLAS DE SEGRAVE. 123 

Nicholas de Segrave, the father of these Barons, died in the 23rd Edw. I., 
leaving, as the Poem truly states, five sons ; John, the eldest, who was then 
thirty-nine years of age, will he spoken of hereafter ; Simon, who for " diverse 
trespasses and offences" was in prison in the 35th Edw. I. ; Nicholas, the sub- 
ject of this article ; Henry, and Geoffrey, both of whom were living and of full 
age in the 35th Edw. I. e 

In the 22nd Edw. I. Nicholas de Segrave was in the King's service in Gas- 
cony ; and in the 26th and following years he was in the wars of Scotland, and 
was present at the battle of Falkirk. At the siege of Carlaverock, in June, 1300, 
he served in the squadron led by the Earl of Lincoln, at which time he must have 
been above thirty years of age, and when, we are informed, the qualities of his 
heart were only equalled by the beauty of his person. In the following year, 
by the description of " Lord of Stowe," he was a party to the Letter to the Pope, 
though his seal was not attached to that document ; and in the 33rd Edw. I. this 
Baron, whom Matthew of Westminster calls one of the most worthy knights in 
the realm, being accused by Sir John de Cromwell of treason, he, in accordance 
with the manners of the age, challenged his defamer to personal combat. This 
affair occupies several pages of the Rolls of Parliament/ but the brief narrative 
of the contemporary writer just cited, together with a few facts from those 
records, will afford a sufficient account of the transaction. Not being allowed 
to fight his accuser in England, Segrave quitted the realm without license to 
pursue him, and attempted to embark at Dover, but being prevented by Robert 
de Burghersh, the Constable of that Castle, he proceeded to another sea-port, 
from which he crossed the sea. His departure gave great offence to the King, 
and upon his return shortly afterwards, he was arrested at Dover, and brought to 
trial. He submitted himself to Edward's mercy, and whilst the Judges were 
deliberating upon his sentence he was committed to the Tower. " After three 
days consultation," according to the Chronicler, " the Judges declared that he de- 
served death, and that all his goods should be forfeited, yet that in consideration 
of his noble descent, and also because he did not go out of England from any 
offence to the King, but to be revenged on his adversary, they thought that his 
Majesty would do well to pardon him ; to whom the King answered, ' It is in 
my power to extend mercy as I please. Who hath ever submitted to my 

e Mr. Townsend's MS. Collections for Dugdale. f Vol. I. pp. 172 to 174. 



124 NICHOLAS DE SEGRAVE. 

clemency and suffered for it ? Let your sentence be recorded in writing and it 
shall stand for law.' Whereupon he was committed to prison for a terror to 
other offenders in the like kind, but after a few days, divers of the nobility 
interceding for him, and thirty of his peers also, girt with swords, offering to be 
bound body and goods that he should be forthcoming whensoever the King 
should require, he was set at liberty and restored to his possessions." The account 
on the Rolls of Parliament differs but slightly in effect from this narrative, for it 
states that the King, moved by pity, and preferring the life to the death of 
those who submitted to his mercy, granted him life and limb, and ordered him 
to find seven good sureties that he would surrender himself to prison at the 
King's commands, and give up all his goods whenever his Majesty should require 
them. In the 34th Edw. I. he was again summoned to attend the King, with 
horse and arms, against Robert Brus ; and after the accession of Edward the 
Second he advanced rapidly in honors, for in the 1st year of that monarch's reign 
he was appointed governor of the castle of Northampton, and on the 12th of 
March in the same year was constituted Marshal of England. 

That appointment gave offence to William le Marshall, who considered him- 
self possessed of an hereditary claim to the office, and the dispute between 
Segrave and himself was of so serious a description, and was to have been attended 
with so much violence, that four years afterwards the King was obliged to issue 
a precept to Segrave, dated on the 20th of July, 1312, in which, after stating that 
he had been informed of a quarrel between Marshall and himself, and that he 
intended to come to the next parliament with armed followers, he commanded 
him not to attend with weapons or in any other manner than had been usual in 
the time of King Edward the First, s 

This Baron was summoned to parliament from the 24th June, 23 Edw. I. 
1295, to the 25th May, 14 Edw. II. 1321, and died in 1322, leaving by Alice, 
daughter of Geoffrey de Armenters, who survived him, and married, secondly, 
Sir Gerard Lisle, 11 Maud, his daughter and heiress, then the wife of Edmund de 
Bohun, and thirty years of age. 

The arms of Nicholas de Segrave are not described in the Poem in a suffi- 
ciently explicit manner, and Glover's construction of that account of them 
seems slightly erroneous ; for, in the Cottonian MS. so frequently cited, they 

e Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 140. h Baker's History of Northamptonshire. 



NICHOLAS DE SEGRAVE. 



125 



are thus blazoned, " De Sable, a un lion ranip;mt de Argent, corone de Or, a 
un label de Goulcs." The fact mentioned in the Poem, of his father having 
relinquished the garbs and adopted the lion, is particularly curious, for it esta- 
blishes a point which hitherto only rested on conjecture ; and still more, because 
it shows the great accuracy of the Poet's statements. In some remarks on the 
seals attached to the Barons' Letter to the Pope, in the Archaeologia,' the fol- 
lowing passage occurs on the seal of John de Segrave, which is introduced here 
rather than in the account of that Baron, to prevent a recurrence to the subject. 
" The arms on the seal of John de Segrave, are a lion rampant, crowned ; and on 
each side of the shield is a garb. This circumstance requires attention, because 
Burton in his History of Leicestershire, in which he has been followed by a late 
writer, k states that the ancient arms of Segrave were, Sable, three garbs Argent, 
banded Gules ; but that they afterwards assumed, Sable, a lion rampant Argent, 
crowned Or. It is manifest from the seal of this Baron that Burton's statement 
was not entirely without foundation, though, unless by the words ' ancient arms' 
he meant anterior to the reign of Edward the First, it is certain that the arms of 
that family were what they afterwards bore, but that the garb was introduced on 
their seals, possibly as an ornament or device. From this and similar devices 
it is very likely that the subsequent usage of cognizances 
owed its source." The notice in the Roll of Carlaverock 
of the garbs and the lion is then alluded to; and it may 
now be added, that the placing charges on the exterior 
of the shield on seals approached much nearer to the sub- 
sequent system of quartering arms, and seems often to have 
been adopted from a similar principle, namely, of perpetuating 
a descent from the family of a maternal ancestor. 




i Vol. XXI. p. 211. 



Banks' Dormant and Extinct Peerage. 



126 



JOHN DE SEGRAVE. 
[PAGE 13.] 

As is stated in the preceding article, this eminent Baron, who for nearly half 
a century was constantly in his country's service, and occasionally filled the 
highest and most important stations, was the eldest son of Nicholas Baron 
Segrave ; and at his father's death in the 23rd Edw. I. was thirty-nine years of 
age. In the 54th Hen. III. he married Christian, daughter of Hugh de Plessets, 
Knight, and at the same time his sister Amabil became the wife of his brother- 
in-law, Sir John de Plessets. Soon after the accession of Edward the First he 
was engaged in the wars of Scotland, and in the 13th Edw. I. he attended the 
King in his expedition into Wales. In the 19th Edw. I. he was with his father 
in the Scottish wars, and in the 24th Edw. I. executed the office of Constable 
of the English army. 

Dugdale asserts that in the 25th Edw. I. John de Segrave was by indenture re- 
tained to serve Roger le Bigot, Earl of Norfolk, the Earl Marshal, with six Knights, 
including himself, as well in peace as war, for the term of his whole life, in Eng- 
land, Wales, and Scotland, with the following retinue : in time of peace with six 
horses, so long as the Earl should think fit, taking bouche of court for himself and 
six knights ; and for his esquires hay and oats, together with livery for six more 
horses, and wages for six grooms and their horses ; he was also to receive two 
robes for himself, as for a Banneret, yearly, as well in peace as in war, with the 
same robes for each of his five knights, and two robes annually for his other 
bachelors : in war he was bound to bring with him his five knights and twenty 
horses, in consideration of which he was to receive for himself and his company, 
with all the said horses, xls. per diem ; but if he should bring no more than six 
horses, then xxij s. per diem. It was further agreed that the horses should be 
valued, in order that proper allowance might be made in case any of them 
should happen to be lost in the service ; and for the performance of this agree- 
ment he had a grant from the Earl of the manor of Lodene in Norfolk. 

The preceding document has been cited nearly in Dugdale's own words, be- 
cause at the same time that it affords much information with respect to the retinue 



JOHN DE SEGRAVE. 127 

by which Segrave was attended to the field, it proves that he was intimately con- 
nected with the Earl Marshal, which tends to explain his having in the same 
year, namely on the 12th August, 25 Edw. I. 1297, been appointed by the Earl 
to appear in his name before the King, in obedience to a precept directed to him 
and the Constable, commanding them to attend him on the subject of a body of 
armed men which had assembled in London. The record states that on the 
appointed day the Earl of Hereford as Constable, and " Mons r John de Segrave, 
qui excusa le Comte Mareschal par maladie," came accordingly. 1 In the 25th 
Edw. I. this Baron was also summoned to accompany the King beyond the sea, 
and afterwards at Newcastle upon Tyne, with horse and arms ; and in the next 
year was present when the English army gained the victory of Falkirk. In the 
28th Edw. I. he was again summoned to serve in the wars of Scotland, in which 
year, when he must have been about forty-five years old, he was at the siege of 
Carlaverock. The account given of him by the Poet, that he performed the 
Earl Marshal's duties upon that occasion, because that nobleman was prevented 
from attending, is not only strongly corroborated by the preceding statement of 
his having acted as deputy of the Earl Marshal in the year 1297, but also by the 
following extract from Peter de Langloft's Chronicle, when speaking of the 
expedition into Scotland in 1300 : 

after JitdcjttmerV tide, rtjorgij comon ordinance, 
$0 lenger guld tljci bide, bot forti) and s'tanD to cfjanre, 
Borrei and Aurrete, tljat gertoire aufjt tlje fting, 
Ijorg and IjarnctiS at Carlele triad .Samnjing ; 
&lt .Biarjirballe iSogcrc no jjele tjjat tmne mot fjabe, 
Sje toent toit!) ty* banere /Sir 3!n fy* egrabe, 
o do alle rtje gertrice tijat longed dje office tilfe, 
End maimtend alle tty yri?t, tjjer {je jau!j latoe and 



After Carlaverock Castle surrendered, Segrave's banner, from his having acted 
as Marshal during the siege, was displayed on its battlements, together with those 
of the King, of St. Edward, and St. Edmund, of the Earl of Hereford as Con- 
stable, and of Robert de Clifford, apparently because he was appointed governor 
of it, a fact which will be more fully alluded to in the notes ; but, excepting an 

1 Foedera N. E. vol. I. p. 872. m p. 309. 



128 JOHN DE 'SEGRAVE. 

occasional notice that " the Marshal" had performed the usual duties incidental to 
that office, Segrave is not again spoken of in the Poem. In the 30th of Edw. I. 
he was a party to the Letter from the Barons to the Pope, in which he is styled 
"John Lord of Segrave ;" n and about that time was appointed Governor of Ber- 
wick, and Warden of Scotland. In the same year, whilst riding out of Berwick 
with a small escort, he was surprised by an ambuscade of the Scots, wounded, 
and taken prisoner ; which event is thus noticed by Langtoft : 



men in ^cotfano toitl) 

Che &egrabe might not tan&, &it 3on tofe tlje gap 
$i# onne anD hi brother of beDDe al thei toofce, 
3nD jSijrteene ftnpghtejJ other the cotteg alle them to&e. 

His captivity was however, it appears, of short duration, for on Edward's 
return to England, Segrave was left as his Lieutenant of Scotland. At different 
periods during the reign of Edward the First he obtained grants of free warren 
and other privileges in several of his manors, and possessed that elevated place 
in his sovereign's confidence and esteem which his long and zealous services 
so justly merited. Nor was he less distinguished by his successor, for soon 
after the accession of Edward the Second he was constituted Governor of 
Nottingham Castle, which had belonged to Piers de Gaveston, and was like- 
wise appointed to his situation of Justice of the Forests beyond the Trent, and 
Keeper of all the rolls thereto belonging ;P but he resigned these offices in the 
following year, when they were conferred upon Henry de Percy .1 In the 2nd 
Edw. II. he was again appointed Warden of Scotland ; in the 6th Edw. II. he 
was taken prisoner at the battle of Bannockburn, and about twelve months 
afterwards Thomas de Moram and several other Scots, then prisoners in the Tower 
of London, were delivered to Stephen de Segrave, son and heir of the Baron, to 
be exchanged for him. In the 8th Edw. II. commissioners were appointed to 
hear and determine all disputes relative to the taking up of carriages by him or 
his agent, in consequence of his offices of Keeper of the Forests beyond the 



n Appendix to the First Peerage Report. P. 319. 

P Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 116, 117, a<> 4* Edw. II. but Dugdale says he was appointed to these 
offices as early as the^r.rf Edw. II. 
q Ibid. p. 163. 



JOHN DE SEGRAVE. 129 

Trent, and of the Castles of Nottingham and Derby.' He was summoned upon 
several occasions to serve in the Scottish wars during the early part of the 
reign of Edw. II., and to parliament from the 26th Aug. 4 Edw. I. 1296, to the 
6th May, 18 Edw. II. 1325. In the 10th Edw. II. in recompense of his great 
services, and of his imprisonment in Scotland, he received a grant of ^1000, 
but what was then due to the crown for money received by him from the time 
of his appointment of Warden of the Forests beyond the Trent and Governor 
of Nottingham Castle, was to be deducted from that sum. 8 

The tide of royal favour at last turned, and he accidentally fell a victim 
to the displeasure of his sovereign. Having, in 1325, excited Edward's 
anger by the escape of Roger Lord Mortimer from the Tower, he sent Segrave 
and the Earl of Kent into Gascony, under the pretence of defending that pro- 
vince, where he was attacked with a disease then prevalent there, of which he 
shortly afterwards died, aged about seventy years, leaving John de Segrave, his 
grandson, son of his eldest son Stephen, who died in his life-time, his heir. 

The preceding unadorned narrative of John de Segrave's services forms a 
splendid monument of his fame : for, whilst the impossibility of colouring the 
biography of his contemporaries with meretricious ornaments of language is 
strongly felt when their actions are few or obscure, the absence of such assistance 
tends to the advantage of those who need no other eulogy than the simple record 
of the occasions upon which they were present in the field, or were selected to 
execute high and important duties. 

John de Segrave, the next Baron, added to the honors of his ancestors in an un- 
precedented manner, by marrying Margaret, the daughter and heiress of Thomas 
de Brotherton, Marshal of England, younger son of King Edward the First. 



r Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 325 a. 

s Dugdale appears to have fallen into an error with respect to this grant, for he says that the 
same sum, and with precisely the same object, was given to this Baron both in the 9th Edw. I. and 
10th Edw. II. which is not only unlikely, but is rendered still more improbable by his stating, upon 
the authority of Glover's Collections, that he was also Constable of Nottingham Castle and 
Warden of the Forests beyond the Trent in the 9th Edw. I. both of which offices, it is certain, were 
conferred upon Segrave after the disgrace of Piers de Gaveston. The mistake probably arose from 
the accidental insertion of 9 Edw. I. for 9 Edw. II. and under this impression all which is said 
by that eminent writer to have taken place on the subject in the former, is asserted in the text to 
have occurred in the latter, of those years. 

2L 



130 JOHN EARL WARREN. 




Through the marriage of Elizabeth, their daughter and heir- 
ess, with John Lord Mowbray, that family attained the Mar- 
shalship of England. The present representatives of John 
Baron Segrave, the subject of this article, are the Lords 
Stourton and Petre, and the Earl of Berkeley. 

The arms of John de Segrave were, Sable, a lion rampant 
Argent, crowned Or. 1 



JOHN EARL WARREN. 

[PAGE 14.] 

To do justice to the services of this powerful nobleman and distinguished 
soldier, would require a volume instead of the short space which can be allowed 
to each of the individuals mentioned in the Poem ; and consequently only the 
most important events in his long career can be noticed." 

John Earl of Warren and Surrey, was the son of William Earl of Warren and 
Surrey, by his second wife, Maud, widow of Hugh Bigot, Earl of Norfolk, and 
sister and coheiress of Anselm Marshal, Earl of Pembroke. In 1240, being then 
five years of age, v he succeeded his father in his dignities; in 1247 he married 
Alice, daughter of Hugh le Brun, Count of March, and uterine sister of King 
Henry the Third ; and in the following year, though he could not have been 
above thirteen years of age, he is said to have attended the parliament which 
met at London in the octaves of the Purification. During the reign of Henry 
the Third he is stated to have filled those stations which from his high rank 
naturally devolved upon him, and at the battle of Lewes he served in the van of 
the royal army with Prince Edward ; but, together with the Earl of Pembroke, 

* P. 10; Caligula, A. xvii; and the seal of this Baron, a<> 1301. See the preceding article. 

u A memoir of greater length will be found in Horsfield's Hist, of Lewes,_4to. 1824, pp. 126-132. 

v Watson's History of the Earls of Warren and Surrey. 



JOHN EARL WARREN. 



disgracefully deserted him at the commencement of the action, and fled first to 
Pevcnsey Castle, and from thence to France. Their flight is thus quaintly alluded 
to by Peter de Langtoft : x 



irle o BDarenne, 3 tootc, Ije capcD otocr tljc .s'c, 
2no &ir tjugj) 23igote al$ toitf) tbe <3rle flea fa. 



In May following he returned, and claimed the restitution of his possessions, 
which, notwithstanding his treachery to the Prince, the rebellious Barons had 
declared to have been forfeited. The refusal of his demand induced him once 
more to change sides, and he confederated with the Earl of Gloucester for the 
restoration of the King's power, and was present with the royal forces at the battle 
of Evcsham. Thus his interest rather than his honor seems to have been his sole 
rule of action, and unfortunately such conduct was then far too general to entail 
upon those who adopted it either punishment or reproach. In 1268 he had a 
dispute with Henry Earl of Lincoln, which has been already noticed in the 
account of that personage, and about the same time became involved in a 
serious affray with Alan Lord Zouchc relative to some lands. This affair was 
attended with great violence, for, finding that he must submit to the judgment 
of a court of law, he abused his adversary and his son in the strongest terms, 
and then assaulted them in such an outrageous manner in Westminster Hall, that 
he nearly killed the Baron, and severely wounded his son. Neither his power 
nor influence could save the Earl from the vengeance of the laws he had so fla- 
grantly violated, and, though he retired to his castle at Ryegate, he was closely 
pursued by Prince Edward with a strong force, and finding that opposition would 
be useless, he met the Prince on foot, and implored the royal clemency with 
great humility. For his offence he was fined ten thousand marks ; but this sum 
was afterwards reduced to eight thousand four hundred, and he was permitted 
to pay it by annual instalments of two hundred marks each. Of this transaction 
Robert of Gloucester' gives the following curious account, but he erroneously 
states that it occurred in 1270, and that Lord le Zouche was slain by the Earl : 

&utljt!be tjjsr toag at 3lonDone a lute Distance, it]) tocne, 
"Jn per of race tutlf })un&rcD anD ?ij:ti anD tent, 

* Vol. I. p. 218. > Ed. Hearne, p. 570. 



132 JOHN EARL WARREN. 

&o tijat tije <rl o JDaretnc islou attc terete touclje, 
2?itoore tfje ^tijiti^c^ atte bendje, Sir aiein tie la 
&tng toa tijer of anuio toor tlje grete toou 
<2rle ijaDDc gret Ijelp tljat fyt o capcDe toel inou 
rtje &onenoai aEter Hamate bibore dje liing Jje com 
at IDindje^tre, as! him toa iet, to atontje i^ Dom, 
n liitae anD tuenti fenijjljte^ tfcun o ^uorc ti]ct 
e ne Du&e it bor non buel nc malice fais'pete cr, 
j^e in no De^pit o tlje fting ; and tor 
I?e pef tfie fting tuelf IjunDrea marc, anD ip 



Immediately after the solemnization of the funeral of Henry the Third at 
Westminster., the Earl of Warren and the Earl of Gloucester proceeded to the 
high altar, and swore fealty to his son and successor King Edward the First. 
In the 3rd Edw I. he received that monarch at his castle of Ryegate in so 
honorable a manner upon his return from Gascony, that Edward was induced 
to remit him one thousand marks of the sum which he had been fined for the 
affair with Lord le Zouche. 

The next circumstance recorded of the Earl is one in which that proud and 
sturdy spirit for which he was celebrated, was displayed in a manner so con- 
sonant to the feelings of the present day, that this nobleman has always been 
a favourite character in English biography, and the pencil was on one occasion 
successfully employed to perpetuate his independent conduct. After the enact- 
ment of the statute of quo warranto, the Earl of Warren was, under its provisions, 
questioned by what title he held his lands ; to which inquiry, first unsheathing 
an old sword, he is said to have replied, " Behold, my Lords, here is my war- 
ranty ; my ancestors coming into this land with William the Bastard did obtain 
their lands by the sword, and with the sword I am resolved to defend them 
against whomsoever that shall endeavour to dispossess me. For that King did 
not himself conquer the land and subdue it, but our progenitors were sharers and 
assistants therein." 

In the 23rd Edw. I. the castle of Bamburgh was entrusted to his custody, and 
in the 24th Edw. I. he commanded the forces sent to reduce Dunbar Castle, 
which, after a siege of three days, surrendered to him ; and having met the 
Scotch army which came to its relief, he defeated them on Friday, the 27th 



JOHN DE WARREN. 133 

April, and pursued them several miles from the field of battle, when the eneim 
sustained a loss of above 10,000 men. z Soon after this event the Earl was ap- 
pointed Regent of Scotland, and in the following year was constituted General of 
all the English forces north of the Trent. But his previous good fortune now 
deserted him, and his army sustained a signal overthrow at the battle of Stir- 
ling, in September, 1297. Of that event one of the Chroniclers before cited 
gives the following account : 



of JBarenne t 

fye IDaletg gan brenne, an o?te fcc gaDreD goDe, 
iln& toent to ;f>trrt)eljine agajm IDaleig IBilliam, 
25ot tbe <rle toitb mph.lle ppne Otfconfite atoap nam. 
3nD tbat toa btf folie, go long in bte heD gan Iigge, 
ftntil t\)t JDalti.s partie bad umbilaio tjbe brigge. 
IDitl] gatcloftc^ anD Darte.d jJuilh ore toajS non jSene, 
no man t^am Ocparte, ne riDe ne go bituene. 
fir^t t!)am tauJjt, Jboto tljei oiD faioc hirfie. 
gate tbe brigge Ije raui)t, of nou|)t our men toere irfie. 

fyt erte jjerb gap, tlje brigge Ijoto IDiIliam tofte, 
in* OouteD to Die tjjat bap, tljat faataile |)C for.sohc. 
5(ng[ig toere alle jSlapn, tl)e /t>rotti^ bar tjjem toele, 
IDalci.ti ba& tfje toajin, at^ maijStere of tljat egdjele. 
3t tJjrst ilh .stoiirc toa.s glann on our side 
ODD men of Ijonour tij.u inaio to tijc bataile biDe. a 

His misfortune did not however lessen him in Edward's esteem, for he was im- 
mediately afterwards re-appointed to the command of the English forces, and in 
the 28th Edw. I. was made Governor of Hope Castle in the county of Derby. 
In that year also he commanded the second squadron at the siege of Carlaverock, 
at which time he must have been about sixty-five years of age, but the Poet 
merely says of him that he was well suited to be the leader of honorable men. 
In the 29th Edw. I. the Earl was appointed, jointly with the Earl of Warwick 



* MS. printed in the Archaeologia, vol. XXI. p. 49- 
a Peter of Langtoft, ed. Ilearne, vol. II. p. 297. 

2M 



134 JOHN EARL WARREN. 

and others, to treat with the agents of the King of France relative to a peace 
between England and Scotland ; and in the same year he was a party to the 
Letter from the Barons to Pope Boniface VIII., in which he is only styled 
" Comes Warennc," though on his seal he is also properly called Earl of Surrey. b 
On the 5th calends of October, 32 Edw. I. i. e. 27 September, 1304, being then, 
according to Peter de Langtoft, employed in Scotland, he died. 



monetti of September poloen toasi 

map remembre the tratoaille anD tlje ppn. 
manp grcte encumbre of in tiacD toure 
at 2jrutwicfe opon ^umbre tfjere tie ma& ^ojoure. 
&ir Sinn of HDarenne that ilft tpme 0an oeie, 
^i^ bobp toa^ re&p tfjen in grabe for to Icie. 
after tlje entennent tlje fting toh Jji# toap, 
Co the ^>outh, qtc. 

But according to the registry of the Priory of Lewes, the Earl died on that day 
at Kennington, having, says Dugdale, been Earl of Surrey no less than fifty-four 
years, though, as he succeeded his father in 1240, it is evident that he must have 
borne that title sixty-four years. He was buried in the midst of the pavement 
in the quire of the abbey of Lewes before the high altar, and the following epi- 
taph was engraved upon his tomb : 



qe pa&se? ob boucbe clos'e 

pur celp fee cp repose : 
jn irie come ijou et$ ja&ijS fu, 
t bong tiel ferret? come je u. 



3Johan Count Oe <5arcpn gn^t gen, 
ieu De a alme eit mercp : 
ftp pur ja aime pricra, 
5L'roi? milt jouc^ Oe par&on abcra. 



b See some remarks upon the titles and surname of this Earl in the Archaeologia, vol. XXI. 
pp. 195, 196. c p. 327. 



JOHN EARL WARREN 135 

Of the subject of this article, but little that is favorable to his memory can be 
said ; though his faults, or more properly his vices, were those of the age in 
which he lived. His treachery at the battle of Lewes has, to apply the beautiful 
expression of a distinguished statesman of the present day, " left indelible stains 
upon his character which all the laurels of" Dunbar " cannot cover, nor its 
blood wash away ;" whilst his subsequent conduct was invariably marked by a 
turbulent and intractable spirit. Not only was he frequently embroiled in dis- 
putes both with his compeers and his sovereign, but, with almost unparalleled 
hardihood, he dared in a court of justice to use personal violence towards a 
baron of the realm. That he should acquire renown in the field, and conse- 
quently become possessed of the King's esteem, is perfectly consistent with that 
impetuous temper for which he is celebrated. Bravery is, however, but one 
redeeming trait in a picture where all besides is dark and repulsive ; and even 
the bold answer relative to his right to his lands, when properly considered, affords 
no room for praise, for the same resolute opposition to such an inquiry, would, 
there is no doubt, have been as readily evinced to defend any part of his property, 
if it had been acquired by the most flagrant injustice on his part, instead of on 
that of his ancestors. 

A proof of the estimation in which the Earl was held by Edward the First is 
afforded, in Dugdale's opinion, by the fact that the King issued precepts directed 
to the Bishops of Canterbury and London, and to several Abbots, commanding 
them to cause masses to be said for his soul ; but this testimony of the royal 
consideration might have arisen from the near connection between the Earl and 
his Majesty, as is shown by the annexed table : 

King John.^=Isabel, daughter and heiress of Aymer==-Hugh le Brun, Count of 
Count of Angoulesme. March, 2nd husband. 

King Henry III. = Alice.zpJohn Earl of Warren. 

r ' -f 

King Edward I. 

"P 

By the said Alice le Brun, who died on the 9th Feb. 1291, the Earl of Warren 
had issue, William, who died in his father's life-time, leaving his wife enceint with 



136 



HENRY DE PERCY. 



John, his son and heir, who succeeded his grandfather in 
his honors ; Alianor, who married, first, Henry Lord Percy, 
by whom she had Henry Lord Percy, spoken of in the Poem 
as the Earl's " nevou," and, secondly, the son of a Scotch 
Baron ; and Isabel, wife of John Balliol, King of Scotland. 

The arms of Warren were, cheeky Or and Azure. d 



HENRY DE PERCY. 

[PAGE 14.] 

If the biographer of an ancient warrior is in any degree influenced by that en- 
thusiasm which deeds of chivalrous courage are calculated to excite, it is only by 
more than ordinary restraint upon his feelings that he is enabled to relate them 
in the sober and chastened language suitable to historical truth ; and perhaps in 
no instance is that caution so necessary as when any member of the house of 
Percy is the subject of his pen. In the age to which Henry de Percy belonged, 
as well as in a few succeeding centuries, that name was synonymous with almost 
uncontrolable power, impetuous valour, and all those stern military virtues which 
characterized the time ; and the difficulty of successfully detailing the career of 
an individual is considerably increased, when, as in the case of this Baron, the 
merits of his descendants have been sung, not only by rude contemporary bards, 
but have been immortalized by the greatest dramatic genius that ever existed. 

Henry de Percy was the third son of Henry Lord Percy, by Eleanor, daughter 
of John Earl Warren and Earl of Surrey, and succeeded to the barony upon the 
death of his brother John de Percy, who died under age soon after the year 
1272, at which time he appears to have been very young. The first circumstance 



<1 Page 14 ; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii ; and the seals of this Earl. 



HENRY DE PERCY. 137 

recorded of him is, that, in the loth Edw. I., being then in ward, on the 
King's expedition into Wales, he was acquitted of ,^120 required from him 
for scutage. In the 22nd Edw. I. 1294, he made proof of his age, obtained 
livery of his lands, and was summoned to attend the King into Gascony ; and in 
March, 1296, having accompanied Edward in his invasion of Scotland, he received 
the honor of knighthood before Berwick. He was present at the battle of 
Dunbar, and was soon afterwards appointed Governor of Galloway and Aire in 
Scotland; and in 1297, being with Robert Lord Clifford, commander for the 
King of England in the eastern parts of Scotland, they were appointed to receive 
Margery, daughter of Robert Brus Earl of Carrick, as an hostage for his fidelity 
to Edward. About the same time he was sent by the Earl Warren, then General 
of all the English army beyond the Trent, with the forces at Carlisle into Scot- 
land, and having entered Annandalc with 300 men at arms and 40,000 foot 
about the 10th of August, he proceeded to Aire, where he endeavoured to per- 
suade the inhabitants of Galloway to submit. Finding that a party of Scots 
were on their route to oppose him he marched towards them, but from the infe- 
riority of their numbers they surrendered upon condition of being pardoned. It 
would exceed the prescribed limits of these sketches to follow the biographers 
of this Baron in the minute details which they have recorded of his military 
career ; and it will therefore only be remarked that he was constantly engaged in 
the King's wars, and appears to have enjoyed his sovereign's fullest confidence 
and esteem, whilst the annexed brief summary of his services, from Dugdale and 
Collins' account of him, will amply shew their nature and extent. 

In the 26th Edw. I. Lord Percy was again in the wars of Scotland, in which 
year he obtained a grant of the lands forfeited by Ingelram de Umfreville ; and 
in the following year was present at the siege of Carlaverock, a fact unnoticed by 
either of the writers just mentioned, when he must have been about forty-two years 
of age. The Poet alludes to his determined hostility .against the Scots, which 
feeling appears to have been inherited by his descendants, and describes him as the 
" nevou" of the Earl Warren, which, like the word " nepos," seems to have been 
used for grandson as well as nephew, he being the son of Eleanor, the daughter 
of that nobleman. In February, 28 Edw. I. 1301, he was a party to the Letter 
from the Barons to Pope Boniface, wherein he is styled " Lord of Topclive," and 
in the 34th Edw. I. was again sent into Scotland to oppose Robert Bruce, 

2N 



HENRY DE PERCY. 

against whom he valiantly defended Kenteir. In the 35th Edw. I. he was a party 
to the treaty of peace with Scotland. 6 

On the accession of Edward the Second, he was, in common with the other 
peers of the realm, summoned to attend that monarch's coronation, and in the 
3rd Edw. II. he purchased the celebrated Castle of Alnwick, which is now pos- 
sessed by his representative the Duke of Northumberland. In the 5th Edw. II. 
he succeeded John de Segrave as Constable of Nottingham Castle and Justice of 
the Forests beyond the Trent/ and about the same period was constituted Go- 
nernor of Scarborough and Bamburgh Castles. From a writ tested on the 14th 
September, 1309, it appears that he was then Constable of the Castle of York, 
and in that and the preceding years he was again in the wars of Scotland. 

Lord Percy distinguished himself by his enmity to Piers de Gaveston, and it 
is perhaps just to consider that his hostility arose from patriotic motives ; but 
there is a suspicion attached to his behaviour towards the unhappy favorite, which 
the biassed historian of the house of Percy has rather increased than lessened by 
his laboured attempt to remove. It appears that Gaveston was besieged in 
Scarborough Castle by the Earl of Pembroke, that he surrendered upon con- 
dition that his life and person should be secured, and that both the Earl and 
Percy solemnly pledged themselves to that effect. Through a false reliance 
however on the Earl's honor, by Percy, as Collins relates it, the promise was 
speedily broken, and Gaveston perished on the scaffold at Warwick Castle. 
This is a version of the tale which so partial a biographer as that writer uni- 
formly shews himself e would naturally give ; but, although the impossibility of 

e Feedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 212. f Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 163. 

S The servile praise bestowed by Collins upon every individual of whom he speaks, called down 
the following censure from Mr. Burke, which, however well-merited in that particular instance, 
was ill applied to the College of Heralds of his time, and happily would be far less appropriate to 
those of the present day. " These historians, recorders, and blazoners of virtues and arms, differ 
wholly from that other description of historians who never assign any act of politicians to a good 
motive. These gentle historians, on the contrary, dip their pens in nothing but the milk of human 
kindness. They seek no further for merit than the preamble of a patent, or the inscription on a 
tomb. With them, every man created a peer is first a hero ready made. They judge of every 
man's capacity for office by the offices he has filled, and the more offices the more ability. Every 
general officer with them is a Marlborough, every statesman a Burleigh, every judge a Murray or 
a Yorke. They who, alive, were laughed at or pitied by all their acquaintance, make as good a 
figure as the best of them in the pages of Guillim, Edmondson, and Collins." 



HENRY DE PERCY. 139 

ascertaining the real merits of the case render it unjust to pass a positive 
censure upon Percy's conduct, it is at least equally unfair to conclude that the 
whole shame of the transaction belongs to his colleague, and that his only error 
arose from a misplaced confidence. Certain, however, it is, that the King con- 
sidered him guilty of Gaveston's death, for he issued special precepts, tested 
on the 30th and 31st July, 1312, for his apprehension, and for the seizure of 
all his lands, tenements, and chattels. Towards the end of that year, however, 
Percy was included in the treaty between the King and the Barons, and on 
making his submission his offence was pardoned and his lands restored to him. 
The acquittance of the King to Thomas Earl of Lancaster, Guy Earl of War- 
wick, Robert dc Clifford, and this Baron, of the jewels and horses that belonged 
to Gaveston, dated on the 6th February, 1313, 6 Edw. II. by which he acknow- 
ledges to have received from them the articles therein-mentioned, by the hands 
of Humphrey Earl of Hereford, is still preserved. The document is highly 
curious ; and, with the hope of relieving the dulness of this memoir, the fol- 
lowing interesting extracts from it are introduced : 

Un and o'or, ob un tfaphir, icqucl scint ungtan forga be sea 1 mamis 1 . 

line bai.stc b'argent en b'orte? put porter emi? un anel entout Ic col be un ijomme. 

line grant rubi ijorrf b'or, que fust trobe s'ur s'ire picr.sf be Oatoa.a'ton quant i( fust pns ; 
le pns" be millr litotes?. 

Crois gran? ruins" en aneaur, une amttaube, un biamaunb be grant pri0, en une boitfte 
b'argent cnamille, que fust trotoe s'ur le bit pierres quant il fust pns. 

;Dcur scaur un grant e un petit ; e un petit seal une diet' pcnbaunte, un evening plte, et 
un ralccboiinc ; les qucur futent trotoe? en la burs'c quant il fuit pns. 

n un cofre, lie be feet, une mirour b' argent enamaille ; un pignc ; un pnhet, que fust 
bone au ftoi pat (a Ounrcssc be 2?ar a Oant. 

11 n coronal b'oc ob ottoers'c pene, pns be cent mars. 

Un cijapelet b'argent garni?' be bitoer.s'e pcne, pns' be oo?e sout?. 

<cn un autre cofre, un grant pot b'argcnt oa troi.^ pci? pur cfjaufet eatoe, que poi^e ^i^ 
I'Aires ciunnc sout? Sis' bcncrs'. 

toi.^ plated b'argcnt por eiSpecicric, c potent quatte litore^. 

5Dcu>: plated b'argent pur fruit, be^ armetf be roj? b'Cngleterre, que potent ?'e.^ant bi.S oit 

j, quatrc bencrg. 

line bur^e be brap b'or otoe bcur pierrc.^ be 3erlm' bcben?. 



140 HENRY DE PERCY. 

mn mots* b'argent ob quatre botong b'orre?, ob beu): liong pur cibaq'e tie cuir. 
Jttn beil jSeal entaille, e un pere be Calceboine. 
Cro# furcftegceg b'argent pur mangier poireg. 
Mne ceinture be fil be argent falanfe. 

rfjapelet be gang, prig be gig gou? oit bcnerg. 

garnement? beg armeg le bit $iereg, otoeft leg atetteg garni? et frette? be 
n un ^aft un bacenet burn? ob ^urcil^. 
n autre aaft une peire be treppeji beg atme be bit 
euj: coteg be belbet pur plated tobertr. 
lilne Boucije pur paletret, beg armc^ bu Jjop. 
2uatre cljemige^ et troig braig be Oa^coigne orfre^e?. 
itlne beille banere beg armeg le bit JMerg. 
<uarant un begtreg et coucerg e un patefrei. 



cjjaretterg. 
t;baretteg ob tut te l)erneig. h 

Great part of Gavcston's plate was marked with an eagle, and several articles 
of jewellery were in that form ; his arms being, Vert, six eagles displayed Or. 

The little that remains to be said of this Baron may be related in a very few 
words. In 1313 he received letters of safe conduct from the King for all his 
dominions ; in June, in the following year, he was present at the fatal battle of 
Bannockburn ; and was regularly summoned to parliament from the 6th February, 
27 Edw. I. 1299, to the 29th July, 8 Edw. II. 1314. He died in 1315, and was 
buried in the abbey of Fountains in Yorkshire ; and by Eleanor his wife, 
daughter of John Earl of Arundel, who survived him, he left issue, Henry, his 
eldest son, then aged sixteen years ; and William, who was made a Knight of the 
Bath 20 Edw. II. and died in 1355. 

From the subject of this article sprung a line of peers which flourished in 
increased honor as Earls of Northumberland for several centuries ; and from the 
deeds of the celebrated Hotspur having been described by Shakspeare, the name 
of PERCY is as well known to the world in general as to the genealogist and his- 

h Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p 203. 



HENRY DE PERCY. 



141 



torian ; nor will it cease to be associated with every thing that is chivalrous and 
brave, until the works of the immortal bard and the annals of England are alike 
forgotten. Thus, then, its renown stands upon an imperishable basis ; and 
though those turbulent times which produced actions that dazzle the imagina- 
tion have long since past, its ancient fame is not impaired by the conduct and 
character of its present illustrious representative. 



The arms borne by Henry Lord Percy were those of Lou- 
vaine, Or, a lion rampant Azure ; ' his ancestor, Josceline de 
Louvaine, a younger son of the ducal house of Brabant, 
having retained his paternal coat, notwithstanding that he 
assumed the name of Percy upon his marriage with the 
heiress of William Baron Percy in the reign of Henry the 
Second. 




' P 14 ; Caligula, A. xvii. ; and the seal of the Baron a" 1301. It has been suggested that the 
arms, crest, and name of Percy, admit of one of the most appropriate " canting" mottoes that 
has ever been devised Per se nobilis, for whether applied to that noble animal the lion, or to 
the noble conduct of those who for ages have borne it as part of their heraldic honors, its truth is 
unquestionable. 



2o 



142 

ROBERT FITZ PAYNE. 

[PAGE 14.] 

Robert Fitz Payne, of whose life very few circumstances are known, was the 
eldest son of a Baron of the same names, whom he succeeded in the 9th Edw. I. 
at which time he was seventeen years of age ; but notwithstanding his minority ? 
Dugdale states that he immediately did homage and had livery of his lands, and 
in the following year obtained a charter for a market and fair at his manor of 
Ockford Nicholl (also called from this family Ockford Fitzpayne, the name 
it now retains) in Dorsetshire, with a grant of free warren in all his demesne 
lands there ; and in the 10th Edw. I. he was commanded to attend the expedition 
into Wales. He was summoned to the wars of Scotland in December, 1299, and 
was present at the surrender of Carlaverock in the June following, at which time 
he was about thirty-six years old; but nothing is recorded of his person or character 
by the Poet of that event. In February, 1301, he was a party to the Letter from 
the Barons of England to Pope Boniface the Eighth, and is described as " Lord 
of Lammer," and was again in the Scottish wars in the 31st Edw. I. Fitz Payne 
was appointed Governor of Corfe Castle in the 33rd Edw. IJ and in the 34th 
Edw. I. was made a Knight of the Bath k with Prince Edward, soon after which 
he accompanied him into Scotland, and in the same year that the Prince ascended 
the throne he was constituted Governor of the Castle of Winchester. In the 
2nd of Edw. II. being then Steward of the King's household, he was sent with 
Otho de Grandison upon a mission to the Pope, and on the 17th May, 1309, 
was joined in a commission with several other peers for the reformation of the 
Royal household. 1 In the 8th Edw. II. he was again summoned to the wars of 
Scotland, and in that year was ordered to hold an assize in the county of 
Wilts." 1 This Baron was summoned to parliament from the 26th January, 25 
Edw. I. 1297, to the 23rd October, 8 Edw. II. 1314, and died in 1315. By 
Isabell his wife, daughter and at length sole heiress of Sir John Clifford, of 

j See also Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 305 a. 

k Dugdale, but no notice of the circumstance occurs in Anstis's Order of the Bath. 

1 Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 433 b. m Ibid. p. 333. 



WALTER DE MOUNCY. 143 

Frampton in Gloucestershire," he left issue Rohert his son and heir, then about 
twenty-eight years of age, who succeeded his father in his honors, and was sum- 
moned to parliament. It would, however, appear that Fitz Payne either married 
a former wife or was affianced to one, for among the ancient charters in the 
British Museum, is an agreement, dated in the 19th Edw. I., between Bartho- 
lomew de Badlesmere and Robert Fitz Payne, that the said 
Robert should marry Mary, daughter of the said Bartholomew. 
The present representatives of Robert Lord Fitz Payne 
are Evcrard Lord Arundel of Wardour, Eleanor-Mary Lady 
Clifford, and William Lord Stourton. 

The arms of Fitz Payne are, Gules, three lions passant 
Argent, a bend Azure. 




WALTER DE MOUNCY. 

[PAGE 16.] 

This individual, though unquestionably a Baron of the realm, has escaped the 
notice of Dugdale, and such of the following particulars of him, for which other 
authorities are not cited, are extracted from Mr. Banks's " Stemmata Anglicana." 

Of his parentage nothing is positively known, and perhaps the earliest record 
of him extant, is that of the writ by which he was commanded to be at Carlisle 
with horse and arms to serve against the Scots, in the 26th Edw. I.P In the 
following year he obtained a grant of free warren in his demesne lands of Thorn- 
ton juxta Skipton, Everley, and Kelebroke, in Yorkshire ; and on the 6th May, 
27th Edw. I. he was again ordered to attend the Scottish wars.*! At the siege 

n Mr. Townsend's MS. Collections for Dugdale's Baronage. In the 13th Edw. II. she described 
herself as Isabella de Fitz Payne, Lady of Frampton, formerly wife of Robert Fitz Payne, and gave 
to her cousin, William de Clifford of Frampton, certain lands. 

" P. 1-t; Caligula, A. xvii. ; and the seal of the Baron, a 1301. 

P Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 100. q Ibid. p. 107. 



144 



WALTER OE MOUNCY. 



of Carlaverbck he was in the squadron led by the Earl of Lincoln, to whose 
retinue or household he appears to have been attached ; and in the 29th Edw. I. 
he was a party to the Letter from the Barons to the Pope relative to his Holiness's 
claim to the sovereignty of Scotland, in which document he is described as 
" Lord of Thornton." 1 " With the exception of his name being frequently men- 
tioned in writs of service and to parliament, the only facts concerning him which 
have been ascertained, are, that the lands of Thomas de Belhous were committed 
to his custody ; s that he was present in the parliament which met at Carlisle in 
the octaves of St. Hillary in the 33rd Edw. I. ;* and that in the 1st Edw. II. he 
was Gustos of the Castle of Framlyngham. 

Walter de Mouncy was summoned to parliament from the 6th February, 27 
Edw. I. 1299, to the 22nd February, 35 Edw. I. 1307, and died in the 2nd 
Edw. II. for in that year the King's Escheator was ordered to take into his hands 
the lands of which he was seised at his demise. His heir is supposed to have 

been a female, who married Grashall, and by him was mother of two 

daughters and coheirs, namely, Isabel, wife of Durand Bard ; and Margaret, who 

married, first, Despenser, by whom she had a son, Philip Despenser, and, 

secondly, John de Roos, younger son of William Lord Roos : but he died 
s. p. in the 12th Edw. III. and his widow in the 22nd Edw. III. 



The arms of Mouncy were, cheeky Argent and Gules," 
and from the seal of this Baron attached to the Barons' 
Letter it would seem that his crest was a fox, the helmet 
being surmounted by an animal resembling one, and engraved 
as if dead or asleep. 



r Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report, pp. 97, 98. 

Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 169 a. t Ibid. y. 188. 

" P. 16; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. ; and the seal of this Baron, a 1301. 



145 



AYMER DE VALENCE, EARL OF PEMBROKE. 

[PAGE 16.] 

There is something pleasing in the reflection that the ravages of time have 
not entirely swept away the memorials of those who in past ages occupied pro- 
minent parts in the drama of public life ; that there is yet contemporary and 
splendid evidence of their wealth and importance, which alike claims the admi- 
ration and challenges the criticism of the most fastidious taste ; and that a name 
which once filled England with respect, is not remembered alone by the dull 
antiquary or patient historian. These observations are suggested by that beau- 
tiful monument of Aymer de Valence in Westminster Abbey, which still renders his 
name familiar to those who either pity or despise the pursuits by which a know- 
ledge of his deeds and character are alone to be acquired. The following attempt, 
however, to present a slight account of this celebrated Earl, is rendered the less 
necessary by the biographical notice which accompanies a recent engraving of 
his tomb, and whilst the subject affords an almost unrivalled specimen of one 
branch of the arts in the fourteenth century, that plate is perhaps a no less ex- 
traordinary example of them in another department in the present age. x 

Aymer de Valence was the third son of William de Valence, who was created 
Earl of Pembroke by his uterine brother King Henry the Third. He was born 
about 1280/ and succeeded his father in his honors on the 13th of June, 1296; 
both of his elder brothers having previously died without issue. The earliest 
notice of him which is recorded, is, that on the 26th January, 25 Edw. I. 1297, 
he was summoned to parliament as a Baron, z though, according to modern 
opinions on the subject, he was fully entitled to the earldom of Pembroke, nor 
was the title ever attributed to him in public records until the 6th November, 



* Blore's Monumental Remains, part IV. A more elaborate and equally beautiful representa- 
tion of this tomb is given in Stothard's " Monumental Effigies," a work which need only be seen 
to excite the gratitude and respect of every real antiquary, accompanied by feelings of sincere 
regret at the early fate of its indefatigable author. 

y Esch. 1 Edw. II. and 3 Edw. II. * Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 77. 

2p 



146 AYMER DE VALENCE, EARL OF PEMBROKE. 

1 Edw. II. 1307 ; a and the first writ to parliament addressed to him as " Earl of 
Pembroke," was tested on the 18th of the following January . b Upon this remark- 
able circumstance some observations have recently been made ; c but it is wholly 
impossible to explain the cause of the anomaly in a satisfactory manner. Although 
never styled " Earl of Pembroke" until the accession of Edward the Second, it 
is manifest that from the death of his father he ranked above all Barons, ex- 
cepting Henry of Lancaster, who, being of the blood royal, is uniformly mentioned 
next to Earls ; hence" it appears that, notwithstanding his claim was not positively 
acknowledged, he was considered to be entitled to a higher degree of precedency 
than belonged to the baronial dignity. In the 25th Edw. I. he was in the expe- 
dition into Flanders, and in the same year was appointed a commissioner to 
ratify an agreement between the King and Florence Count of Holland, relative 
to some auxiliaries from the Count in that war, and was likewise one of the 
ambassadors sent by Edward to treat for a truce between England and France. 
In the 26th and 27th Edw. I. he was in the Scottish wars, and in June, in the 
28th Edw. I. 1300, was present at the siege of Carlaverock, when he must have 
been about twenty-one years of age ; but the Poet pays him no other compliment 
than what a pun upon his name suggested, 

%t Valence 2pmarg li maillans*. 

In the following year he was a party to the Barons' Letter to the Pope, in 
which, though his name occurs immediately after that of the Earl of Arundel, 
and before Henry de Lancaster's, he is only styled " Lord of Montiniac." 
Shortly afterwards he was appointed to treat with the ambassadors of the King 
of France on the subject of peace. In the 31st Edw. I. he was again in the 
wars of Scotland, and in the same year received permission to leave the realm 
upon his own'affairs. He obtained a grant in 1305 of the castles of Selkirk and 
Traquair, and of the borough of Peebles in Scotland, to hold by the service of 
one knight's fee, together with other possessions in that kingdom ; and in the 
34th Edw. I. was constituted Guardian of the Marches of Scotland towards 
Berwick, when he was entrusted with the sole command of the English forces 
which had been levied against Robert Bruce. In the instrument by which he 

a I'oedera, N. E. vol. II. part I. p. 11. b Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 176. 

c Archseologia, vol. XXI. p. 20i. 



AYMER DE VALENCE, EARL OF PEMBROKE. 147 

was appointed to that important duty, as well as in most others, he is styled, 
" Dilectum consanguineum et ndclum nostrum." The appellation of " cousin" 
was not then a mere title of honor when addressed to a peer, but was used in its 
most literal sense, and Aymer de Valence's claim to it is shown by the following 
slight pedigree : 

Hugh le Brun, Count of the Marches^=Isabel, dau. and heiress of Aymer==King John, ob. 1216, 
of Acquitaine, 2nd husband. Count of Angoulesme. 1st husband. 

William de Valence, created Earl of Pembroke, ob. 1296.=p King Henry the Third, ob. 1272. =;= 

AYMER DE VALENCE, EARL or KINO EDWARD THE FIRST, ob. 1307. =;= 

PEMBROKE, ob. 1323. ( - - 1 

KINO EDWARD THE SECOND. 

The successes which attended this nobleman against Robert Bruce are thus 
described by a contemporary chronicler : 



os tijc 2?vus about, tocrrc tie tljin&ig to 
tijc ii.itrbcD out, to tljc umg tljc tolD. 

<jQtoaro tljan Ijc toftc folk toitlj Ijui lanere, 

<ije vjrrlc tocnt of pcmbroltc, ijijj name toag &tt Omcre. 

3nb otbcr men fuilc gobe, baron.s and barony pert, 

Jt tnme toed tljri stoDr, and oib there better:. 

<Cijc bate teas a tljousanb tljrcc bunbrtD mo bi ^er, 

HMjan tlje tocrre o ^cotlanb tjjorgb tbe 2Bru^ eft toer." 
" -Sire pmere of Halence lap at ^apnt 2jon toun, 

gin btf alienee toitlj man? erle anb baroun, 

Of .Scotlanb tJje be.^t toere tljan in IjtjJ feitfj 

Cljer tjjci gan alle re.^t, tillc tljei bt> "the: greitlj. 

,Sir fiobett tjje 23rus .Sent to .ir e?mere, 

3nb bob \)t ^ulb rcfu^ tfjat tym tab for^afeen ilft a pantenere, 

trajitour.s of h,i.s!e tljat jjim l)ab forsSafien, 
fi Julf to tlje :Jetoi^f , toljan tljei fye toton bao toftrn ; 
totter bap on tlje morn com tlje 23ru fioberb, 
toton toijSt it faeforn, tljorugb ^pieiS tljat tjjei ttrb : 

&it t*)imere toilb Ijaf gon out, &\i ^ngram Umfrepbtle 

pceib Jjim for to lout, tille it toere none tljat toljilt." 



148 AVMER DE VALENCE, EARL OF PEMBROKE. 

" 3Jf toe noto out toenDe anD lebe fyt toun alone 
3Tf)ci get tjje faireD cnDe, anD toe be fajm ilftone ; 
23ot Do trie tijorg!) t&e toun. tbat non for toele no too, 
3!n gtrete toalfe up anD Doton bot to t!)er inne go." 
****** 
" <n jSapnt .IKtargarete Dap &it ^Digram anD 
Com on tijam th,er tljet tap ade Digfjt to tfie Dpncre : 
3[l)er toaumtoarD toa gone Digi)t, our 3^81$ ^ a& ttierbaile, 
3T|bei toere ;5o ^one at tfie figjjt, anD reDy to 
3L])t ^nQlig tjborglj tj]am ran anD IjaD tlje fairer 
IJ)e <t)Cotti# life a man ti)e lorDe^ Dur.^t not biDe. 
J^ere noto a contrebore rtjorgJ) iHoberDejj 
Slbotoen tjier armore DiD ^erfii^ anD 

tJ)ei fleDDe on rotoe, in Ipnen toljite a.d mtlfie, 
non ^uID tjiam fenotoe, tJjer arme^ toiiilfe toere 

men tljat toilD fiaf DeDe, bar tljem fortlje fulle toute, 
^>ir ?mer JjaD no DreDe, Ije ^erc1)iD tjiam alle oute; 
at tjje fir^t compng ije ^loutlj ^>ir pmere jSteDe 
DID fiobect tjie ftpng, anD turneD bafe anD eDe; 

Epmer IjaD tnotoe, tljat IjorsJiD l}im agepn, 
lloberte^ men Ujet ^lotoe, tlje numbre uncertepn ; 
JZCjjan bigan tije c?]ace, anD Drof tlje ftpng Sobpn, 
o reiSte IjaD Jje no gpace, long to Duelle t^enn." d 

Valence, after the contest, pursued Bruce, and presuming that he would take 
refuge in Kildrummie Castle, he gained possession of that place, but finding 
only Nigel de Bruce, brother of Robert, there, he caused him and all who were 
with him to be immediately hung. This action has given rise to some pertinent 
remarks by the able biographer of the Earl in the beautiful work before noticed, 6 
who has satisfactorily shown that Nigel was not put to death by him, but 
that at least the forms of law were observed on the occasion. On the death-bed 
of Edward the First, Pembroke, with some other personages, received the King's 
dying injunctions to afford his son their counsel and support, and not to permit 

d Peter of Langtoft, pp. 331. 333. 335. e Blore's Monumental Remains. 



AYMER DE VALENCE, EARL OF PEMBROKE. 149 

Piers de Gavcston to return into England. His strict adherence to this com- 
mand naturally excited the favourite's displeasure ; and he is said, in derision of 
his tall stature and pallid complexion, to have termed him " Joseph the Jew." 
In the first year of the young monarch's reign, Valence was, as has heen before 
observed, allowed and summoned to parliament by his proper title of Earl of 
Pembroke ; and at the coronation of that monarch he carried the King's left 
boot/ but the spur belonging to it was borne by the Earl of Cornwall. In the 
same year, after performing homage upon the death of his mother for her lands, 
he was joined with Otho de Grandison in an embassy to the Pope ; and in the 
3rd Edw. II. was found heir to his sister Agnes, or more probably Anne.* It 
has been considered from the circumstance of the Earl being a witness 1 " to the 
instrument by which the King recalled Gaveston, and bestowed the possessions 
of the Earl of Cornwall upon him, that he approved of, or at least consented 
to, those acts : but this idea rests upon far too uncertain evidence to be relied 
upon ; and if he ever changed his opinion it was of short duration, for in the 
3rd Edw. II. he joined the Earl of Lancaster against Gaveston, and when he 
was banished the realm in 1311, the Earl of Pembroke was one of the persons 
deputed to petition the King that he should be rendered incapable of ever holding 
any office. As in the notice of Henry de Percy the manner in which Pembroke 
was concerned in the death of the noxious favourite was alluded to, it is unne- 
cessary to recur to the subject. 

In the 6th Edw. II. he was again sent on a mission to Rome, and in the same 
year obtained a grant of lands in London, in which was included the New Temple. 
In the 7th Edw. II. he was appointed Gustos and Lieutenant of Scotland until the 
arrival of the King, and was present at the fatal battle of Bannockbourn. Two 
inedited MSS. cited in the " Monumental Remains," allude to the Earl's con- 
duct upon that occasion in words fatal either to his loyalty or courage : the one 
stating that " Insuper Comes de Pembrok, Henricus de Bellomonte, et multi 
magnates, cordctonis Pliarlsei, a certamine recesserunt ;" and the other, that " in 
pedibus suis cvasit ex acie, et cum Valensibus fugientibus se salvavit." In all 
probability, however, the language was in both instances that of an enemy, and 
deserves but little credit ; though, even if it were true, " there is no great disgrace," 

f Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 36. 5 Esch. 3 Edw. II. 

h Foedera, N. E. vol. II. part II. p. 2. 

2 a 



150 AYMER DE VALENCE, EARL OF PEMBROKE. 

as the learned biographer from whose memoir these extracts are taken has truly 
remarked, " in seeking safety by flight when defeat was inevitable, and the whole 
army pursued a similar course." 1 In the 9th Edw. II. the Earl was a commis- 
sioner for holding a parliament in the King's absence,! and took an active part 
in the proceedings therein. k Being sent to Rome on a mission to the Pontiff, a 
singular misfortune befel him, as he was taken prisoner on his return by a Bur- 
gundian called John de Moiller, with his accomplices, and sent to the Emperor, 
who obliged him to pay a ransom of 20,000 pounds of silver, upon the absurd 
pretence that Moiller had served the King of England without being paid his 
wages. Edward used every exertion to procure the Earl's liberty, and wrote to 
several sovereign princes soliciting them to interfere on the subject ; but he did 
not immediately succeed. In the llth Edw. II. Pembroke was once more in 
the Scottish wars, and was appointed Governor of Rockingham Castle ; and 
upon the King's purposed voyage, in the 13th Edw. II. to do homage to the 
King of France for the Duchy of Acquitaine, he was constituted Guardian of the 
realm during his absence, being then also Gustos of Scotland. In the 15th 
Edw. II. he sat in judgment on the Earl of Lancaster at Pontefract ; l and for his 
conduct on the occasion was rewarded with the grant of several manors. 

With the preceding narrative, Dugdale's account of the Earl closes ; nor has his 
recent biographer supplied any further particulars : but the following facts are 
on record, previous to citing which, the annexed notice of him in Selden's Titles 
of Honor m merits insertion, especially as it also relates to two other knights who 
were present at the siege of Carlaverock : " Anno MCCCXVI. Dominus Rich, de 
Rodney factus fuit miles apud Keynsham die translationis Sancti Thomae mar- 
tyris in praesentia Domini Almarici Comitis de Pembroch, qui cinxit eum gladio, 
et Dominus Mauritius de Berkley super pedem dextrum posuit unum calcar, et 
Dominus Bartholomeus de Badilesmere posuit aliud super pedem sinistruin in 
aula, et hoc facto recessit cum honore." 

In March, 1309, the Earl of Pembroke was one of the peers appointed to 
regulate the royal household ; n in the 5th Edw. II. he was commanded not to 



Monumental Remains. j Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 350 b. 

Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 352 b. 354 b. 359 a. 361 b. 1 Ibid. vol. II. p. 3. 

P. 642, cited in Anstis's Collection of Authorities on the Knighthood of the Bath, p. 8. 
Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 443. 



AYMER DE VALENCE, EARL OF PEMBROKE. 151 

approach the place where the parliament was held with an armed retinue, or in any 
other manner than was observed in the time of the late King ; in the 8th Edw. 
II. he was a commissioner to open and continue a parliament at York ;P in the 
12th Edw. II. he was sent to Northampton with others to treat with the Earl of 
Lancaster for the better government of the realm, and was one of the peers then 
appointed to be about the King's person,*! at which time he signed the agreement 
between the King and that Earl ; r he advised the reversal of the judgment 
against Hugh Ic Despenser the younger;* by writ tested on the 19th Jan. 14 
Edw. II. 1321, he was appointed a Commissioner to treat for peace with Robert 
de Brus ;' and in the 18th Edw. II. the Earl, as Justice in Eyre of the Forest of 
Essex, claimed the appointment of the Marshal thereof." 

The Earl of Pembroke accompanied Isabell the Queen of England to France 
in 1323 ; and is said to have lost his life in that year, at a tournament given by 
him to celebrate his nuptials with his third wife, Mary, daughter of Guy de 
Chastillon, Count of St. Paul's ; though from the obscure manner in which his 
death is mentioned by some chroniclers, and the attempt which they have made 
to consider it as a mark of the vengeance of Heaven for his conduct relative to 
the death of the Earl of Lancaster, Dugdale asserts that he was murdered on the 
23rd June, 1324, " by reason he had a hand" in that affair. But the former state- 
ment his recent biographer considers to be corroborated by the following lines 
in a long MS. poem, containing a life of the Earl, in the Cottonian collection", 
written by Jacobus Nicholaus de Dacia, who calls himself a scholar of Mary de 
St. Paul Countess of Pembroke ; by which he probably meant that he belonged 
to Pembroke Hall, which she had founded : 

.ltlor.3 Comittm oinmitum necuit, mortf ipga cruenta 
rruorc cubcum campum facit ct rubicundum. 



From the annexed account of the Earl's death, however, by another contempo- 
rary writer,* whose statement on the subject is now for the first time cited, it 
would rather appear that he died of apoplexy : 



o Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 447. P Ibid. p. 450. q Ibid. p. 4-53 b. 

r Ibid. vol. III. p. 362. Ibid. vol. I. p. 427 b. Ibid. p. 454 a. 

v Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 441. u Claudius, A. xiv. 

* Robert of Reading. Cottonian MSS. Cleopatra, A. xvi. f. 133 b. For a reference to this MS. 



152 AYMER DE VALENCE, EARL OF PEMBROKE. 

" Ea vero tempestate primorum consultu direxit ad partes transmarinas Rex 
Almaricum de Valencia Comitem de Penbrokia, virum siquidem ad queque ne- 
pharia peragcnda iuxta sue propinquitatis nequiciarn continue paratum, regis 
Francorum presencie nuncium super dictis negociis assistendum, vt eiusdem regis 
Francorum animum ah inceptis revocaret, ut ipsius benevolenciam afFectum regis 
Angloruin varijs blandic-iis inrlinaret. Quo perveniente, ac iuxta proposita suorum 
verborum responsis acceptis, .per Pykardiani rediens, ad quoddam municipium mi. 
villa, id est, dimidia villa, nuncupaturn, tribus leucis a Compyne distans, in vigilia 
sancti Johannis declinavit pransurus, ubi Christus voluit virum sanguineum et 
dolosum non dimidiare dies suos. Sed finita refectionis hora thalamum ingre- 
ditur, deambulando statim in atrio corruit, ac sine confessione et viatico salutari 
infelicem animam subito in solo sufflavit." 

The Poem alluded to is deemed, by the highly competent judge just mentioned, 
not to contain any thing worthy of observation ; for he says that " throughout 
five hundred lines of exaggerated panegyric, not a single incident, anecdote, or 
trait of character is to be found."" 

The Earl was thrice married ; first, to Beatrix, daughter of Ralph de Noel 
Constable of France ; secondly, to a daughter of the Earl of Barrc ; and thirdly, 
to Mary, daughter of Guy de Chastillon Count of St. Paul : but he had no issue, 
and the descendants of his sisters, Isabel, the wife of John Baron Hastings ; and 
Joan, who married John Comyn of Badenoch, are consequently his representa- 
tives. His eldest sister, Anne, married, first, Maurice Fitz Gerald ; secondly, 
Hugh de Baillol ; and, lastly, John de Avennes ; and probably died s. p. in the 
3rd Edw. Il.y 

Mary Countess of Pembroke is chiefly known to the present age by an action 
which seldom fails to ensure immortality. She was the foundress of a College for 
the purposes of learning and religion, which still bears the name of Pembroke 
Hall ; and was likewise a benefactress to several religious houses which were sup- 
pressed by the cupidity of Henry the Eighth. She died about 1376, and on the 
13th of March in that year made her will, at Braxtcd in Essex, by which she 



the Editor willingly expresses his obligation to Frederick Madden, Esq. whose profound knowledge 
of early English writers is only equalled by the readiness with which his information is imparted 
to his friends. 

* Monumental Remains. y Esch. cod. ann. See page 149 ante. 



AYMER DE VALENCE, EARL OF PEMBROKE. 



ordered her body to be buried in the church of the sisters of Denny, where she 
had caused her tomb to be made ; and bequeathed to the church of the Abbey 
of Westminster, where her husband was interred, a cross with a foot of gold Jind 
emeralds, which Sir William de Valence, Knt. brought from the Holy Land.* 
The body of the Earl of Pembroke was conveyed to England, and buried in 
the Abbey of Westminster ; but upon the beautiful tomb 
erected to his memory it is unnecessary to say a single 
word, ample justice having been done to it in the work so 
frequently referred to, both by the artist and author. 



The arms of Valence were, barry, Argent and Azure, an 
orle of martlets Gules.* 



z Testamenta Vetusta, p. 100. It may not be uninteresting to observe, that there is in the pos- 
session of G. Pocock, Esq. of Lincoln's Inn Fields, a small brass cofler, which, from the arms 
enamelled on it, is supposed to have belonged to this illustrious woman. This curious relic was 
exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries a short time since, but it did not appear to excite the 
attention which it merited. 

P. 16; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. ; the seal of the Earl a<> 1301 ; and the arms on his tomb. 



154 



NICHOLAS DE CAREW. 

[PAGE 16.] 

That there should be such a paucity of materials extant for a memoir of this 
individual is surprising, for very few of his contemporaries excelled him in 
descent, rank, or military merit. Indeed, in the latter qualification he was so 
celebrated by his services in Ireland, that the Poet has particularly alluded to the 
circumstance ; and the consideration in which he was held is sufficiently mani- 
fested by his being frequently a colleague of the Barons of the realm, though he 
was never summoned to parliament. 

The house of Carew is supposed to have sprung from Otho de Windsor, the 
common ancestor of the illustrious families of Windsor and Fitz-Gerald. The 
grandfather and father of Nicholas de Carew had both married into distinguished 
Irish families ; and it seems that they consequently became intimately connected 
with Ireland. Little notice, however, occurs of the subject of this article in 
records until the 29th Edw. I., when he was a party to the Barons' Letter to the 
Pontiff, in which he is described as " Lord of Mulcsford ;" b but from the Poem 
we learn that he was present in the preceding year at the siege of Carlaverock, 
in the squadron commanded by the Earl of Lincoln. He was, it is there said, a 
man of great renown, and had often displayed his valour against the rebellious 
people of Ireland. 

He married, according to some pedigrees, Ann, daughter and heiress of the 
Baron Digon, Lord of Adrone in Ireland; and, agreeably to others, Amicia, 
sister of sir John Pevercll ; d but the point is involved in great obscurity : and died 
in the 3rd Edw. II., leaving John his son and heir. c From this John de Carew has 
descended a most extensive family, which has ramified into almost every county 
in England, and was in one branch ennobled by Queen Elizabeth, and further 



b Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. c Harl. MSS. 380. 

d Kimber's Baronetage. e Esch. eod. ann. 




ROGER LA WARE. 1 .">."> 

advanced to the dignity of Earl of Totness by James the 
First; whilst in others it was elevated to the rank of baronets. 
The issue of some of the younger sons still flourish in the 
male line in Devonshire. 

The arms of Carew are, Or, three lions passant in pale 
Sable. f 



ROGER LA WARE. 

[PAGE 16.] 

The earliest notice of Roger la Warre, the first of his name who attained tin- 
rank of a Baron, is in the 10th Edw. I., in which year, having been in the expe- 
dition then made into Wales, he had scutage of all his tenants who held of him 
by military service ; and in the 13th Edw. I. he obtained the King's license for a 
weekly market in his manor of Warrewikc in Gloucestershire, with other pri- 
vileges. In the 15th Edw. I. he was summoned to attend with horse and arms 
at Gloucester,? and in the 22nd Edw. I. was commanded to repair speedily to 
the King to deliberate on the affairs of the realm. h Shortly afterwards, namely 
on the 26th June in the same year, he was summoned to Portsmouth to accom- 
pany his Majesty into France.' In the 26th Edw. I. he was Governor of the Castle 
of Burgh in Gascony ; on the 30th September, 28 Edw. I. 1299, he was ordered 
to be at Carlisle on the ensuing feast of St. John the Baptist, to serve against the 
Scots ; and in the following year was present at the siege of Carlaverock, when 
his sagacity and valour are eulogised by the Poet of the expedition. In the 29th 
Edw. I. he was party to the Letter to the Pope, wherein he is called " Lord of 
Isefeld," but his seal is not affixed to that document. 14 From that period until 

f Page 16; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii ; and the seal of this Baron a" 1301. 

g Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 51. h Ibid. p. 56. ' Ibid. p. 5.5. 

k Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. 



156 ROGER LA WARE. 

the 8th Edw. II. he was frequently in the wars of Scotland ; and he appears 
to have passed through life without being distinguished either by brilliant 
services, or by the commission of any crime, which would have caused his name 
to be more frequently recorded. He was one of the manucaptors for William de 
Montagu, who was a prisoner in the tower of London in the 33rd Edw. I. ;' and 
in the 35th Edw. I. was attached for not having obeyed the King's writ to 
attend at Carlisle, or paid the usual fine. m 

This Baron was summoned to parliament from the 6th Feb. 27 Edw. I. 1299, 
to the 16th June, 4 Edw. II. 1311, and died in 1320; leaving by his wife Cla- 
rice, daughter and coheir of John Baron Trcgoz, John la Warr his son and heir, 
then forty years of age, who was summoned to parliament several years before 
his father's death. 

The representatives of this Baron are the heirs of Mary, the daughter and 
eventually sole heiress of Sir Owen West, half brother of Thomas West Baron 
la Warr, K. G. who died s. p. in 1554, who was lineally descended from Thomas 
Baron West by his wife Joan, half sister and heiress of Thomas le Warr, great- 
great-grandson of the Baron who was present at Carlaverock. By a most 
extraordinary anomaly in the descent of dignities that originated in a writ of 
summons, the issue of Sir Owen West were passed over ; and the barony was 
allowed to the heir male of the above-mentioned Thomas West Lord la Warr 
who died in 1554, namely William, the son and heir of sir George West, 
younger brother of sir Owen ; and it has consequently been presumed to be 
now vested in his heir, George John, Earl de la Warr. Mary, the daughter and 
heiress of Sir Owen West, was twice married ; first, to Sir Adrian Poynings, 
Knt. by whom she had three daughters, Elizabeth, Mary, and Anne; and, 2ndly, 
to Sir Richard Rogers, Knt. Sir Adrian Poynings, justly 
deeming that his issue were entitled to the barony of La Warr, 
caused a case to be prepared in 1567 urging their claim ; 
but the heralds of the day, though upon what grounds it is 
impossible even to guess, were of a different opinion." 

The arms of La Warr are, Gules, seme'e of cross crosslets, 
a lion rampant Argent. 

1 Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 176. Ibid. p. 216. n MSS. in the College of Arras : also Harl. 

MSS. 1323, f. 280. P. 16; and Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. 




157 



GUY DE BEAUCHAMP, EARL OF WARWICK. 

[PAGE 18.] 

This nobleman, whose actions corresponded in importance with the elevated 
station which he held in the realm, is supposed to have derived his baptismal 
name from the renowned Guy of Warwick, the favourite hero of romance. He 
succeeded his father, William Earl of Warwick, in May or June 1296, at which 
time he was twenty-six years of age. Almost the earliest circumstance recorded 
of him is that he eminently distinguished himself in the field ; for, having been 
summoned to serve against the Scots in the year in which his father died, he 
was present at the battle of Falkirk, and for his valour on that day was rewarded 
with the lands forfeited by Geoffrey de Mowbray. In the 27th Edw. I. he was 
again in the wars of Scotland, and in that year was also employed beyond the 
sea in the King's service. At the siege of Carlaverock, in the 28th Edw. I. he 
was present in the first squadron under the Earl of Lincoln, when he was about 
twenty-nine years old ; and, though the praise bestowed upon him by the Poet is 
expressed in a very obscure manner, it may be interpreted to mean that none of 
his companions in arms were superior to him in merit. He was a party to the 
Letter to Pope Boniface the Eighth in 1301 ;P from which time to the end of the 
reign of Edward the First he was frequently in the Scottish wars, and received 
that monarch's dying command to protect the interests of his son, and not to 
allow Gaveston to return into England. The Earl partook largely of the for- 
feited lands of John de Baillol, and evidently derived considerable advantages from 
his presence in the royal army. 

At the coronation of Edward the Second the Earl of Warwick carried one of 
the swords borne at that ceremony ;i and in the 5th Edw. II. he joined the Earl 
of Lancaster against Piers de Gaveston. A similar anecdote to that related in 
the account of the Earl of Pembroke is preserved, explanatory of the chief 
cause of the Earl's hatred of that favourite ; for we are informed that Ga- 
veston, in allusion to his swarthy complexion, called him " the black dog of 
Arden." Though Warwick had been pardoned by the King for the part he had 



p Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. q Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 36. 

2s 



158 GUY DE BEAUCHAMP, EARL OF WARWICK. 

taken in the destruction of the Earl of Cornwall, Dugdale, upon the authority of 
Walsingham, considers that he had not forgiven his Majesty ; and that he there- 
fore refused to obey his commands to attend him into Scotland. 

In February, 7 Edw. II. he obtained an acquittance from the King of the 
jewels and plate which had belonged to Gaveston ; r and on the 17th May, 1309, 
was one of the noblemen appointed to regulate the royal household. 8 In the 5th 
Edw. II. he was prohibited from attending the parliament with armed followers, 
or in any other manner than was usual in the reign of Edward the First ; * and 
on the 4th of August, 1312, was cited with other peers to appear in the royal 
presence for the reformation of certain ordinances." 

Of the public life of this Earl nothing more is known ; and his sumptuous 
benefactions to religious houses, and especially to the monks of Bordsley, though 
characteristic of the age, do not require any particular notice ; excepting that it 
was so liberal to the latter fraternity, as to induce them to style him, in a public 
instrument in full chapter by which they allowed him to present two monks to 
their convent, " Dilecto et speciali arnico." 

The Earl of Warwick made his will at Warwick Castle on Monday next after 
the feast of St. James, July 28, 1315, by which he ordered that his body should 
be buried in the abbey of Bordsley, without pomp ; that Alice his Countess should 
have a proportion of his plate, with a crystal cup, and half his bedding, together 
with all the vestments and books belonging to his chapel. The other half of his 
beds, rings, and jewels he gave to his two daughters. To Maud, his daughter, 
he left a crystal cup ; and to Elizabeth, his other daughter, the profits of the 
marriage of Astley's heir, but whom she herself married. To Thomas, his 
son, he bequeathed his best coat of mail, helmet, and suit of harness, with 
all which belonged thereto ; and to his son John, his second best coat of mail, 
helmet, and harness. He further desired that_ the rest of his armour, bows, 
and other warlike implements, should remain in Warwick Castle for the benefit 
of his heir. 

The Earl died at Warwick Castle on the 12th of August, 1316, aged about 
forty-four years, and was suspected to have been poisoned. He left by Alice his 
wife, widow of Thomas de Leybourne, and daughter of Ralph, and sister and 

r Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 203. s R o t. Parl. vol. I. p. 443 b. 

t Ibid. p. 447 b. u Ibid. p. 448. 



JOHN DE MOHUN. 159 

heiress of Robert de Tony, two sons, Thomas, his successor in the earldom ; and 
Sir John Beauchamp, a celebrated knight, and one of the founders of the order 
of the Garter : also five daughters, Maud, who married Geoffrey Lord Say ; 

Emma, wife of Rowland Odingsells ; Isabel, wife of Clinton ; Elizabeth, 

who married Thomas Lord Astley ; and Lucia, wife of Robert de Napton. The 
Countess of Warwick, in the year after her lord's demise, 
gave five hundred marks for license to marry William le 
Zouche of Ashby, of whom she accordingly became the wife. 

The arms of Beauchamp Earls of Warwick were, Gules, 
crusilly, and a fess Or ;* or, as they are now blazoned, Gules, 
a fess between six cross crosslets Or. 



JOHN DE MOHUN. 

[PAGE 18.] 

The life of this individual affords no incident of the slightest interest ; and all 
which is recorded of him is, that he performed the duties attendant upon the 
rank of a Baron of his times. 

John de Mohun was the eldest son of John de Mohun, a Baron by tenure, by 
Eleanor, daughter of Sir Reginald Fitz Piers ; v and succeeded his father, who 



* P. 16; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. ; and the seal of the Earl, a 1301. Upon the reverse 
of his seal the Earl bore the arms of Newburgh Earls of Warwick. See Archaeologia, vol. XXI. 

pp. 199, 200. 

y This Eleanor remarried William Martin. By the name of Eleanor de Mohun, wife of William 
Martin, she joined him in a conveyance of lands to their son William Martin in the 13th Edw. II. 
Her seal contains three shields; 1st, Martin, with a label; 2nd, Mohun, though different from 
the usual coat, it being a hand issuing from a maunch holding a fleur de lis ; 3rd, three lions 
rampant, Fitz Piers. Cotton MSS. Julius, C. vii. 



160 JOHN DE MOHUN. 

died in France, on the llth June, 1279. He was born about the year 1269, 
and in the 22nd and 25th Edw. I. was summoned to attend with horse and arms 
in Gascony. In the 26th and 27th Edw. I. he was in the wars of Scotland, and 
in the year last mentioned exchanged his lands in Ireland with the King for the 
manor of Long Compton in Warwickshire. At the siege of Carlaverock he 
served in the first division of the English army, when he must have been above 
thirty years of age ; but the Poet takes no other notice of him, than to describe 
his banner. In the 29th Edw. I. Mohun was a party to the Letter from the 
Barons to the Pope, in which he is described as " Lord of Dunsterre ;" and was 
again in the Scottish wars in the 31st Edw. I. and 4th and 8th Edw. II. Z 

From the 6th February, 27 Edw. I. 1299, to the 23rd October, 4 Edw. III. 
1330, a period of thirty-one years, John de Mohun was regularly summoned to 
parliament; and died in 1330, at the age of sixty-one. By his second wife, 6 
Auda, daughter of Sir Pain de Tibetot, he had issue two sons ; John, and Regi- 
nald. John, the eldest son, died in his father's life-time, leaving by Christian, 
daughter of John Lord Segrave, a son, John, who succeeded to his grandfather's 
honors, at which time he was ten years of age. Reginald, the second son, was the 
ancestor of the Mohuns of Cornwall, and of the Barons Mohun of Okehampton. b 
Upon the death of the last mentioned John Lord Mohun, K. G. about the year 
1373, s. P. M., the barony fell into abeyance amonj; his three daughters and 
coheirs ; namely, Philippa, who married, first, Walter Lord 
Fitz Walter, secondly Sir John Golafrc, and thirdly Edward 
Plantagenet Duke of York, but died s. p. in the 10th 
Hen. VI. ; Elizabeth, the wife of William de Montacute Earl 
of Salisbury ; and Maud, who married John Lord Strange of 
Knockyn. 




The arms of Mohun were, Or, a cross engrailed Sable. c 



z Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. 

a Glover's Collections, Harl. MSS. 807. Dugdale calls her the daughter of Sir Robert Tiptoft ; 
from a petition on the Rolls of Parliament in the 7th Edw. III. vol. II. p. 71, it would however 
appear that the said Auda was his first wife, and that his second wife, who survived him, was called 
Sybilla. b Harl. MSS. 807. 

>> P. 18 ; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. ; and the seal of this Baron, a<> 1301. 



161 



ROBERT DE TATESHALL. 

[PAGE 18.] 

This Baron was born in 1274, and succeeded his father of the same name in 
his dignity and possessions in 1297. In the 8th Edw. I., when he was scarcely 
more than six years of age, he married Eve, the daughter of Robert de Tibetot, 
who had for her portion six hundred marks of silver, and was then nearly thir- 
teen years old. 

In the 25th Edw. I. he was in the expedition into Gascony, and in the 26th 
and 28th Edw. I. attended the King in the wars of Scotland. At the siege of 
Carlaverock, at which time he was about twenty-seven, he served in the first 
squadron, but the usual attribute of valour is the only qualification assigned to 
him by the Poet. He was a party to the Barons' Letter to the Pontiff in 1301, and 
is described in it as " Lord of Bukenham." d In the 30th Edw. I. he petitioned the 
King for the office of Butler, which he claimed in right of his grandmother, 
Amabilla, eldest sister and coheir of Hugh d'Albini Earl of Arundcl ; to whom, 
he states, in the division of the Earl's property, that office was apportioned. 6 

Tateshall was summoned to parliament from the 6th February, 27 Edw. I. 
1299, to the 13th Sept. 30 Edw. I. 1302, and died in 1303; leaving by the said 
Eve de Tibetot, who survived him, Robert, his son and heir, then fifteen years of 
age ; but he dying in his minority without issue, the sisters, 
agreeably to Dugdale, or, according to another authority to 
which the utmost credit is due/ the mints of the subject 
of this memoir, or their children, became his representatives. 



m m m A Ik 



The arms of Tateshall were, Cheeky Or and Gules, a chief 
Ermine, e 



(1 Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 1/51. 

f The late Francis Townsend, Esq. MS. Collections for Dugdale's Baronage. 

e P. 18; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. ; and the seal of this Baron a" 1301. The latter, how- 
ever, seems to have been engraved in the life-time of his father, as the arms are distinguished by 
a label. 

2r 



162 

RALPH FITZ WILLIAM. 

[PAGE 18.] 

The career of this Baron differs very slightly from that of his contemporaries ; 
and the relation of it will therefore present little but a statement of barren and 
uninteresting facts. 

He was the son of William Fitz Ralph Lord of Grimsthorp in Yorkshire, and 
in the 10th Edw. I. paid a fine of one hundred marks for license to marry 
Margery, widow of Nicholas Corbet, and daughter and coheir of Hugh de 
Bolebec. In the 24th Edw. I. he succeeded his brother Geoffrey Fit/. William 
in his lands ; and was summoned to serve with horse and arms in Scotland in 
the 25th, 26th, and 27th Edw. I. In the year last mentioned he was constituted 
Lieutenant of Yorkshire and Warden of the Marches, and was joined in a com- 
mission with the Bishop of Durham and others, to fortify the castles in Scotland. 
He was present at the siege of Carlaverock in the 28th Edw. I., in the first 
squadron, under the Earl of Lincoln ; but the only circumstance relating to him 
noticed by the Poet is, that he made a fine appearance when dressed in his sur- 
coat of arms ; and in the following year he was a party to the Letter to Pope 
Boniface the Eighth, in which he is styled " Lord of Grimthorp." h In the 31st 
and 34th Edw. I. and 4th Edw. II. he was again in the Scottish wars, in the 
retinue of Aymer de Valence : in the 7th Edw. II. he was made Governor of 
Berwick upon Tweed, and was joined with Lord Mowbray and others in the 
wardenship of the Marches ; and in the 8th Edw. II. he was appointed Governor 
of Carlisle. 

The Rolls of Parliament afford the following additional particulars of this 
Baron. In the 34th Edw. I. his proof of having performed knight's service was 
respited ; l in the 8th Edw. II. he was several times appointed with others to hold 
inquests ; k in the parliament which met at Lincoln in February, 9 Edw. II. he was 
a Trier of Petitions from Wales, Ireland, and Scotland ; l and on the 1 7th March, 



1' Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. i Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 216 b. 

k Ibid. pp. 288. 304. 306. 342. 1 Ibid. p. 350. 



RALPH FITZ WILLIAM. 163 

1310, he was one of the peers appointed to regulate the King's household. 1 In 
the 15th or 16th Edw. II. Alan de Hellcbcck, Clerk, complained that Ralph Fitz 
William had been appointed by the King, guardian of the castles and lands 
which belonged to Sir Robert Clifford, in the county of Westmoreland, for the 
which trust he was fully paid by his Majesty, but that he had obliged the petitioner 
to take victuals from poor people and others by force, to the value of 5^x., 
without paying any thing for them, for which payment he was bound ; and he 
consequently prayed a remedy. It was answered that Fitz William was dead, and 
that he must proceed against his executors." 

Upon the death of John Baron Greystock this Baron succeeded by settlement 
to that lordship, and in 1317 "Greystock" was adopted by his grandson as his 
surname. The relationship between Fitz William and Lord Greystock is not 
generally known ; hence the following slight pedigree of that family, compiled 
from Escheats and other evidence, may prove acceptable. 

Thomas de Greystock, living 1244. =p= 



de Greystock, William de Greystock, brother 


Thomas de 


Joan.==Ralph Fitz 


ca 1253, s. p. 


and heir, ob. 


1288. T 


Greystock. =^= 


T 


William. 


1 i 

A RON 


GREYSTOCK, 


r 
Margaret de la 


r 

Elizabeth, wife of Thomas 


n *- 

Alice. 


WiMiarn 


35, s. 


p. 


Val, ob. 1 Edw. 


Pickering ; 


found to be cousin 




Fitz 


, ob 


. ante 1327, 


III. S. P. 


and one of 
garet de la 


the heirs of Mar- 
Val, 1 Edw. III. 




Ralph. 

T 


r 











William, 
s. p. 

. . -- 

Peter Backard ; found cousin and one of the RALPH FITZ WILLIAM, succeeded to the lord- 

heirs of Margaret de la Val, 1 Edw. III. ship of Greystock by settlement, 1305. =p 

I ---- 1 
Robert Fitz Ralph. = 

Ralph de Greystock. =p 
* 
Thus, though the descendants of this Baron assumed the name and inherited 

the lands of Greystock, they were not the representatives in blood of that family ; 
unless, which does not appear to be fact, the issue of Thomas de Greystock, 
uncle of John Baron Greystock, had failed. 

Ralph Fitz William was regularly summoned to parliament from the 24th 
June, 23rd Edw. I. 1295, to the 6th October, 9 Edw. II. 1315. He died "an 
aged man," says Dugdale, about the feast of All Saints, 1316, and was buried at 



Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 443. n Ibid. p. 400. 



164 



WILLIAM DE RODS. 



Nesham in the Palatinate of Durham." By his wife Margery de Bolehec, before 
mentioned, he had issue two sons ; William, who died without issue in his father's 
life-time ; and Robert, his successor, who was forty years of age in L31G. 

The barony of Fitz William, or, as it was afterwards called, of Grcystock, con- 
tinued vested in the male descendants of the subject of this memoir until the 
commencement of the reign of Henry the Seventh, when it 
fell into abeyance among the daughters and coheirs of the 
last Baron ; and is now in abeyance between their repre- 
sentatives, the Earl of Carlisle, Lord Stourton, and Lord 
Petre. 



The arms of Fitz William were, Barry, Argent and Azure, 
three chaplets Gules. 




WILLIAM DE ROOS. 

[PAGE 20.] 

Among the Barons of the age in which he lived, William de Roos was equally 
conspicuous by his services and his fidelity to his sovereign ; and although this 
short memoir of him will present little or nothing which can interest our feelings, 
it will at least contain ample proof of those qualities which alone commanded 



n Mr. Surtees, in speaking of the relics of Nesham Abbey in his valuable History of Durham, 
mentions " a very gallant monumental effigy of a Baron of Greystoke, preserved in Miss Ward's 
garden at Hurworth. The effigy is, as usual, recumbent ; the hands elevated and clasped on the 
breast ; the sword hangs from a rich baldric ornamented with quatrefoils, the shield represents a 
barry coat seme'e of crosslets, the legs are mutilated, but rest on a lion, which seems defending 
himself against several dogs." Vol. III. p. 260. At the end of that volume is a beautiful en- 
graving of the effigy alluded to, and which was, in all probability, that of the subject of the above 
notice. 

o Page 18; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. ; and the seal of this Baron, a<> 1301. 



WILLIAM DE RODS. 



16T, 



respect or excited esteem in the barbarous period in which he flourished. If 
then, the common error be avoided of measuring the conduct of individuals in 
the thirteenth or fourteenth centuries by the standard of morality which now 
regulates society ; if we do not look for the milder virtues in the character of a 
soldier, and bear in mind that those pursuits which arc at present deemed to 
dignify mankind, were then thought to be alone suitable to a cloister; and 
that reckless bravery, a daring and impetuous deportment, a contempt for every 
species of danger, together with a skilful management of his horse and arms, 
formed the chief if not the only objects of a nobleman's ambition, the subject of 
this article will possess some claim to our notice. 

He was born about the year 1261, and succeeded his father Robert de Roos, 
in the 19th Edw. I. at which time he stood in the important situation of claimant 
of the crown of Scotland. His pretensions to that throne appear, however, to 
have been grounded on no solid foundations, for his great-grandmother, Isabel, 
in whose right he claimed, is generally considered to have been the bastard 
daughter of William the Lion ; and consequently upon failure of the legitimate 
line of that monarch, the issue of his brother, David Earl of Huntingdon, became 
the next in succession. In the 22nd Edw. I. Roos was summoned to a great 
council upon the affairs of the realm, and he frequently received writs to attend 
in the field in subsequent years. 

About 1295 a remarkable instance of his fidelity to Edward is recorded. 
Understanding that his kinsman, Robert de Roos, Lord of the Castle of Werk in 
Northumberland, intended to join the Scots in their invasion of England, he 
immediately repaired to the King at Newcastle upon Tyne ; and having informed 
him of the meditated treason, he solicited some assistance to defend that castli , 
and received a thousand men for that purpose ; but the Scots, being told of 
the circumstance, entered the village of Prestfen in the night, in which they 
were quartered, and killed the greater part of them. Edward lost not a moment 
in retrieving this loss, for he advanced from Newcastle and possessed himself of 
Work Castle, and in reward of this Baron's loyalty entrusted that fortress to his 
custody, with power to appoint Robert de Roos, his brother, his deputy during 
his absence. In the 26th Edw. I. he served in Scotland in the retinue of Ralph 
de Monthermer ; and in the 28th Edw. I. June, 1300, he was present at the 
siege of Carlavcrock, being then thirty-nine years of age ; he was on that 
occasion in the retinue of the Earl of Lincoln ; but the Poet takes no other 

2u 



166 



WILLIAM DE ROOS. 



notice of him than to describe his banner. In the following year he 
was a party to the Letter relative to the sovereignty of Scotland from the 
baronage of England to the Pontiff in which he is described as " Lord of 
Hamelak." His services obtained a substantial reward in the 30th Edw. T. by 
the grant of the castle of Werk, which had been forfeited by the rebellion of its 
former possessor. 

Roos was again in the Scottish wars in the 31st and 34th Edw. I. ; and in the 
1st Edw. II. was, with Robert de Umfreville Earl of Angus, and Henry Baron 
Beaumont, constituted the King's Lieutenant in Scotland from Berwick upon 
Tweed to the river Forth, as also in the Marches of Annandale, Carrick, and 
Galloway. This office was, however, conferred shortly afterwards upon John de 
Segrave ; and in the 7th Edw. II. he was appointed with others Warden of the 
West Marches of Scotland. He was commanded to attend in the field for the 
last time in the 10th Edw. II., and having been summoned to parliament from tho 
24th June, 23rd Edw. I. 1295, to the 6th Oct. 9 Edw. II. 1315, died in 1316, at 
the age of little more than fifty-five, and was buried in the Priory of Kirkliam. 
By Maud, daughter and coheiress of John de Vaux, he left issue William, his son 
and heir, then of full age ; John, a younger son ; and a daughter, Ann, wife of 
Pain de Tibetot. 

The present representatives of this Baron, whose descendants in the male line 
enjoyed his honors for several centuries, are Sir Henry Hun- 
loke, Bart. ; George Earl of Essex ; and Charlotte Fit/ 
Gerald de Roos, the present Baroness de Roos, in whose 
favour the abeyance of the barony was terminated on the 9th 
May, 1806. 



The arms of Roos are, Gules, three water bougets 
Argent. P 




P Page 20; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. ; and the seal of this Baron, ao 1301. 



167 



HUGH POINTZ. 

[PAGE 20.] 

Less appears to be known of this Baron than of almost any other person of hi* 
rank who is noticed by Dugdale. 

He was the son and heir of Nicholas Points of the county of Somerset, and 
succeeded his fauicr in his lands in the 1st Edw. I. 1273, at which time he was 
of full age. In the 5th, 10th, llth, and 15th Edw. I. he was summoned to 
attend with horse and arms in Wales ;i and was present in the wars of Gascony 
in the 25th Edw. I. ; and in those of Scotland in the 26th, 27th, and 28th Edw. I. 
In June in the year last mentioned, anno 1300, he was at the siege of Carlave- 
rock, when he must have been at least forty-eight years old ; and, though the 
Poet in speaking of him merely describes his banner, yet when noticing Brian 
Fitz Alan, who bore precisely the same arms, he says that that circumstance had 
frequently been the subject of a dispute between them. This fact will be again 
alluded to, both in the account of Fitz Alan and in the notes, because it is illus- 
trative of the custom at the period that no two persons should bear the same 
banner. In the 28th Edw. I. Pointz was a party to the Letter from the Barons 
to the Pope, in which document he is described as " Lord of Cory Malet," r a 
manor which he inherited in right of his grandmother, Hclewise, sister and co- 
heiress of William Baron Malet, and for the relief of which he paid fifty pounds 
in the llth Edw. I. It appears that the seal which he affixed to that document 
belonged to his son, for his arms are charged with a label of five points, and is 
inscribed " S. Nicholai Poyntz." 8 In the 35th Edw. I. he petitioned relative to 
his lands in Somersetshire ;' and, having been summoned to parliament from the 
24th June, 23 Edw. I. 1295, to the 26th August, 1 Edw. II. 1307, died in the 



<) Appendix to the First Peerage Report, pp. 38. 13, 48. 51-. 

r Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. s Archaeologia, vol. XXI. p. 216. 

t Rot. Par!, vol. I. p. 196. 



108 JOHN DE BEAUCIIAMP. 

same year. Bv , daughter of , this Baron had issue Nicholas, his son 

and heir, who was thirty years of age at his father's demise, and who was regu- 
larly summoned to parliament until his death, when his son, Hugh, inherited the 
barony. He died in 1333, and left one son, Nicholas Poyntz, who was never 
summoned to parliament, and died s. p. M., leaving two daughters and coheirs ; 
Margaret, who married Sir John de Newburgh ; and Avicia, 
who was the wife of John Barry, but her issue having failed, 
the barony created by the first writ to the subject of this 
memoir, is now vested in the descendants of the said Mar- 
garet Lady Newburgh. 



The arms of Pointz were, Barry, Or and Gules." 



JOHN DE BEAUCHAMP. 
[PAGE 20.] 

Although the life of John de Beauchamp was not extended to a great age, he 
served under three sovereigns ; but, so far as the barren facts which are preserved 
of him allow of the inference, his career was undistinguished by any action 
of great importance. During the turbulent scenes which he witnessed, he 
appears to have conducted himself with more than ordinary prudence, and to 
have escaped with more than ordinary good fortune the vicissitudes which at- 
tended so many of his contemporaries. 

He was born in 1273, being ten years of age when he succeeded his father in 
the 12th Edw. I., and the first notice taken of him by Dugdale is in the 29th 

Pp. 20 and 36; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii.; and the seal of this Baron, a<> 1301. 



JOHN DE BEAUCHAMP. 169 

Edw. I., when he obtained a grant from the King of a weekly market and yearly 
fair in his manor of Hsu-he in Somersetshire ; but it is certain that he had ful- 
filled some of the duties of his station some years before. In the 24th Edw. I., 
about which time he became of sige, he was summoned to serve with horse and 
arms against the Scots;" in January following he was commanded to attend a 
great council sit Ssdisbury ;? and in the same year to be at London to accompany 
the expedition into Gsiscony/ In the 26th and 27th Edw. I. he was again sum- 
moned to the Scottish wars ; a smd in June, 1300, was present at the siege of 
Carlaverock. His deportment is described to have displayed grace and ardour, 
and as he wsis then but little more than twenty-seven years of age, we may con- 
clude that his personal appearance attracted much attention. In the 29th Edw. I. 
Beauchamp wsis a party to the Letter from the Barons to Pope Boniface, in 
which he is styled " Lord of Hache ;" b and in the 34th year of that monarch we 
are told that he received the honor of knighthood with Prince Edward, the King's 
eldest son, but it is much more probable that it was the son of this Baron who 
was then honored with that dignity, for it is almost incredible that he should 
not have been knighted many years before. Beauchamp was summoned to the 
field upon numerous occasions during the reign of Edward the Second ; and in 
the 14th Edw. II. he succeeded his mother in her lands, at which time he is said 
to have been forty years old, but his age must have been nearer forty-seven, as 
he is stated to have been ten at his father's death in 1283, and which is corro- 
borated by his having a writ of service addressed to him as early as the 24th 
Edw. I., when, it is evident, he was of full age. In the 2nd Edw. II. he paid a 
fine of xx marks to be allowed to sunortize certain hinds at Stoke in Somerset- 
shire, for the support of five chaplains to sing in the chapel of St. Nicholas of 
that place. 

John de Beauchamp was summoned to parliament from the 29th December, 
28 Edw. I. 1299, to the 22nd January, 9 Edw. III. 1336, in which year he died ; 

leaving by Johanna, daughter of Chenduit, two sons ; John, his successor 

in his honors, then siged thirty ; and Thomas, his second son. d 



* Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 72. y Ibid. p. 78. * Ibid. p. 80. 

a Ibid. pp. 98. 100. 104. 107. 110. b Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report, 

c Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. '274 b. d Marl. MSS. 1559. 

2x 



170 



7TT\ 



TTTL 



TJTJ 



KING EDWARD THE FIRST. 

In 1.360 the barony of Beauchamp fell into abeyance 
between tbe granddaughters of this Baron ; namely, Cecily, 
who married, first, Sir Roger Seymour, ancestor of the Duke 
of Somerset, and, secondly, Sir Gilbert Turbeville ; and Elea- 
nor, the wife of John Merrett. 

The arms of Beauchamp of Somerset are, Vaire. e 



KING EDWARD THE FIRST. 

[PAGE 22.] 

Neither the limited space to which the memoirs of the individuals who were 
at Carlaverock must be confined, nor the immediate object with which they are 
introduced, will justify even a biographical sketch of this monarch. The life of 
a sovereign is the history of his reign ; hence it would be hopeless in this place 
to attempt to give any satisfactory account of him whose name is so com- 
pletely identified with the annals of this country. All then which will be said of 
Edward will relate to the information respecting him which is afforded by 
the Poet. At the time when he is spoken of he had just completed his sixty- 
first year, and we learn that he led the third squadron of the army which in- 
vested Carlaverock castle in June It300. His conduct towards his enemies, the 
Poet says, resembled the lions on his banner, for to them he was fierce, haughty, 
and cruel ; whilst his vengeance was terrible to those who excited his displeasure. 
Towards such, however, as submitted to his power, his kindness was soon re- 
kindled, and he possessed every qualification which should distinguish the chief- 
tain of noble personages. It is worthy of observation that the simile in the 



P. 20; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. ; and the seal of this Baron, ao 1301. 




JOHN OF BRITTANY. 171 

Poem respecting the royal arms, likewise occurs in some 
contemporary Latin verses lately published from the City 
archives : 



anglor* nobilitf boratuiS 
t ct 'tabi(i)5 tanquam lcopart>u, 
ct non Deb.li, toelop et non 
potnpo.su.si 



JOHN OF BRITTANY. 

[PAGE 22.] 

John dc Dreux, afterwards Earl of Richmond, was the youngest son of John 
Duke of Brittany, by Beatrice Plantagenet, second daughter of King Henry the 
Third. He was born in 1266, f and we learn from the Poem that he was placed 
under the protection of his uncle, King Edward the First, at a very early age ; 
and that he served him with great zeal and fidelity. The first information which 
is recorded of him by Dugdale is in 1293, when he states that he was General of 
the English army then sent into Gascony. In the following year, being the 
King's Lieutenant in Brittany, he was joined in commission with the Seneschal 
of Aquitaine and others to conclude a league with the King of Castile, upon 
which mission he accordingly proceeded. In a skirmish with the French 
near Bourdeaux in the 24th Edw. I. he was taken prisoner, and in the 27th 
Edw. I. as a reward for his eminent merits, he received a grant of one thousand 
pounds per annum out of the exchequer until a better provision should be made 
for him. At the siege of Carlaverock, in the 28th Edw. I., he is commemorated 
by the Poet of the event, and the particulars which he gives of him are important 
materials for his memoir. It has been just observed, upon that authority, that 

f Anderson's Royal Genealogies. 



272 JOHN OF BRITTANY. 

John de Dreux was placed with the English monarch when a child, and that 
he had repaid his uncle's kindness by devoting himself to his service. He 
was, we learn, handsome and amiable, and occupied a situation in the march 
close to the King. The courageous behaviour of his followers also receives the 
Poet's commendation, for he tells us that they were fierce and daring as lions of 
the mountains.? In the 33rd Edw. I. he was constituted Lieutenant of Scotland, 
with a grant of three thousand marks per annum out of the issues of that king- 
dom ; h and in the same year he was summoned to parliament as a Baron, by writ 
addressed to "John dc Brittany junior," tested at Wymingwcld on the 13th July, 
33 Edw. I. 1305 ; shortly after which, namely, in the parliament which met at 
Westminster on the Sunday next after the feast of St. Matthew following, he 
was appointed a Trier of Petitions. 1 On the loth October, 1306, he was created 
Earl of Richmond, and was summoned to parliament by that title on the 3rd of 
the ensuing November. He was one of the mainpernors for Amaric de St. 
Amand, who was a prisoner in the Tower of London in the 33rd Edw. I. ; k and 
was present in March, 1305, at the non-allowance of a papal provision. 1 On 
the 22nd of March, 35 Edw. I. 1307, he was commanded to attend Edward 
the King's son into France;" 1 in the same year he was forbidden to disturb 
Eleanor de Genovere in the enjoyment of her dower of the third part of the 
manor of Biwell; n and in the 1st of Edw. II. was again constituted Lieutenant 
of Scotland. On the 17th March, 3 Edw. II. 1310, the Earl of Richmond was 
one of the peers appointed to regulate the royal household; in the 6th Edw. II. 
he was nominated one of the commissioners to open the parliament, when he 
is styled the King's dearest kinsman ;P and in the 12th Edw. II. was one of the 
noblemen engaged in the treaty between the Earl of Lancaster and the King.i 
The Earl was taken prisoner by the Scots in the 13th Edw. II. ; and Dugdale re- 
lates, upon the authority of Walsingham, that the King required for his ransom a 
subsidy in parliament in the 17th Edw. II., but he could not obtain it, and the 
money was raised by contribution from his tenants. He had, however, recovered 



g P. 81. 1> Rot. Pat. 33 Edw. I. m. 6, cited in Banks's Stemmata Anglicana. 

i Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 159. k Ibid. p. 176 b. 1 Ibid. p. 179 b. 

m Foedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 1012. n R t. Parl. vol. I. p. 199 a. Ibid. p. 443 b. 

P Ibid. p. 448 a. q Ibid. p. 45-K 



JOHN OF BRITTANY. 17.3 

his liberty in the 18th Edw. II., when he was one of the ambassadors sent by 
Edward to the King of France on the subject of the Duchy of Acquitaine. 

These are the only facts which are known of one of the most eminent person- 
ages in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, but it is necessary to add that he 
has been suspected of having designed to murder the Queen and her son Prince 
Edward. No evidence of the truth or injustice of this charge can now be 
adduced, and it would therefore be idle to enter into any discussion on the 
subject. 

The Earl of Richmond survived the accession of Edward the Third several 
years, but the only circumstance related of him after that event is that, in the 
1st Edw. III., he obtained a license to grant the Earldom of Richmond to his 
brother Arthur Duke of Brittany ; that in the 5th Edw. III. he received a similar 
permission to grant to Mary St. Paul, Countess of Pembroke, some, castles and 
manors belonging to that earldom ; that in the 7th Edw. III. leave was given him 
to reside beyond the sea ; and that he bestowed ^300 on the building of the 
church of the Grey Friars in London, and presented it with several valuable 
jewels and ornaments. 

This celebrated nobleman is said to have died on the 17th January, 1334, r 
though the inquisition on his demise was not taken until the 8th Edw. III. anno 
1336. He was never married ; and was buried in the church of the Cordeliers 
at Nantes. 8 The Earl was about sixty-eight years of age at his decease, and was 
consequently thirty-four when he served under King Edward at the siege of 
Carlaverock. 

The arms borne by the Earl of Richmond were, Cheeky Or and Azure, a bor- 
dure Gules charged with lions passant gardant of the First; a quarter Ermine: 1 
or as they are blazoned in the contemporary MS. which has been so frequently 
referred to, " Les armes de Garine, a un quarter de Ermine, od la bordure de 
Engleterre."" This coat presents an example of the arrangement of different 

r Anderson's Royal Genealogies ; but according to the Histoire de Bretagne, tome I. p. 243, 
ed. 1750, he died on the 7th January 1333-4. 

s Histoire de Bretagne, ed. 1750, tome I. p. 243, where he is also stated to have presented to 
the cathedral church of that city a cross of gold enriched with a large piece of the true cross and 
many relics. Other authorities assert that the Earl was buried at Vannes in Brittany. 

* P. 22. u Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. 

2 Y 



174 



JOHN DE BARR. 



I V I 

i M 






arms upon the same shield before the system of quartering 
was adopted, which is too curious to be allowed to pass 
unobserved. The arms of Dreux were cheeky Or and 
Azure: on the marriage of that house with the heiress of 
Brittany, they placed the coat of that family, Ermine, on a 
quarter ; and, as a distinction, the ensigns of the subject of 
this memoir were surrounded by a border of England, his 
mother's arms. 



JOHN DE BARR. 

[PAGE 24.] 

The trouble which has been taken to obtain some particulars of this individual 
has not, unfortunately, been attended with the slightest success ; and it can only 
be conjectured from his arms that he was one of the ten children of Thibaut 
second Count of Bar, who died about 1296, by Jean de Toci. x As Henry Count 
de Bar, the eldest son of Thibaut, had a few years before married Eleanor, the 
daughter of King Edward the First, it is highly probable that the brother of his 
son-in-law served in his retinue ; and as his name occurs imme- 
diately after the King's nephew, John of Brittany, it would 
appear that he was also attached to the royal person in con- 
sequence of that alliance. 



The arms of John de Barr were those of his family, Azure, 
semee of cross crosslets, two barbels endorsed Or, within a 
bordure engrailed Gules/ 




* L'Art de Verifier Acs Dates. 

y P. 24. In the church of Berwick St. John in Wiltshire, is the effigy of a knight in mai] 
armour, whose shield is charged with the coat of Barr, and apparently within a bordure. It might 
possibly have been this individual, though the conjecture is unsupported by any other evidence 
than what the arms present. 



175 



WILLIAM DE GRANDISON. 

[PAGE 24.] 

The life of William dc Grandison was not distinguished by any event which 
entitles him to consideration. He was the younger brother of Otho de Grandi- 
son, and the first notice which occurs of him is that, for his faithful services 
though in a menial capacity to Edmond Earl of Lancaster, that nobleman re_ 
warded him with the manors of Radley and Menstreworth in Gloucestershire, by 
deed dated on the llth October, 10 Edw. I. 1282. In the following year he 
obtained a confirmation of that grant from the King, and also of such estovers 
as he was accustomed to have in the forest of Dene for repairing of his flood- 
gates in that manor. He petitioned to be recompensed for his loss in some pre- 
mises in Dimock in the 18th Edw. I., z and in the same year held an inquest at 
Ewelowe. 8 In the 20th Edw. I. license was given him to make a castle of his 
house at Asperton in Herefordshire ; and in the 22nd Edw. I. he was in the 
expedition into Gascony. From the 25th to the 31st Edw. I. Grandison was 
frequently in the Scottish wars ; and in June 1300 the Poem records that he was 
present at the siege of Carlaverock. No notice of his person or character 
occurs, and we can only infer from other circumstances that he could not have 
been then less than forty years of age. He was summoned to parliament from 
the 6th Feb. 27 Edw. I. 1299, to the 10th Oct. 19 Edw. II. 1325, and is men- 
tioned as being present at the parliament which met at Carlisle in the octaves of 
St. Hilary, in the 35th Edw. I. 1307. b It appears from the Rolls of Parliament 
that he petitioned for a writ de allocate relative to some debts due from him to 
the Grown, and that he was on one occasion bail for his brother Otlio, d but the 
precise years when these circumstances took place cannot be ascertained. This 
Baron was again summoned to serve in the wars of Scotland in the 8th Edw. II., 
in which year he obtained an allowance of .^103. 6*. 8rf., to be paid out of the 
Exchequer, in recompense of some horses which he had lost in Gascony in the 



Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 61. Ibid. p. 64. h Ibid. p. 188 b. 

Ibid. p. 4.62 b. d Ibid. p. 4-64 b. 



176 



WILLIAM DE GRANDISON. 



service of King Edward the First, the value of which was certified by Henry Earl 
of Lincoln, who was then Lieutenant of that province. 

William de Grandison married Sybilla, youngest daughter and coheiress of John 
Baron Tregoz. Dugdale states that they exchanged the manors of Idenne and 
I haii i in Sussex with Edward the First for a rent of ^46. 6*. 3d. out of the 
manors of Dertford and Cranstede in Kent, but it is manifest from their peti- 
tion to the King in the 8th Edw. III. that they had exchanged the manors in 
question for that of Dymok ; for, after stating that such was the case, they com- 
plained that the tenants of Dymok had never attorned to them, and entreated 
that they might be compelled to do so. e With that record of this Baron our 
information respecting him closes, excepting that he died in 1355, leaving three 
sons : Peter, who succeeded him in his honors, and who was then forty years of 
age ; John, Bishop of Exeter ; and Otho ; also three daughters : Katherine, wife 
of the Earl of Salisbury ; Agnes, who married John de Northwode ; and Mabel, 

who was the wife of Pateshull. Peter, the next Baron, died s. p. L. 

in 1358, when that dignity devolved upon John, Bishop of Exeter, his bro- 
ther, upon whose demise, in July, 1369, Thomas de Grandison, his nephew, son 
of his brother Otho who died in 1364, became his heir, and 
who was then thirty years old. The said Thomas died 
s. P. in 1375, when the representation of the William Baron 
Grandison, the subject of this article, became vested in the 
issue of his sisters above-mentioned. 

The arms of Grandison are, Paly Argent and Azure, on a 
bend Gules three eagles displayed Or. f 




Rot. Parl. vol. II. p. 83. 



f P. 24. ; and Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. 



177 



ELIAS D'AUBIGNY. 

[PAGE 24.] 

The information given by Sir William Dugdale of this Baron scarcely extends 
to six lines ; nor can much be added to his statement. He succeeeded his brother 
Philip in the Barony in the 22nd Edw. I. 1294, at which time he was thirty 
years old;? and, from the only notice which occurs of him on the Rolls of Par- 
liament, we learn that he was born out of the realm ; for in the 23rd Edw. I. the 
King, in consideration of the services which he and his ancestors had rendered 
to him and his predecessors, granted that in all his courts he should be con- 
sidered an Englishman, or, in other words, he was then naturalized. 11 He was 
summoned to parliament from the 2nd Nov. 23 Edw. I. 1295, to the 22nd Jan. 
33 Edw. I. 1305 ; and it appears from the Poem that he was present at Carla- 
verock in June, 1300, when he was about thirty-six years of age, and upon which 
occasion his courteous deportment is alluded to. He died in the 33rd Edw. I. 
1305 ;' and, though Dugdale says that he, " with Hawise his wife, conferred on 
the canons of Newhus, in the county of Lincoln, for the health of the soul of 
William de Albini (who gave them Saxelby and other lands in that county), all 
their right in the church of Saxelby, viz. the third part thereof, with certain lands 
in Dryholrne, on the south side of Fossedike ; his sons, Oliver and Ralph, con6rm- 
ing the grant ;" it is evident, from the inquisition on his death, that his wife's 
name was Johanna, and that Ralph, his son and heir, was then only eleven 
years old. k 

Ralph Daubeney, the son and heir of this Baron, who did not become of age 
until 1315, received but one writ of summons to parliament ; and none of his de- 
scendants were deemed Barons of the realm until the reign of Henry the Seventh, 



g Esch. eod. ami. h R o t. Parl. vol. I. p. 135 a. ' Esch. eod. ann. 

k Esch. 12 Edw. II. No. 14. 

2z 



178 EURMENIONS DE LA BRETTE. 




when Giles Daubeney, the great-great-grandson and heir 
of the Baron who was at Carlaverock, was created Baron 
Daubeney by patent, dated 12th March, 1486. His pre- 
sent representatives are the coheirs of the barony of Fitz 
Warine. 

The arms of Daubeney are, Gules, a fess engrailed 
Argent. 1 



EURMENIONS DE LA BRETTE. 

[PAGE 26.] 

Though evidently not a native of England, few persons were so constantly 
engaged in the diplomatic affairs of this country in the fourteenth century as this 
individual ; and from one circumstance, which will be particularly noticed, it 
would appear that he enjoyed the highest reputation for sagacity and wisdom in 
the councils of Edward the First and Second. All which is known of him has 
been derived from the Fredera, hence the few particulars which have been ascer- 
tained stand upon unquestionable authority ; and they undoubtedly entitle him 
to much consideration. 

La Brett was descended from a noble family in Gascony, and the earliest record 
in which he is mentioned informs us of the name of his father ; for on the 4th 
April, 1289, by the appellation of our faithful valette, son of the late Amaneus 
de le Brett, Knight, the King, in reward of his services, granted him the parish 



1 P. 24; and Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. The arms of Daubeney are usually blazoned, 
Gules, four fusils in fess Argent; but see some observations in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 
XCVI. part I. p. 410, attempting to prove that such blazon is a corruption from the original 
bearing, both in this and in many other instances of similar charges; for example, Dinham, Mar- 
shal, Raleigh, &c. 



EURMENIONS DE LA BRETTE. 179 

of Pissons and other lands in Gascony and Acquitainc. m On the 3rd July, 1294, 
he was appointed one of the ambassadors from Edward to treat with those of the 
King of Spain ; n and he received a similar appointment to the Pope in January, 
1296, in which he is styled a Knight. A few years afterwards, namely on the 
22nd April, 1299, he was constituted one of the commissioners for placing cer- 
tain lands and inhabitants of Gascony in the hands of the Pope;P and he was 
one of the ambassadors who executed the treaty with the Pontiff at Mostreul sur 
Mer on Friday before the feast of St. John the Baptist in the same year.i 

The next occasion on which he is mentioned is in the preceding Poem, from 
which we learn that he was at the siege of Carlaverock ; but all that is said of 
him relates to his banner, nor is there any evidence from which his age can 
be ascertained. On the 26th Sept. 1300, by the description of Amaneus Lord 
of la Brette, he, the Earl of Lincoln, Otho de Grandison, and Hugh le De- 
spenser, were appointed ambassadors to the Pope; r and on the 25th April, and 
29th October, 1307, he was selected by Edward to treat for peace between 
England and France. 9 The latter appointment is thus alluded to by Peter 
de Langtoft : 

!3;. #or perille of guilh gopnges* the fting purtoeieD to go, 
&ir 3!on E ^agtpngeg ty tea*! firgt of tjjo, 
3nD <|>ir <tmrp tljc SSrette, to ^agcopne forto toenDc, 
3to bioe fyt terme js'ette, tljc treu.s Ijota it .s'ulD 



On the 6th April, 1305, he was ordered to treat with a French prelate for 
the exchange of certain castles ; u and in the same year was nominated, with 
the Bishops of Chester and Lincoln, the Earl of Warwick, Lord le De- 
spenser, Otho de Grandison, and others, to deliver a message from the King to 
parliament." Upon the young Prince Edward's voyage to France in March, 
1307, La Brette, with the Earls of Richmond and Warwick and other noblemen, 
were commanded to attend hiin.y It is evident that he survived the accession of 
Edward the Second, but the only notice of him in that reign deserving of atten- 



m Foedera, N. E. tome I. p. 708. Ibid. p. 805. Ibid. p. 834. P Ibid. p. 906. 

q Ibid. p. 907. r Ibid. p. 922. Ibid. pp. 940. 945. t p. sis. 

u Fcedera, vol. I. p. 971. * Hot. Par!, vol. I. p. 210 b. y Feeders, vol. I. p. 1012. 



180 EURMENIONS DE LA BRETTE. 

tion, is one which tends to establish the high opinion that was entertained of him ; 
for by a writ tested on the 5th April, 1312, the King, from a full reliance on his 
former services both to his father and himself, entreated him in the most urgent 
manner to attend a council on some important affairs. 2 His name again occurs 
in February, 1314, a but nothing more can with certainty be said of him, though, 
as it is just possible from the dates that it might have been the same person, it 
is necessary to observe that a Sir Amayen de la Brett, whose arms were, Gules, 
a lion passant gardant in chief Or, was at the siege of Calais, with a retinue of 
three knights, twelve esquires, and seventeen hobilers, under Edward the Third, 
in 1346 ; b and that the name of the " Sieur de la Brett" often occurs on the Rolls 
of Parliament about the same time. c In all probability, however, the Sir Amayen 
last mentioned was the son of the subject of this article, for if living he must 
have been nearly eighty years of age. 

The merits of Eurmenions de la Brette can only be inferred from his services, 
and this criterion justifies the opinion that he was celebrated for his talents in 
council rather than for his prowess in the field. Of his marriage, issue, and 
death, nothing is known ; but, from the fact just men- 
tioned, it would seem that he was succeeded in his lord- 
ship in Gascony by a son of his own name, and who also 
appears to have been a person of much consideration. 

The arms of Eurmenions de la Brette were merely 
Gules. 



Fcedera, vol. II. p. 163. a Ibid. p. 242. 

Mores' Nomina et Insignia Gentilitia, &c. p. 96. 

Vol. II. pp. 222 b. 236 b. 299 b. See also Calend. Rot. Pat. 34 Edw. III. 



181 



HUGH DE VERB. 

[PAGE 26.] 

Few of the individuals who were at Carlaverock were so distinguished by 
their birth and actions as Hugh de Vere. He was a younger son of Robert 
Earl of Oxford, by Alice, the daughter and heiress of Gilbert de Sandford. The 
first notice which occurs of him is in the 21st Edw. I., when, being in the wars 
of France, he was appointed Governor of St. Cyverine ; and in the following year 
he was present at the ratification of the peace made between England and that 
country. In the 25th Edw. I. he was sent, with the Bishops of Winchester and 
Ely, the Earl of Pembroke, and others, to treat for peace with France, and re- 
mained in Gascony in the King's service for some time. He was ordered to 
Rome upon an important mission in the 26th Edw. I., and in the 29th Edw. I. 
was employed with the Earl of Warren to treat with the French ambassadors 
relative to a peace with Scotland. At the siege of Carlaverock, in June, 1300, 
this Baron served in the third squadron, and the Poet's description of him and his 
banner are equally minute. In the February following Vere was a party to the 
Letter from the Barons to the Pontiff, in which he is styled " Lord of Swains- 
chaumpfP in the 33rd Edw. I. he was one of the manucaptors of Almaric de 
St. Amand, who was then a prisoner in the Tower of London ;i and in March in 
the same year he was present at the non-allowance of a pap.il provision. 11 He 
was again in the Scottish wars in the 34th Edw. I. ; and upon the accession 
of Edward II. he and his wife were commanded by writ, tested on the 8th Feb. 
1 Edw. II. 1308, to attend the King and Queen's coronation. 8 Hugh de Vere 
was summoned to parliament from the 6th Feb. 27 Edw. I. 1299, to the 3rd 
March, 11 Edw. II. 1318, and is presumed to have died about the 12th Edw. II. 
without issue. 

He married, before the 25th Edw. I., Dionysia, daughter and eventually sole 

P Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. q Rot. Pad. vol I. p. 176. r Ibid. p. 179 b. 
- Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 31. 



182 



JOHN DE RIVERS. 



I 



heiress of Warine de Montchensy, and obtained livery of the lands of her brother, 
who died in that year, as a reward, Dugdalc says, for his services, as she was not 

then of full age. This lady died without issue in the 7th Edw. 

II., when Aymer de Valence, afterwards Earl of Pembroke, 

was found to be her heir. 



The arms of Hugh dc Vere were, Quarterly Gules and Or, 
in the first quarter a mullet Argent; the whole within a bor- 
durc indented Sable.' The border was assumed as a difference 
from the arms of his brother the Earl of Oxford. 




JOHN DE RIVERS. 

[PAGE 26.] 

As this family, though unquestionably Barons of the realm, escaped the atten- 
tion of Sir William Dugdale, but very little is known of them. John de Rivers, 
who was at the siege of Carlaverock, is stated to have been the son and heir of 
a person of the same name, and to have succeeded him in his lands in the 22nd 
Edw. I." Besides the circumstances already mentioned, all which is recorded 
of him is, that he was summoned to parliament from the 6th Feb. 27 Edw. I. 
1299, to the 26th August, 1 Edw. II. 1307 ; x that he was a party to the Letter 
from the Barons of England, in February, 1301, to Pope Boniface the Eighth, 
in which he is styled" Lord of Angre,"? but his seal is not attached to that 



Page 26; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii.; a contemporary painting on glass in the south win- 
dow of the chancel of Dorchester church in Oxfordshire ; aud the seal of this Baron a 1301. From 
the latter it would appear that his crest was a boar passant. See some observations on the point 
in the Archaeologia, vol. XXI. 

u Banks's Stemmata Anglicana. x Appendix to the First Peerage Report. 

y Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. 



JOHN DE RIVERS. 



183 



document ; and that in the 4th Edw. II. he paid ten marks for license to enfeoff 
John, his son and heir, of his said manor of Aungre. z 

This Baron died in 1311, leaving his son John his heir, who was also summoned 
to parliament, and died circa 1339. Edmund, his son, died s. p. M., whose 
daughter, Katherine, was his heir. She was twice married ; first, to William 
Lenthall, by whom she had a son, John, who died on the 13th Feb. 17 Hen. VI. 
s. p. ; and, secondly, to John Hall, but it does not appear that she had any issue 
by him. Upon the death of John Lenthall above mentioned, in the 17th Hen. VI. 
William Bulkelcy, of Eaton, co. Chester, son and heir of John, eldest son of 
Bulkeley, by Christian, daughter of John second Baron Rivers, and grand- 
daughter of the Baron who was at Carlaverock, became his representative. 



The arms of Rivers, according to the Poem, were, Mas- 
cally Or and Gules ; a but the contemporary MS. so fre_ 
quently cited states that they were, " De Goules, a vj mascles 
de Or ; b and which Glover evidently deemed to be the correct 
blazon, as he has drawn them in a very similar manner in the 
MS. from which the annexed wood-cut was copied. 




* Banks's Stemmata Anglicana, on the authority of Orig. 4 Edw. II. rot. 18. 
Page 26. b Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. 



184 

MAURICE DE CREON. 

[PAGE 26.] 

It is extremely difficult, even if it be not impossible, to identify this knight ; 
for, although the family whose name and arms c he bore were not only one of 
the most illustrious in Anjou, but were nearly related to King Edward the First, 
the attempt to ascertain in what way he was connected with it has wholly failed; 
nor has any thing concerning his life or character been discovered. The genea- 
logy of the house of Craon is minutely detailed by Monsieur Augustin du Paz, 
in his " Histoire Genealogique de plusieurs Maisons Illustrcs de Brctagne," from 
which it appears that Maurice Sire de Creon, son and heir of Maurice de Creon, 
by Isabel de la Marche, sister of William de Valence Earl of Pembroke, and 
uterine sister of Henry the Third, d died in February, 1293, hence it is impossible 
it could have been the individual mentioned by the Poet. No other Maurice 
occurs in the pedigree until the birth of the grandson of that Baron in 1309, 
consequently no light is thrown on the point by that work. In July, 1280, 
Morice Sire de Craon, and Greforoi de Grenville, two of Edward the First's 



c The arms of Craon of Anjou were, Lozengy Or and Gules, but the terms lozengfe and mascallfe 
were often used synonymously in the fourteenth century. 

d This marriage is thus proved by records, from which it will also be seen that the said Isabel 
remarried the Duke of Burgundy, a fact unnoticed by Du Paz, from whom however we learn that 
she died on the 14th January, 1299-1300, and was buried in the dress of the order of St. Francis 
in the chapel of St John the Baptist which her son Maurice de Creon had built in the church of 
St. Francis in Angers. P. 755. 

Fcedera, vol. I. p. 278. The grant of a pension to " our sister Isabel, who was the wife of Mau- 
rice de Craon, of c marks per annum," 10th July, 35 Hen. III. 1251. See also the Calendar 
to the Patent Rolls. 
Calend. Rot. Pat. 4O Hen. III. " Marriage between Isabel de Croun, sister of the King, and 

the Duke of Burgundy." 

Ibid. 54 Hen. III. The King restored Maurice de Croun, his nephew, to the manor of Bourne, 
which, the record states, had belonged to Almaric his father, though it is evident, from the 
above extracts from that Calendar, as well as from the Fcedera, that his father's name was 
Maurice. Query, if it should not have been, Almaric his grandfather?" 



ROBERT DE CLIFFORD. 



185 



Knights, addressed a letter to him, reporting their proceedings with the King of 
France relative to the King of Castile; 6 and in a letter from Edward to the 
French monarch on the same subject, dated in 1282, he states that he had 
ordered " our cousin Mons r Morice dc Croun, and our subject John dc Greilly," 
to represent to him that, in consequence of the wars in which he was engaged 
in Wales, he could not assist him against the King of Spain/ But these 
notices apparently refer to the Baron who is said by Du Paz to have 
died in 1293 ; and it is uncertain whether the Maurice de Craon who 
was a guardian of Robert de Montalt in 1290,e was the knight who 
served at the siege of Carlaverock, though it is extremely probable. As 
the Poet merely calls him the good Maurice de Creon, and states that his 
arms were the same as those borne by John de Rivers, no 
information is afforded on the point in question, and it 
would therefore be useless to say any more upon the 
subject. 



The arms of Maurice de Craon appear to have been, 
Mascally Or and Gules ; or, more probably, Gules, seven 
mascles Or. h 




ROBERT DE CLIFFORD. 

[PAGES 27 AND 28.] 

Among the Barons of Edward the First's court there was one, who, whilst 
equal in birth and possessions to any of his compeers, stood almost unrivalled in 
the splendour and extent of his services. In every military event he is recorded 
to have occupied a distinguished station ; nor for a long series of years did a 



e Fcedera, tome I. p. 583. 
I> Page 26. 



f Ibid. p. 607. 

3 B 



e Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 39 a. 



186 ROBERT DE CLIFFORD. 

circumstance of the least importance occur without that individual having shared 
in a pre-eminent degree in its dangers or responsibility. In this description every 
one who is at all acquainted with the history of the commencement of the four- 
teenth century cannot fail to recognize Robert de Clifford ; and these remarks are 
not only justified by the pages of chroniclers and the national records, but they 
are corroborated by the Poet of the siege of Carlaverock, who has devoted a 
larger space to him than to any other person, and in the most emphatic and 
poetical manner says that he was possessed of every possible merit. 

His lineage being particularly alluded to, some attention must be paid to the 
subject, both because it illustrates a passage in the poem, and evinces the critical 
knowledge of genealogy possessed by the writer. Why Scotland could testify 
his exalted birth is not easily explained, excepting that his possessions were in 
the vicinity of that kingdom ; nor is the exploit which is said to have been per- 
formed by the Earl Marshal at Constantinople in slaying an unicorn, which 
probably referred to a tradition familiar at the time of some deed of one of the 
Marshal family in the Holy Land, elsewhere commemorated ; but his descent from 
that house " through his mother" is thus shewn : 

William Earl Marshal, Earl of Pembroke,=^Isabel, dau. and heiress of Richard Earl 
ob. 1219. of Pembroke. 



Maud de Marshal, sister and coheiress of Anselm Earl MarshakpHugh Bigot Earl of Norfolk, ob. 
and Earl of Pembroke. 9 Hen. III. 1224. 



Ralph Bigot, 3d son.zpBerta, dau. of Lord Furnival. 
Isabel Bigot, dau. and heiress.=pJohn Fitz Geoffrey. 

Isabel Fitz Geoffrey, dau. and=pRobert de Vipount, Lord of Westmoreland, ob. 
coheiress. 49 Hen. III. 1264. 

Isabel de Vipount, eldest dau. and=pRoger de Clifford, ob. vita patris, 
coheiress. 11 Edw. I. 1282. 



ROBERT DE CLIFFORD, son and heir, succeeded his grandfather Roger Lord Clifford 1285. 

Robert de Clifford was the eldest son of Roger de Clifford, who was acci- 
dentally slain between Snowdon and Anglesey in 1280, and whose merits are highly 
eulogised by the Poet. He was born about Easter, April, 1274 ; and in the 14th 
Edw. 1. 1286, he succeeded his grandfather in his baronial honours, being then 
twelve years of age. In the 13th Edw. I. he was found to be one of the heirs 



ROBERT DE CLIFFORD. 187 

of Ralph de Gaugy, and paid ,^100 for his relief; after which, the next circum- 
stance which has been found recorded of him is, that he was summoned to attend 
the King with horse and arms in his expedition beyond the sea on the 4th May, 
25 Edw. I. 1297;' and on the 26th September following he was ordered to be 
at Carlisle, similarly equipped to serve against the Scots, at the ensuing feast of 
Pentecost ; k but Dugdale asserts that he was present at the battle of Dunbar in 
the 24th Edw. I. ; that in the 25th Edw. I. he was sent with a hundred men at 
arms and twenty thousand foot from Carlisle to plunder in Scotland, and that 
after much slaughter he returned with considerable booty on Christmas eve. In 
that year he was also appointed Justice of all the King's forests beyond the Trent ; 
in the 26th Edw. I. he was made Governor of Nottingham Castle ; and in the 
27th Edw. I., being constituted the King's Lieutenant and Captain General in the 
counties of Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Lancaster, and throughout Annan- 
dale and the Marches of Scotland, he was joined in commission with the Bishop 
of Durham and others to consider of the means of garrisoning the castles in that 
kingdom, and for guarding the Marches. Clifford was again summoned to the 
Scottish wars on the 7th May, 27 Edw. I. 1299 ;' and received his first writ to 
parliament on the 29th December in the same year. 

The early age at which this nobleman was entrusted with these important duties 
is worthy of remark, for he did not attain his majority till 1295, and consequently 
could not have been above twenty-five when he was thus honoured with his 
sovereign's confidence, a fact which speaks forcibly in his praise. It was at this 
period of his life that he was noticed in the Poem, and as his conduct at Car- 
laverock is wholly passed over by his former biographers, it claims especial 
regard in this memoir. After stating that he served in the third squadron, which 
was led by the King in person, and extolling Clifford's valour, descent, and pru- 
dence, the writer adds, that if he were a young maiden he would bestow on him 
his heart and person in consideration of his renown. During the siege we are 
told that he particularly distinguished himself," 1 and was rewarded by being ap- 
pointed Governor of the Castle when it surrendered, in consequence of which 
his banner was placed on its battlements." Clifford was a party to the Letter 
from the Barons to Pope Boniface in the 29th Edw. I. February, 1301, in which 

> Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 80. k Ibid. p. 100. 1 Ibid. p. 107. 

m Page 77 ante. " Page 87 ante. 



188 ROBERT DE CLIFFORD. 

he is described as " Castellanus de Appelby ;" and in the 34th Edw. I, in recom- 
pense for his numerous services, he obtained a grant of the borough of Hartle- 
pole, and of all the lands of Robert de Brus. In the same year he was sent with 
Ayiner de Valence against the said Robert, who had then assumed the title of 
King of Scotland, about which time the lands of Christopher de Seyton were 
granted to him. Clifford attended the death-bed of the King in 1307, and 
received the dying monarch's injunctions to prevent the return of Gaveston into 
the realm. In the 1st Edw. II. he was again made Governor of Nottingham 
Castle, and constituted Earl Marshal of England; and on the 31st January, 
1308, he joined several other lords in an engagement to support the title and 
honor of the young King with their lives and fortunes. In the 2nd Edw. II. he 
was constituted Warden of the Marches of Scotland, and soon afterwards 
Governor of that kingdom; and on the 17th March, 1309-10, was one of the 
peers selected to regulate the royal household. Several valuable grants of lands 
were bestowed upon him in the 3rd and 4th Edw. II. in consideration of his 
merits ; and he was again summoned to serve in Scotland in the 4th 
Edw. II. In the 6th Edw. II. he was joined in commission with the Earl of 
Hereford and others to continue a treaty begun at Margate with the Count of 
Eureux and the Bishop of Poitou upon some important affairs. On the 6th 
Feb. 1313, he received an acquittance from the King for the jewels, horses, &c. 
belonging to Piers de Gaveston ;P and he firmly adhered to Thomas Earl of 
Lancaster against the unfortunate favourite, for his agency in whose death he 
afterwards procured the royal pardon. 

Lord Clifford was regularly summoned to parliament from the 29th Dec. 28 
Edw. I. 1299, to the 26th Nov. 7 Edw. II. 1313 ; and he terminated his career 
in a manner strictly consistent with his life, for he fell in the battle of Bannock- 
burn, on the 25th June, 1314, at the early age of forty years. His body was 
sent to King Edward at Berwick, and is supposed to have been buried at Shapp 
Abbey in Wcstmorcland.i 

Clifford married Maud, daughter and eventually coheir of Thomas de Clare, 
Steward of Waltham Forest, son of Thomas, younger son of Richard de Clare 



o Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 443. P Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 203. See page 139 ante, 

q Collins's Peerage, ed. 1779, vol. VI. p. 357. 



ROBERT DE CLIFFORD. 



189 



Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, by whom, who survived him and remarried 
Robert Baron Welles, he had issue Roger, his successor in the barony, then aged 
fifteen years, but who died s. p. in 1337 ; Robert, brother and heir of Roger ; 
and, according to some pedigrees, two other sons, John and Andrew ; and a 
daughter, Idonea, the wife of Henry Lord Clifford. 11 

From Robert de Clifford, the second son of the subject of this article, de- 
scended the baronial line of Clifford, which, in the reign of Henry the Eighth, 
was elevated to the Earldom of Cumberland. The barony of Clifford is now 
possessed by Edward Southwell, the present Lord de Clifford, the abeyance having 
been terminated in favor of his Lordship's father in 1776. 



The arms of Clifford are, Cheeky Or and Azure, a fess 
Gules. 8 It is worthy of remark, as illustrative of the usage 
of arms in the early part of the fourteenth century, that the 
seal of this Baron to the Letter to the Pope in 1301, contains 
a shield of his arms surrounded by six annulets, and which 
there can be little doubt were assumed from the coat of his 
mother, Isabel daughter and coheiress of Robert de Vipount, 
Or, six annulets Gules. 



Many authorities make this Idonea the sister instead of the daughter of this Baron, but a com- 
parison of dates renders the latter almost certain. 

Page 27 ; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii ; and the seal of this Baron, a 1301. 



3c 



190 



HUGH LE DESPENCER. 

[PAGE 28.] 

The vicissitudes of fortune which attended this individual, his eventful career, 
and, more than all, his tragical fate, have combined to render his name familiar 
to every historical reader. Indeed so crowded was his life with incidents, that it 
would be in vain to attempt to do more than present a brief outline of the most 
striking of them. 

Hugh le Despenser was the eldest son of the celebrated Justiciary of England 
in the reign of Henry the Third, and succeeded his father in 1265, when he was 
about twenty-nine years of age. The earliest notice which occurs of him after 
that time is in the 15th Edw. I. when he was in the retinue of Edward Earl 
of Cornwall in Wales ; and in the same year he paid a fine to the King of two 
thousand marks for having married, without license, Isabel, the widow of Patrick 
Chaworth, and daughter of William Earl of Warwick. In the 22nd Edw. I. he 
was made Governor of Odiham Castle in the county of Southampton, and was 
summoned to attend the King into Gascony. He was at the battle of Dunbar in 
the 24th Edw. I. ; and on the 29th July following, during that monarch's invasion 
of Scotland, he dispatched " Syr Hugh Spencer and Syr John Hastynges to serche 
the countrey of Badenasshe."' In the 25th Edw. I. he attended the King into 
Flanders, and was one of the commissioners sent to treat of peace between 
England and France. Spencer was again in the Scottish wars in the 26th and 
28th Edw. I. ; and in June in the year last mentioned, being then nearly sixty- 
four years old, he served at the siege of Carlaverock, when his military prowess 
is particularly praised. On the 26th Sept. 1300, he was, with others, appointed 
ambassador to the Pope." He was one of the mainpernors of Almaric de St. 
Amand, then a prisoner in the Tower of London, in the 33rd Edw. I. ; x and in 
the same year was one of the peers nominated to treat with the Bishop of Glas- 



t Archaeologia, vol. XXI. u Feedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 922. 

* Rot. Par!, vol. I. p. 176 b. 



HUGH LE DESPENSER. 191 

gow and the Earl of Carrick on the affairs of Scotland.? In the octaves of the 
feast of St. Hilary, 35 Edw. I. Spencer was present at the parliament which met 
at Carlisle, 2 and was then again in the Scottish wars. On the 22nd March, 1307, 
he, the Earl of Richmond, the Earl of Warwick, and Amaneus de la Brettc, were 
commanded to attend Prince Edward into France; 8 and at the coronation ' of 
Edward the Second he bore a part of the regalia. b He was appointed Governor 
of the Castles of Devizes and Marlborough in the 1st Edw. II. ; and soon after 
the death of Piers de Gaveston, the young monarch having fixed his affections 
on Hugh Ic Despencer, the eldest son of this Baron, the royal favour was evinced 
in a degree which proved fatal to both. During the commotion produced between 
the lords and their sovereign from the presumption of the younger Despencer, his 
father quitted the realm to avoid the dangers with which he was menaced. His 
perpetual exile, as well as that of his son, was insisted upon by the enraged 
Barons, who, after voting that measure, disbanded their forces. Edward, how- 
ever, upon an insult offered to the Queen by Lord Badlesmere, to chastise that 
nobleman's insolence, assembled an army with which he soon afterwards over- 
threw the Earl of Lancaster at Boroughbridgc in Yorkshire. His success was 
instantly signalized by the advancement of the obnoxious favourites : on the 
10th May, 15 Edw. II. 1322, the elder Hugh Despencer was created Earl of 
Winchester, with an extensive grant of territories ; and in the same year he was 
appointed Warden of the King's forests to the south of the Trent. Little remains 
to be said of this eminent personage, as his advanced age at the time of his ele- 
vation to that earldom, rendered him almost incapable of interfering in public 
affairs, though he soon afterwards fell a victim to the mad ambition of his son. 
It is needless however to relate the measures adopted by the Queen and Prince 
Edward to remove the King from the influence of the younger Despencer. Upon 
Prince Edward's arrival at Bristol, of which place the Earl of Winchester was 
governor, the garrison rebelled against his authority, and he was brought 
before the Prince, who instantly condemned him to be drawn, beheaded, and 
afterwards hanged on a gibbet. This sentence was executed in the sight of the 
King, as well as of the Earl's own son, on the 9th of October, 1326, he being 



y Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 267. * Ibid. p. 188 b. a Fcedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 1012. 

b Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 36. 



192 



HUGH LE DESPENCER. 



then nearly ninety years old. Some writers assert that the Earl's body was sus 
pended by two cords for four days, and then cut in pieces and given as food to 
dogs, whilst his head was sent to Winchester, in consequence of his being Earl 
of that city. 

w 

The Earl of Winchester married, as has been already stated, Isabel, daughter 
of William Earl of Warwick, and widow of Patrick Chaworth, by whom he had 
issue Hugh, the favourite of Edward the Second ; and Joan and Eleanor, who 
were nuns at Sempringham in Lincolnshire. Hugh le Despencer the younger^ 
was executed a few weeks after his father, and left issue by Eleanor, daughter 
and coheir of Gilbert de Clare Earl of Gloucester, the King's niece, two sons, 
Hugh, who died s. p., and Edward, both of whom were summoned to parliament. 
Thomas Lord Despenser, the son of the said Edward, obtained a reversal of the 
attainder of his grandfather and of the Earl of Winchester in 1397, in which 
year he was created Earl of Gloucester. One of the representatives of Hugh 

Earl of Winchester is Thomas Stapleton, the present Lord 

le Despenser. 

The arms of Despencer are, Quarterly, Argent and Gules : 
the 2nd and 3rd quarters fretty Or : over all a bend Sable. 
The 2nd and 3rd quarters arc now blazoned, charged with 
a fret ; but this, it is confidently contended, is a corruption 
from the ancient bearing. 




< P. 28 ; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. In that MS. the arms of the son of this Baron are said 
to have been distinguished by " un label de Azure ;" and it is the omission of the label in the arms 
in the Roll of Carlaverock which has alone identified the individual alluded to as the elder instead 
of the younger Despencer. 



193 



HUGH DE COURTENAY. 
[PAGE 30.] 

The history of the house of Courtenay one of the most ancient and illustrious 
in Europe having hecn related with unequalled eloquence by Mr. Gibbon, it 
would be presumptuous in this sketch of the life of the 6rst individual of that 
family who attained the honours of an English earldom to allude particularly to 
his splendid pedigree, or to notice in detail either the exalted alliances or un- 
merited misfortunes of his descendants. Their alliances are, however, too inti- 
mately connected with those misfortunes, and were of too singular a nature, to 
be passed over in silence. 

In the male line the family of Courtenay is said to have sprung from Pha- 
rarnond the founder of the French monarchy, and more immediately from Regi- 
nald de Courtenay, who accompanied Henry the Second into England. By his 
first wife this Reginald is considered to have had a daughter, who married 
Peter, son of Louis le Gros King of France, and from whom the Emperors of 
Constantinople and the Princes of Courtenay of France descended. His second 
wife was Hawise, daughter and heiress of Robert de Abrincis, by whom he had 
issue Robert de Courtenay, Baron of Oakhampton in the reigns of John and 
Henry the Third. He married Mary, the daughter of William de Rivers Earl of 
Devon, through whom his great-grandson, Hugh de Courtenay, the subject of 
this memoir, derived his claim to that Earldom. 

He was born in 1275, and succeeded his father Hugh in the barony of Oak- 
hampton in February 1291, at which time he was sixteen years of age; and in 
1295, though he had not then attained his majority, he performed homage and had 
livery of part of the lands of Isabel de Fortibus Countess of Devon, to whom he 
was heir. During the latter part of the reign of Edward the First he was five 
times summoned to serve in the wars of Scotland, and once into Wales, with 
horse and arms ; and was present at the siege of Carlaverock in June, 1300, but 
no description is given of his person or merits beyond the simple title of " the 
good Hugh dc Courtenay." He attended the parliament which met at Carlisle 

3D 



194 HUGH DE COURTENAY. 

in the octaves of St. Hilary, 35 Edw. I. ; d but no other notice of the least im- 
portance occurs of him in the reign of Edward the First, excepting that he 
received the honor of knighthood at Whitsuntide in the 34th Edw. I. when that 
dignity was hestowed upon the young Prince Edward and three hundred dis- 
tinguished persons, among whom was Sir Philip Courtenay, the brother of the 
Baron. That event is thus described by a contemporary chronicler: 

2n thi pere, al 31 tola, at the tBhit.Soncn Dap, 

She fcpng htf fejit gulD hola at BejStmpngtre fuUe sap, 

$i gonne <DtoarD the prince, anb fiftene for hi gafce, 

OT hre hunbreb of the province, fonpghte^ teilb he mate, 

3|t toa the fopnge^ cottage, for tlfe a ftnpaht toa.g gegt, 

aisSo thei mab manage of gom that toere the faet. 

She pong <rle of Barenne toith gtete nobtep ioa^J thare, 

3 toif thei him bifeenne, the t[ej Douhter of 25are. 

ache rle of arun&elle hi)S lonoeg lauht he than, 

3nD tofte a Damp^eKe, litliam douhter of IDarenne. 

iong &k Hugh toag thate, the ^pen^ere ^tout anD gap, 

J5itbert Douhter of Clare ineODeo he that Dap. 

3Jt i# not to toene, bot certepnlp to toiten, 

5jope inouth i^ sSene, ther ^uilft a fejJt i^ jSmpten. 

5(n alle 2Bretapn ina^ nouht, jSithen Crite toa^ born, 

a fe^t go noble torought aftere no biforn. c 

After the accession of Edward the Second, Courtenay appears to have more 
particularly distinguished himself in public affairs, for in the 2nd Edw. II. he was 
made a knight banneret, and was in the expedition into Scotland in the 8th 
Edw. II. In the following year he claimed the territories which had belonged 
to Isabel de Fortibus Countess of Devon, the proceedings relative to which are 
given at great length on the Rolls of Parliament/ On the dispute between the 
King and the Barons in the 12th Edw. II. he was appointed one of the Council 
who were to be about the King's person.^ He was a Receiver of Petitions in 
the parliament which assembled at Westminster in the octaves of St. Michael in 
the 14th Edw. II. h and was frequently engaged in the proceedings therein. 1 In 

l Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 188. e Peter of Langtoft, p. 332. f Rot. Parl. vol. I. pp. 334336. 
g Ibid. p. 453 b. h Ibid. p. 365. i Ibid. p. 367 b. 382 b. 



HUGH DE COURTENAY. 19.5 

the next parliament he petitioned the King and his council relative to the honor 
of Plympton; k and in the 5th Edw. III. attended the parliament which met at 
Westminster. 1 He was again a Trier of Petitions in the 6th Edw. III. ; ra and on 
the 22nd Feb. 9 Edw. III. 1335, he was created Earl of Devon ; after which time 
nothing occurs of him on the Rolls of Parliament. Before the 8th Edw. III. he 
had obtained the wardship of John de Roger, for in that year he petitioned the 
King and his council about his lands, in which he stated that Courtenay had 
granted the same to Richard de Chuselden." 

The Earl of Devon died in his sixty-sixth year in 1340, and, considering that 
he was by birth, rank, and possessions one of the most powerful men of his 
times, and that in 1325 his eldest son had married the King's niece, his life was 
less chequered by vicissitudes than that of almost any of his contemporaries. 
This circumstance is the more remarkable, if the character given of him by the 
Monk of Ford be correct, who says that he was extraordinarily endowed with 
wisdom and knowledge, unless by " wisdom" was meant that cold and calculating 
prudence which enables its possessor to profit by the intemperance and calamities 
of others. By Agnes, sister of John Lord St. John, the Earl had issue Hugh, 
second Earl of Devon, who was thirty-seven years old at his father's death ; John, 
Abbot of Tavistock ; Robert ; Thomas ; Eleanor, wife of John Lord Grey of 
Codnor ; and Elizabeth, who married Bartholomew de L'Isle. 

The Earldom of Devon continued in the house of Courtenay, subject however 
to occasional forfeitures and restorations, and latterly merged in the higher dig- 
nity of Marquess of Exeter, until the reign of Elizabeth. By the next monarch 
the titles of Devon and Exeter were, with moral injustice at least, conferred upon 
far less illustrious families, notwithstanding that male descendants of the first 
Earl were then living in great honor at their seat of Powderham Castle. It 
has since been once more restored to the honors of the peerage : but their present 
rank forms a melancholy contrast to their ancient splendour ; and when it is 
remembered that the misfortunes which have attended them were produced by the 
jealousy of the Crown, equally of their proximity to the succession and of their 
immense wealth and influence, there are few who reflect on the rise and fall 
of eminent families but would sincerely rejoice at any circumstance that might 
hereafter restore its representative to the most ancient of his ancestor's dignities 

k Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 405 b. 1 Ibid. vol. II. p. 61 a. m Ibid. p. 68 a. " Ibid. p. 82 b. 



196 HUGH DE t'OURTENAY. 

the Earldom of Devon, an event which is not improbable." This memoir will 
be concluded by describing those alliances with the blood-royal which have been 
alluded to, and some of which are unparalleled in the history of any other 
family in this kingdom. 

Hugh Courtenay, second Earl of Devon, married Margaret, daughter of 
Humphrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford and Essex, by Elizabeth, daughter of 
King Edward the First. 

Edward Courtenay, eldest son of Edward Earl of Devon, married Eleano, 
sister and coheir of Edmund Earl of March, and sister of Ann, wife of Richard 
Earl of Cambridge, through whom the line of York derived its claim to the 
throne. He however died vita patris s. P. 

William Earl of Devon married Katherine Plantagenet, daughter of King 
Edward the Fourth, and sister of Elizabeth of York, wife of King Henry the 
Seventh, from whom every English monarch since Richard the Third descended. 
By her the Earl of Devon had a son, Henry, who was created Marquess of Exeter, 
but fell a victim to the jealousy of Henry the Eighth. Edward, his son, was 
created Earl of Devon on the 3rd Sept. 1553, and was restored to all his father's 
dignities in the same year. It is said that he was the object of Queen Mary's 
affections, whilst his own were placed on her sister the Princess Elizabeth. After 
passing the greater part of his life in prison, he died, not without suspicion of 
having been poisoned, at Padua, s. p., in 1556, when the titles of Devon and 
Exeter became lost to the house of Courtenay. 

Thus in two instances did the representative of this illus- 
trious family marry the younger daughter and coheir of the 
personage whose eldest daughter's issue inherited the crown. 

The ancient arms of the English house of Courtenay 
were, Or, three Torteaux, a label Azure; but the label 
has subsequently, with as little propriety as taste, been dis- 
continued. 




n Edward Courtenay, the last Marquess of Exeter, was created Earl of Devon at Richmond, on 
the 3rd Sept. 1553, to hold to him " et heredibus suis masculis in perpetuum," and the clause in the 
patent giving a seat in parliament, runs, to the said Edward, " et heredes sui mascuti" without the 
usual words, " de corpore," an omission which, it may be contended, was a grant of the earldom to him 
and his heirs male whatsoever, and which would vest it in the present heir male of that nobleman. 

o Page 30; and Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. It is worthy of remark, as illustrative of the 



197 



ALMARIC DE ST. AMAND. 

[PAGE 30.] 

No particular merit or circumstance distinguished the life of this Baron from 
that of other persons of similar rank, for the duties he performed, as well as the 
few notices which are preserved of him, were common to nearly all of his 
compeers. 

Almaric de St. Amand was born in March, 1285, and succeeded his brother 
Guy in his lands about the 15th Edw. I. In the following year s10 per annum 
were appropriated for his maintenance till he attained his majority, but in the 
17th Edw. I. he produced proof of his being then of full age. 

He was summoned to serve in Gascony with horse and arms in the 22nd 
Edw. I., upon which occasion his wife was assigned the manor house of Lutgare- 
shall, with sufficient fuel, until his return. In the 25th Edw. I. he was again 
in Gascony ; and in the 28th Edw. I. was in the Scottish wars. From the 
Poem we learn that he was at the siege of Carlaverock in June, 1300, when he 
he was about twenty-five years old, but prowess is the only merit which is attri- 
buted to him. St. Amand was a party to the Letter from the Barons to the Pope 
in February, 29 Edw. I. 1301, in which he is styled " Lord of Widehaye ;> and 
in the December preceding received his first writ of summons to parliament. He 
was once more in the wars of Scotland in the 3 1 st Edw. I. ; and in the 33rd Edw. I., 
having been Governor of Bordeaux, he was commanded to bring in the accounts 
of all the issues and revenues thereof during the time he held that office. 
Those returns seem to have produced his disgrace, as in November in that year 
he, with his brother, Master John de St. Amand, and William de Montacutc, 



manner in which arms were differenced, that the label was, by respective branches of the family, 
borne charged with mitres, crescents, lozenges, annulets, fieurs de lis, guttees, plates, and annulets 
with a bend over all. See Willement's Heraldic Notices in Canterbury Cathedral, and drawings 
of seals in the Cotton MS. Julius, C. vii. 
P Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. 

3E 



198 



ALMARIC DE ST. AMAND. 



were prisoners in the Tower of London, when the Earl of Lincoln, John of 
Brittany, Hugh le Despenser, Hugh de Veer, Thomas de Berkeley, and Adam de 
Welles, became bail for his appearance whenever the King might require it.i From 
that time until the accession of Edward the Second nothing is recorded of him, 
excepting that he was in the Scottish wars in the 34th Edw. I. It is evident 
that his disgrace did not extend beyond the reign of Edward the First, for, by 
writ tested on the 22nd January, 1 Edw. II. 1308, he was commanded to be at 
Dover to receive the young King and his Queen on their landing from France ; r 
and on the 8th February following both St. Amand and his wife were ordered to 
attend their coronation. 8 With this circumstance, however, our information 
about this Baron closes, and all which can be said of him besides is, that he was 
summoned to parliament from the 29th Dec. 28 Edw. I. 1299, to the 16th June, 
4 Edw. II. 1311, and died in 1312 s. p., leaving John his brother, who from the 
title of " Master" being ascribed to him is conjectured to have been a priest, his 

heir. Almaric de St. Amand married Mary, daughter of , who, from an 

escheat in the 7th Edw. III. appears to have been the widow of John de Peyvre. 
She survived him, and several manors were assigned for her dowry. 

Upon the death of Almaric de St. Amand, the barony created by the writ 
of 28 Edw. I. became extinct. John, his brother, was 
immediately afterwards summoned to parliament, and whose 
descendants are the representatives of the subject of this 
article ; but it is extremely difficult, even if it be not impos- 
sible, to trace them. 

The arms of St. Amand were, Or, fretty Sable ; on a chief 
of the Second three Bezants. 1 




q Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 176 b. r Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. s Ibid. p. 31. 

Page 30; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii.; and the seal of this Baron, a<> 1301. 



199 

JOHN D' ENGAINE. 
[PAGE 30.] 

To the few lines which contain all that Dugdale has said of this individual, not 
many facts can be added, for the Rolls of Parliament and other records are 
almost entirely silent respecting him. It may therefore be presumed that his 
life was wholly barren of incident, and little regret can be felt at the obscurity in 
which his character and conduct are equally involved. 

On the 30th December, 25 Edw. I. 1296, by the appellation of " John de 
Engaine, junior," he was commanded to attend the marriage of the Princess Eli- 
zabeth with the Count of Holland at Ipswich on Monday in the morrow of the 
Epiphany;" and in the same year he succeeded his father, at which time he was 
thirty years old. He was summoned to parliament in the 27th Edw. I. ; and 
in the 28th Edw. I. was in the wars of Scotland, and served at Carlaverock in 
June, 1300 ; but the Poet of the siege gives no other account of him than the 
description of his banner. He was a party to the Letter from the Barons to the 
Pontiff in the 29th Edw. I. in which he is styled " Lord of Colum ;" his seal, 
however, is not attached to that instrument.* Engaine was summoned to attend 
a parliament at Carlisle in the octaves of St. Hilary in the 35th Edw. I. though he 
is not marked in the record as having been present.? In the 8th Edw. II. he was 
again ordered to serve with horse and arms against the Scots ; and having been 
summoned to parliament from the 6th Feb. 27 Edw. I. 1299, 
to the 15th May, 14 Edw. II. 1321, died in 1322 without 
issue, when his barony became extinct. In 1342 John de 
/ /\ /\ /\ Engaine, the nephew of this Baron, was summoned to par- 
. liament, whose daughters eventually became his heirs. 



4.4.4. 



The arms of Engaine were, Gules, crusilly and a fess Or. z 



u Fcedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 850. * Fourth Peerage Report. y Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 188. 
* Page 30; and Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. ; but they are usually blazoned, Gules, a fess 
between six cross crosslets Or. 



200 

WALTER DE BEAUCHAMP. 

[PAGE 30.] 

This eminent personage enjoyed all the privileges attached to the dignity of a 
Baron of the realm, excepting that he is not recorded to have been summoned 
to parliament. He filled however many important offices, and his character is 
pourtrayed in a peculiarly forcible manner in the preceding Poem. 

Walter de Beauchamp was a younger son of William Beauchamp of Elmley, 
by Isabel, sister and heiress of William Mauduit Earl of Warwick. His father, 
by his will dated in 1268, bequeathed to him cc marks, he being then signed 
with the cross for a pilgrimage to the Holy Land on the behalf of both his 
parents. In the 56th Hen. III. he purchased a moiety of the manor of Alcester 
in the county of Warwick from Peter Fitz Herbert. Notbing more seems to 
be known of him until the 20th Edw. I. when he was one of the manucaptors of 
the Earl of Hereford/ and in the next year he was appointed one of the Judges 
before whom some people of Winchester were bound to appear, b about which 
time he obtained a charter for a fair to be held yearly in his manor of Alcester. 
Beauchamp was made steward of the King's household in the 24th Edw. I., and 
in the 25th Edw. I. attended him into Flanders. In the 26th and 27th Edw. I. 
he served in Scotland, and was at the battle of Falkirk ; and in the 28th Edw. I. he 
received a grant of free-warren in all his demesne lands at Alcester in Warwick- 
shire and also at Powyck and other places in Gloucestershire. In further evi- 
dence of the rank which this individual was considered to have held, it is neces- 
sary to observe that in the writ of service tested at Stayvinagg, 26th September, 
26 Edw. I. the names of those summoned are divided into two classes : against 
the first division the word " Comit' " occurs ; opposite to the second class is the 
word " Baron', " and in the latter Beauchamp's name is included. In the 28th 
Edw. I. we learn that he was at the siege of Carlaverock, when he must have 
been at least fifty-two years old, which calculation supposes that he was but just of 
age at his father's death in 1269. The Poet says that in his opinion he was one 
of the best knights there present, if he had not been too rash and daring, but that 

a Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 76 a. b Ibid. p. 98. c Appendix to the First Peerage Report. 



WALTER DE BEAUCHAMP. 201 

you will never hear any one speak of the Seneschal that he has not a but. This 
eulogium, however, requires some explanation. It probably means that the 
chief defect in his conduct as a soldier was an ungovernable impetuosity, 
and that his character was of so mixed a nature that the praise bestowed upon 
him was never unqualified : an observation, indeed, which applies to mankind in 
general as justly as to that individual ; for few men are so entirely good as not 
to possess some counterbalancing errors, nor are there many so wholly vicious as 
to be destitute of at least one redeeming virtue. The term Seneschal evidently 
alluded to his office of Steward of the Royal Household, which he appears to 
have held until his death, for it is attributed to him as late as the 8th October, 
30 Edw. I. d In the 29th Edw. I. Walter de Beauchamp was a party to the Letter 
from the Barons to Pope Boniface, in which he is called " Lord of Alcester," 
and was again in the wars of Scotland in the 31st Edw. I., in which year his 
public services apparently terminated, as nothing further is known of him ex- 
cepting that he died on the 16th February, 1303, and was buried in the Grey 

Friars near Smithficld in London. He married Alice, daughter of Tony, 

and in consequence of their being within the fourth degree of consanguinity, the 
ceremony was afterwards confirmed by Godfrey Bishop of Worcester, and their 
children legitimated. That Prelate is said to have been ordered to do so by the 
Pope, because they were ignorant of the fact at the time of their union. The 
said Alice survived her husband, for in the 35th Edw. I. by the description of 
Alice who was the wife of Walter de Beauchamp, and executrix of his will, she 
petitioned the King to be allowed to repay the sum of acxx. xd., which her hus- 
band was indebted to the Crown, by annual instalments of gx.. f By her he had 
three sons : Walter ; William ; who both appear to have died s. p. ; and Giles.s 

Walter, their son and heir, was repeatedly summoned to 
the field, but the first person of the family who sat in parlia- 
ment after the death of the Seneschal, was Sir John Beau- 
champ, the great grandson of his son Giles, who was created 
Lord Beauchamp of Powyck by Henry the Sixth. 



The arms of Beauchamp of Alcester were, Gules, a fess 
between six martlets Or. h 



d Focdera, N. E. vol. I. p. 944. e Fourth Peerage Report. f Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 199 b. 
eDugdale's Warwicksh. ed. 1765, p. 536. 1> P. 30; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A.xvii.; and seal, 1301. 

SF 



202 

JOHN DE BOTETOURT. 

[PAGE 32.] 

John de Botetourt appears to have had the merit of being the founder of his 
family, for we are even ignorant of the name of his father and of the time of his 
birth. The first which Dugdale says he has seen of the name after the reign of 
Henry the Second was in the 19th Edw. I., when this individual was made 
Governor of St. Briavel's Castle in the county of Gloucester, and Warden of 
the Forest of Dene. In the 21st Edw. I. he was appointed a Justice of gaol 
delivery ;* and in the next year Was summoned to serve in Gascony, at which 
time he was Admiral of the King's fleet ; and in the 24th Edw. I. he again served 
in the expedition into Gascony, and was in the wars of Scotland in the 25th, 
26th, and 28th Edw. I. By writ tested on the 30th Dec. 1296, he was com- 
manded to attend the marriage between the Princess Elizabeth and the Count 
of Holland, at Ipswich, on Monday in the morrow of the Epiphany following. k 
He was present at Carlaverock in June, 1300, and his character as given by 
the Poet is of the most amiable description. In the 29th Edw. I. he was a party 
to the Letter to the Pontiff from the Barons at Lincoln, in which he is styled 
" Lord of Mendlesham," 1 though he had never then been summoned to parlia- 
ment. Covenants were entered into in the 33rd Edw. I., at which time he was still 
Warden of the Forest of Dene, that Joane his daughter should marry Robert, 
the son and heir of Richard Fitz Walter. In that year he was also appointed, 
with William Haulward and Nicholas Fermband, to hear and determine certain 
transgressions committed at Bristol ; n and to treat with some Scots on the affairs 
of Scotland. Shortly afterwards he received sc. for the King's service/ and was 
present at the non-allowance of a papal provision in April, 1305/1 when he was 
appointed one of the Justices of Trailbaston. r Botetourt was in the Scottish wars 



i Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 95 b. k Fcedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 850. 

1 Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. n Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 163 b. 

n Ibid. p. 168 b. o Ibid. p. 267 a. P Ibid. pp. 169 b. 194 a. 

q Ibid. p. 179 b. r Fredera, N. E. vol. I. p. 970 ; and Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 330 b. 



JOHN DE BOTETOURT. 203 

in the 34th Edw. I., and in the next year Joan de Wake obtained a re-seisin 
of certain lands in Lydell against him. 8 

Immediately after the accession of Edward the Second he was again consti- 
tuted Governor of the Castle of St. Briavel; and in the 1st Edw. II. joined 
several other Barons in executing the instrument by which they pledged them- 
selves to support the young monarch, his crown, and dignity. In the 3rd Edw. 
II. he was one of the peers appointed to regulate the royal household ;* in the 
4th Edw. II. he was in the wars of Scotland ; and in the year following was 
Governor of Framlingham Castle in Suffolk. About the same time he bound him- 
self to support the Earl of Warwick against Piers de Gaveston ; and in the 6th 
Edw. II. was joined in a commission with the Earl of Hereford and others to 
treat with the embassy from the Pontiff at Margate. He was once more Admiral 
of the King's fleet in the 8th Edw. II. ; and in the 12th Edw. II. served against 
the Scots. A petition having been presented to the King in the 8th or 9th 
Edw. II. from Herman Clipping, a German merchant, complaining that, as he 
was lately going to Ipswich with a ship full of hard fish, John de Holebrok 
forcibly entered his ship by night, and carried away seven hundred fish, of the 
value of LXX s., and severely beat John Lange his servant because he opposed 
him, John Botetourt and others were appointed to hear and determine the 
cause." He was one of the Barons at Northampton who treated with the Earl of 
Lancaster in the 12th Edw. II. ; v and having been summoned to parliament from 
the 13th July, 33 Edw. I. 1305, to the 13th September, 18 Edw. II. 1324, closed 
a long and honorable life in the same year, and apparently at an advanced age, 
for he could scarcely have been less than thirty in the 19th Edw. I. when he was 
appointed Governor of St. Briavel's Castle, and which calculation would render 
him about forty when he was at Carlaverock, and above sixty-four at his demise. 
He married, in the 30th Edw. I. Maud, sister and heiress of Otho de Beauchamp, 
and widow of William de Munchensi of Edwardstone, by whom he had issue 
Thomas, his eldest son, who died v. p., leaving a son, John, who succeeded his 
grandfather in his honors ; John ; Otho ; and two daughters ; Elizabeth, who 
married first William Lord Latimer, and secondly Robert de Ufford ; and Joan, 
who was contracted to marry Robert Fitz Walter. Upon the death of John, the 

s Rot. Parl. vol. I. pp. 201 a. 214 b. Ibid. p. 443 b. " Ibid. p. 340 a. 

v Ibid. p. 453. 



204 EUSTACE DE HACCHE. 

second Baron Botetourt, in 1385, the barony fell into abeyance, and continued 
in that state until 1764, a period of nearly three hundred and eighty years, when 
it was terminated in favour of Norborne Berkeley, Esq. one 
of the coheirs. His Lordship died in 1776, s. p., when it 
again fell into abeyance, and remained so until 1803, in which 
year it was allowed to Henry fifth Duke of Beaufort, son and 
heir of the last Baron's sister, and is now possessed by Henry 
Charles, the present Duke of Beaufort, K. G. 




The arms of Botetourt are, Or, a saltire engrailed Sable. 1 



EUSTACE DE HACCHE. 
[PAGE 32.] 



This Baron is said to have commenced his career as a menial servant to the 
King, being in that capacity in the 7th Edw. I., about which time he obtained 
a charter for free warren in all his demesne lands at Hacche in Wiltshire, and 
at Morton-Merhull and Cestreton in the county of Warwick ; and in the 18th 
Edw. T. his essoin of King's service was disallowed.? By his merits or his good 
fortune he soon emerged from the comparative humble station in which he is 
first presented to our notice, for in the 21st Edw. I. he was joined with John de 
Botetourt and William Hamelyn in a commission of gaol delivery; 2 and in the 
22nd Edw. I. he was made Governor of Portsmouth. In the same year he ac- 
companied the Earl of Lancaster in the expedition into Gascony, and in the 24th 
and 25th Edw. I. was in the wars of Scotland, and in the 26th Edw. I. at the 
battle of Falkirk. Rising still higher in the opinion of his sovereign, he was in 



Page 32; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii.; and the seal of this Baron a<> 1301. 
Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 50 a. z Ibid. p. 95 b. 



EUSTACE DE HACCHE. 



205 



in the 27th Eclw. I. summoned to parliament as a Baron of the realm ; and in 
the 28th and 29th Edw. I. was again in the Scottish wars. In June 1300 we 
are told by the Poet of the siege of Carlaverock that he was present, though no 
account is given of his character ; and in the February following he was a 
party to the Letter to Boniface VIII., in which he is styled " Eustace Lord of 
Hacche." In the 31st Edw. I. he once more served in Scotland; and having 
been summoned to parliament from the 6th Feb. 27 Edw. I. 1299, to the 22nd 
Jan. 33 Edw. I. 1305, died in the next year without male issue. Of the age of 
this Baron we have no information, nor does the name of his wife occur, but he 
left his daughter Julian his heiress, who married John Hansard. 

In the year after the death of Eustace de Hacche, his executors petitioned the 
King to be paid what was owing to him by the Crown for his robes, wages, and 
horses lost in the wars of Scotland. They stated that he had 
by his will left many legacies to the Holy Land and to his 
servants, which could not be paid unless their request was 
granted, and succeeded in obtaining a special precept to John 
de Drokensford the keeper of the great wardrobe, command- 
ing him to settle with them accordingly. 8 




The arms of Hacche were, Or, a cross engrailed Gules. b 



Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 199 a. 

Page 32 ; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii.; and the seal of this Baron a 1301. 



3 G 



206 



ADAM DE WELLES. 
[PAGE 32.] 

The family of Welles, though of much consideration from the reign of Richard 
the First, never attained the baronial rank until this individual was summoned 
to parliament in the year 1299. He was the son of William de Welles by Isabel 
de Vesci, but Dugdale does not state in what year he succeeded his father, who 
was living in the llth Edw. I., and the earliest notice which that writer takes of 
him is in the 22nd Edw. I., at which time he states that he was in the retinue 
of William de Vesci in the King's service in Gascony. In the 25th Edw. I. he 
was similarly engaged, in consideration of which he obtained a writ from the 
King to the Treasurer and Barons of the Exchequer, forbidding them to take 
any of his wools of that year's growth ; and in the 27th Edw. I. he was made 
Constable of the castle of Rockingharn and Warden of that forest, and received 
his first writ of summons to parliament. Welles was in the wars of Scotland in 
the 28th Edw. I., and served at the siege of Carlaverock ; and in February, 1301, 
by the style of " Adam Lord Welle," was a party to the celebrated Letter from 
the Barons at Lincoln to the Pontiff, relative to his Holiness's claim to the 
sovereignty of Scotland." In the 30th Edw. I. he had a charter for free warren 
in certain of his demesne lands in the county of Lincoln. d He was in the Scot- 
tish wars in the 31st and 32nd Edw. I. ; in the 33rd Edw. I. he was one of the 
manucaptors of Almaric de St. Amand, who was then a prisoner in the Tower of 
London; 6 and in March in the same year he was present at the non-allowance 
of a papal provision/ In the 35th Edw. I. some proceedings occurred about the 
debts due from John de Hoyland to the King, whose lands were then held by 
this Baron.e His services in Scotland were rewarded by Edward the Second ; 
for in the fourth year of his reign he granted him in tail general forty-two pounds 
out of lands in Besely, Hawordly, Gunnerby, &c. which had belonged to Thomas 



c Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. d Calend. Rot. Chart, p. 133. 

e Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 176 b. f Ibid. 179 b. s Ibid. pp. 205 b. 206. 



ADAM DE WELLES. 207 

do Woodhay and William Garlond; h and he obtained a precept from the Crown 
to the Treasurer and Barons of the Exchequer to respite the payment of such 
debts as were then due from him until the ensuing Easter. 

Lord Welles was summoned to parliament from the (5th February, 27 Edw. I. 
1299, to the 16th June, 4 Edw. II. 1311, in which year he died, leaving by Joane 
his wife, who according to some pedigrees was the daughter and heiress of John 
Baron Engaine,' two sons ; Robert, his successor in the dignity, but who died 
s. P. in 1320 ; and Adam, who was the third baron. 

The barony of Welles continued vested in the male descendants of Adam the 
first peer until the reign of Edward the Fourth, when it was enjoyed by Richard 
Hastings, who had married the heiress of Richard the seventh baron. They, 
however, both died s. p., and the barony fell into abeyance between the repre- 
sentatives of the four daughters of Leo the sixth baron. Sir John Welles, 
K. G. son of the said Leo Lord Welles, by his second wife, was created a Vis- 
count in 1487, and not only thus attained to a higher dignity than any of his 
ancestors, but formed a most splendid alliance, having married Cecily Plan- 
tagenet, daughter of King Edward the Fourth, and sister of 
Elizabeth of York, the progenitrix of the royal family of this 
country ; by her he had a daughter, Ann, who survived her 
father but a very short time, and with her the Viscount's 
issue became extinct. 

The arms of Welles are, Or, a lion rampant, double 
queued, Sable. k 



l> Calend. Rot. Pat. part 2. p. 72. i Harl. MSS. 3288. f. 143. 

k Page 32; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. ; and the seal of this Baron, a<> 1301. 




208 



ROBERT DE SCALES. 

[PAGE 32.] 

Of " the handsome and amiable Robert de Scales," very little is recorded. He 
was the eldest son of a person of the same names, whom he succeeded about the 
50th Hen. III. ; and in the 14th Edw. I., being in the expedition then made 
into Wales, had scutage of all his tenants who held their lands of him by military 
service. In the 18th Edw. I. he petitioned the King on the same subject; 1 and 
in the 22nd Edw. I. was commanded to be at Portsmouth on the first of the 
following September, to attend the King into France. He was in the expedition 
into Flanders in the 25th Edw. I. ; and served in the wars of Scotland in the 
28th Edw. I., in which year he was present at the siege of Carlaverock ; and in 
the 29th Edw. I., by the title of " Lord of Neuseles," was a party to the Letter 
to Pope Boniface the Eighth from the Barons of this country. 1 Scales was 
summoned to parliament from the 6th February, 27 Edw. I. 1299, to the 22nd 
Jan. 33 Edw. I. 1305, and died in the year last mentioned, leaving by Isabel, 
daughter of Sir Burnell, Knight, or, according to other pedigrees, by Margery, 
daughter and coheiress of Fulke Beaufyne," Robert, his son and heir, who suc- 
ceeded to his honors, and a daughter, Eleanor, who married John Lord Sudley." 
The barony of Scales was inherited by the male descendants of this Baron until 
the reign of Edward the Fourth, when Anthony Woodville, the eldest son of 
Richard Earl Rivers, having married the daughter and heiress of Thomas, seventh 
Baron, was summoned to parliament as Lord Scales. They 
both died without issue, when the barony fell into abeyance 
between the descendants of Margaret, wife of Sir Robert 
Howard, and Elizabeth, who married Sir Roger de Felbrigge, 
the daughters of Roger fourth Lord Scales ; in which state it 
still continues. 



The arms of Scales are, Gules, six escallops Argent. 



1 Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 47 a. m Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. 

n Harl. MSS. 245. f. 25. Glover's Collections. 

o P. 32; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii.; and the seal of this Baron, a 1301. 



209 



EMLAM TOUCHES. 
[PAGE 34.] 

The name of Emlam Touches is not once to be found in any of the records 
from which the greater part of the particulars of his contemporaries have been 
derived ; hence we are in total ignorance of his birth, services, or character. In 
the Roll of Arms in the Cottonian MS. Caligula, A. xvii., a Sir William Thochet 
occurs, whose arms are described to be precisely those of this individual, and hence 
it may be inferred that he was of the same family. It will be seen by a reference 
to the Poem that the baptismal name of Emlam has been subsequently added 
in one copy, whilst it is wholly omitted in the other. A William Touchet was 
summoned to parliament from the 28th to the 34th Edw. I., but his arms, as 
they appear on his seal affixed to the Barons' Letter, were 
totally different, being seme"e of cross crosslets a lion ram- 
pant ; nor, for the same reason, does it seem likely that this 
Knight was connected with the family of Touchet after- 
wards Barons Audley, who bore, Ermine, a chevron Gules. 

The arms of Emlam Touches were, Gules, martlets Or.P 



p Page 3*. 



210 



THE EARL OF LENNOX. 

[PAGE 34.] 

The nobleman to whom this title is attributed in the Poem, was Patrick eighth 
Earl of Dunbar, who succeeded his father in that dignity in 1289, being then 
forty-seven years of age.i In the same year he was a party to the instrument 
from the nobility of Scotland, by which they signified their approval of the mar- 
riage then meditated between Prince Edward of England and Margaret the 
young Queen of Scotland, in which he is styled " Comes de Marchia ;" r and on 
the 3rd August 1291 was himself one of the claimants to the crown of that 
kingdom, in right of his great grandmother, Ada, daughter of William the Lion ; 
having, with the other claimants, in the June preceding, agreed to refer their 
pretensions to King Edward the First as sovereign lord of that realm. 5 Dunbar, 
however, soon withdrew his claim, and became one of the nominees of his grand- 
father Bruce in the competition ; but before the close of the year 1291 he swore 
fealty to the English monarch, to which pledge he adhered with the utmost zeal 
and fidelity. He was summoned to attend him with horse and arms into Gas- 
cony in 1294; and in 1296, notwithstanding Dunbar's attachment to the English 
interest, his wife, with far greater patriotism, supported the cause of her country, 
and held his castle against the invaders for some time. Dunbar was the King's 
Lieutenant beyond the Scottish sea in November, 26 Edw. I. ;* and on the 26th 
September, 1298, he was commanded to serve against Edward's enemies in Scot- 
land." In June, 1300, he was in the English army at the siege of Carlaverock, 
when he must have been about fifty-eight years old ; after which year all which 
appears to be known of him is, that in the 33rd Edw. I. he was one of the ten 
persons elected by the commons of Scotland to attend the English parliament on 



q All the particulars of the Earl given in the text, for which no other authority is cited, are 
taken from Wood's Douglas's Peerage. The editor of that edition has added " query" whenever 
the age of that nobleman is alluded to. 

r Fcedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 730. s Ibid. p. 755. t Calend. Rot. Pat. p. 59. 

u Fredera, N. E. vol. I, p. 899. 



PATRICK DE DUNBAR. 



211 



the affairs of that kingdom, but he did not do so ; x that on the 30th September, 
1 Edw. II. 1308, he was ordered to assist in repressing an attempt to subvert the 
English power in Scotland ;? that on the 18th November following he was a main- 
pernor for the Earl of Strathearn ; r and that he died in 1309, leaving by Mar- 
gery, daughter of Alexander Coinyn Earl of Buchan, a son, Patrick, who became 
ninth Earl of Dunbar, and who will form the subject of the next article. 

It is difficult to explain upon what grounds the Poet styled the Earl of Dun- 
bar " Earl of Lennox ;" but it would appear that there was 
great uncertainty about his proper title, for Douglas informs 
us that he was for the first time called " Earl of March" in 
1291, in the record of that year which has just been-cited. 



The arms of the Earls of Dunbar were, Gules, a lion ram- 
pant Argent, within a bordure of the Second, charged with 
roses of the First. 8 




PATRICK DE DUNBAR. 
[PAGE 34.] 

Either because this individual lived one generation nearer to the present age, 
or from his services being more numerous and important than those of his father, 
the account given of him by Sir Robert Douglas fills above twice the space ap- 
propriated to that nobleman. The first notice which occurs of him is that he 
served under Edward the First at Carlaverock in 1300, at which time he could not 
have been much more than fifteen years old, for, on succeeding to the honors of 
his family in 1309, he was only twenty-four years of age. He commenced his 
political career by following his father's example of supporting the King of 



* Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 267 a. y Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 8. z Rot. Scotiae, vol. I. p. 59. 
1 P. 34* ; and the seal of this Earl described in Nisbett's Heraldry, p. 273. 



212 PATRICK DE DUNBAR. 

England ; and after the battle of Bonnockbourn he received Edward the Second 
into his castle of Dunbar. Suggestions of interest or patriotism soon afterwards 
induced him to make his peace with King Robert, and he attended the parlia- 
ment at Ayr in April, 1315, when the succession to the crown of Scotland was 
settled. Nor was his adherence to his own sovereign of a negative description ; 
for being Sheriff of Lothian in March, 1318, he powerfully contributed to the 
capture of Berwick from the English. In 1320 he signed the Letter to the Pope 
asserting the independence of Scotland ; and in 1322 commanded part of David 
the Second's forces. He was appointed Governor of Berwick Castle, and 
was besieged by Edward the Third in 1333, but that fortress having surrendered 
on the 19th July in that year in consequence of the battle of Halidon-hill, he was 
received into the conqueror's protection, and engaged to garrison it with English. 
This agreement admits of inferences which are irreconcileable with the Earl's 
faith and honor, and at least cast a doubt upon the motives of his former con- 
duct. After attending Edward Baliol at the parliament of Edinburgh in Fe- 
bruary 1334, he once more renounced his allegiance to the King of England, 
and served against his forces with much success in July 1335, when his lands in 
England were seized by the Crown ; for in the same year Henry de Percy ob- 
tained a grant of the lands in the county of Northumberland which had belonged 
to Patrick Earl of March." Whilst actively and honorably employed in repelling 
the invasion of his country, his Countess, Agnes, daughter of Randolf Earl of 
Moray, who was familiarly termed " Black Agnes," heroically defended his 
castle of Dunbar against the Earl of Salisbury in January 1338 ; and after suc- 
taining a siege of nineteen weeks obliged him to retire. 

At the battle of Durham on the 17th October, 1346, the Earl of Dunbar, with 
the Steward of Scotland, commanded the left wing of the royal army, and, though 
defeated, managed to secure their retreat. The Earl of Moray having lost his 
life on that occasion, the Countess of Dunbar became his sole heiress, and her 
husband consequently assumed the title of that earldom. In 1357, when he is 
next mentioned by Douglas, he exerted himself for the liberation of his captive 
sovereign, and became one of the sureties for the fulfilment of the terms upon 
which he was released ; in reward of which services that monarch bestowed a 
pension and other favors upon him. 

b Calend. Rot. Pat. p. 122. 



PATRICK DE DUNBAR. 



213 



Dunbar was a Commissioner for settling the affairs of the Marches in 1367 ; 
and in March 1369 was one of the peers appointed by the parliament of Perth 
to watch over the general affairs of the kingdom. Having made a pilgrimage to 
the shrine of Thomas a Becket, and being eighty-four years of age, he resigned 
his Earldom of March and his estates to his eldest son George, to whom they 
were confirmed by David II. by a charter dated on the 25th July, 1368, wherein 
this nobleman is described as " Patricius Dunbar, Miles, ultimus Comes ejusdem." 
His natural and political life closed within a very short time of each other, for he 
did not long survive the surrender of his honors ; and left by his celebrated wife, 
Agnes Randolph, sister and heiress of the Earl of Moray, George tenth Earl of 
Dunbar ; John Earl of Moray ; Margaret, who married William first Earl of 
Douglas ; Agnes, wife of James Douglas Lord of Dalkeith ; and Elizabeth, wife 
of John Maitland of Lcthington, ancestor of the Earls of Lauderdale. 

The early part of the career of the Earl of Dunbar was marked by tergiversa- 
tion for which it would be impossible to find a justifiable cause ; but these 
breaches of faith were in a great measure redeemed by the firmness with which 
in the last thirty-five years of his life he adhered to the interests of his 
country, and during that long period he stands conspicuous as one of the most 
constant and intrepid of its defenders. His male descendants 
enjoyed his honors until 1435, when they were declared to 
have been forfeited. 



-\ _ x^ j S ' 



The arms borne by this nobleman at Carlaverock were 
differenced from those of his father by a label Azure, c a mark 
of filiation which he probably abandoned on succeeding to 
his honors. 



c Page 34. 



3i 



214 

I 

RICHARD SIWARD. 
[PAGE 34.] 

If the numerous occasions on which this individual is mentioned in the public 
records of the reigns of Edward the First and Second, and the importance which 
was evidently attached to him, be considered, it is extraordinary that we should 
be entirely destitute of genealogical particulars respecting him. 

He seems almost to be the first and last of his family, unless we entertain the 
conjecture of a recent writer, d that he was descended from Syward the great 
Saxon Earl of Northumberland ; but the want of those facts is more than com- 
pensated by the many proofs that exist of his services, from which it is manifest 
that he was one of the most celebrated men of his times. 

It is almost certain that he was a native of Scotland, though, like the Earl of 
Dunbar and others of his countrymen, he occasionally wavered between his fide- 
lity to his own sovereign and the King of England. 

When he is first presented to our notice he was undoubtedly an adherent of 
King Edward, for on the 18th November, 21 Edw. I. 1292, he was appointed 
by him Governor of the castles of Dumfries, Wigtown, and Kirkcudbright. 6 
On the 22nd of April, 1294, he obtained a grant of the marriage of the widow 
of Simon Fresel; f and on the 15th October in the same year he was com- 
manded to attend that monarch with horse and arms in the expedition into 
Wales.s Before the end of 1295, however, Syward returned to his alle- 
giance to the crown of Scotland, and was taken prisoner in the castle of 
Dunbar on the 29th of April, 1296, h a fact which not only stands upon the 
authority of chroniclers, but is corroborated by the circumstance of a precept 
having been addressed to the Earl of Warren and Surrey by King Edward, tested 
the 4th Sept. 1296, commanding him to assign ^40 out of the lands of Richard 
Syward, who was then a prisoner, for the support of Mary his wife, and of Eliza- 

' d Banks's Stemtnata Anglicana. Rotuli Scotiae, vol. I. p. 12 a. 

f Rot. Scot. vol. I. p. 20 a. s Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 61. 

h Archaeologia, vol. XXI. and Hemyngford. 



RICHARD SIWARD. 215 

belli the wife of Richard his son. 1 His fidelity did not, it seems, withstand the 
temptation to which his imprisonment exposed him; and in the very next year he 
again attached himself to Edward's interest, for we find that on the 30th of July, 
1297, at which time he was a prisoner in the Tower of London, having, the instru- 
ment states, been taken at Dun bar, several English noblemen became bail that 
he would accompany the King in his expedition beyond the sea, and faithfully 
serve him against the King of France ; and John his son was given as a hostage 
for the fulfilment of his engagement. k In the ensuing September all his lands 
were restored to him. 1 If Peter de Langtoft is to be credited, Syward was a 
partizan of Edward's when the castle of Dunbar was besieged, for, in speaking of 
that event, he says 

3 ftnistt toajJ tljam among, &tr ftirfjarb ^etoarD, 
anile out fait]) toag jje long, ano toiti) ftpng <Dttaro, m 



and proceeds to describe the artful manner in which he managed to place that 
fortress into his hands; but this account is totally irreconcileable with the positive 
fact that he was a prisoner from the time of the surrender of the castle until 
July in the next year. Certain it is, however, that from the moment in which he 
was released from the Tower he served England with zeal and good faith, and 
speedily obtained the confidence of its monarch. On the 26th September, 1298, 
7th May and 16th July, 1299, Syward was summoned by the title of " Baron," 
to serve in the Scottish wars ; u and in the following year he was present at the 
siege of Carlaverock, " in company," the Poem informs us, with his countrymen, 
the Earl of Dunbar and his son, and Simon de Frescl. In the Wardrobe Book 
of the 28th Edw. I. his name frequently occurs : on one occasion he received 
^2. 13s. 4d. for a horse which died in July at Kirkcudbright; and on another, 
when he is styled a Banneret, he was allowed wages for his retinue, which con- 
sisted of two knights and seven esquires.P Syward was again summoned to serve 
in Scotland on the 1st March, 1301 ;i was Sheriff of Dumfriesshire in the 33rd 
Edw. I. ; r and was commanded to assist in repressing the rebellion of Robert 



' Rot. Scot. vol. I. pp. 27, 28. k Ibid. p. 43 c. 1 Ibid. p. 49. n P. 275. 

n Appendix to the First Peerage Report, pp. 100, 107, 110. o Page 175. V Page 198. 
<i Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 129. r Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 267 b. 



216 SIMON DE FRESEL. 

Brus, by writ tested on the 21st June, 1308. 5 On the 16th August following 
he was appointed to command a district in Galloway for King Edward the 
Second ;* and was Governor of Dumfries in 1309, when a certain quantity of 
wine was ordered to be delivered to him for that castle." 

With that record all account of Richard Syward terminates, and it is therefore 
most probable that he died about the year 1310. From some of the preceding 
extracts it is evident that his wife's name was Mary, and that 
he had two sons ; Richard, who had attained manhood, and was 

married to Elizabeth , as early as the year 1296; 

and John ; but nothing further has been discovered about 
them. 

The arms of Richard Syward were, Sable, a cross fleury 
Argent. x 




SIMON DE FRESEL. 

[PAGE 36.] 

Simon de Fresel, or more properly Simon Fraser, eminently distinguished 
himself in the political transactions of his country ; and the pages of contem- 
porary chroniclers, as well as the records of the kingdom, bear ample testimony 
to his bravery and activity in the field. 

He was the eldest son of Simon Fraser, the ancestor of the baronial houses of 
Saltoun and Lovat ; and the earliest account given of him by Sir Robert Douglas 
is in the 25th Edw. I., when we are informed he was Edward's prisoner, but having 
undertaken to support him in his foreign wars, pledged his wife and children for 
the faithful performance of his engagement. It would appear that, like Syward, 



s Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 52. t Rotuli Scotiae, vol. I. pp. 56 and 57. u Ibid. p. 64. 

* Page 34 ; and Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. 



SIMON DK FRESEL. 217 

he was captured in the castle of Dunbar, and that he purchased his release at the 
expense of his honor, by swearing fealty to the conqueror. On the 26th Sep- 
tember, 1298, and 7th May, I299/ by the appellation of a Baron, he was sum- 
moned to serve with horse and arms against his countrymen under Edward's 
banner ; and was at the siege of Carlaverock in June, 1300, in which year he 
appears to have been Warden of the Forest of Selkirk, for by that designation 
the truce between the two kingdoms was notified to him on the 30th of October. 
In the same year, by the description of " Dom. Simon Fraser, Baneret," he was 
allowed gG4. 18s. as wages for his retinue, which consisted of three knights 
and twelve esquires; 1 but with the flexibility of conscience which charac- 
terized the greater part of the Scottish nobility at the period, he seceded 
from Edward in 1302, and having joined Comyn, one of the Regents of 
Scotland, defeated part of the English army at Roslin on the 24th February, 
1303. His rigour towards " Sir Ralph the CofFrers," who fell into his hands on 
that occasion, is curiously described by Peter of Langtoft, 8 but the passage is too 
long for insertion. Edward having succeeded in once more subduing Scotland, 
Fraser was excepted from the general conditions of the capitulation at Strathorde 
in February, 1304, as it was specially provided that he should be banished for 
three years from Edward's dominions, and should not be permitted during that 
time to enter the territories of France; and in 1305 a fine of three years rent 
was imposed upon his estate. He was present at the defeat of Robert King of 
Scotland in 1306, which event was immediately followed by the execution of 
this distinguished soldier and of the still more distinguished Wallace. 
Those events arc thus described by Langtoft : 

\)t tfregcUc tljcr \)t flea, jone after toat! \)t fonoen, 
J3oti> taften Jje i$ ana leD unto tfje toure of JlunDon, 
fttyt ty$ dome be fepng altf trantoure jSalle pe toiten, 
f irjs't Dratoen anD jSidjen cpng, anD ty$ fyettc of 
, it tons to mcnc, bis> bcrtuj anD 

fete in tym toere ene, tfiat prri.^t for 

i)COe unto t})e farigge to gette toaj? it gent, 

boDp Ictc tljei ligge, anD om tijerof tfcei farent. b 



y Appendix to the First Peerage Report, pp. 100, 106. 

* Liber Quotidianus Contrarotulatoris Garderobae anno Regis Edn-ardi Primi 28. p. 198. 
Page 319. b Page 335. 

3K 



218 SIMON DE FRESEL. 

But a much more minute and curious account is given of the tragical termina- 
tion of Eraser's life in a fragment of an inedited chronicle in the British Museum 
of the fifteenth century , c from which Mr. Ritson printed the subjoined extract 
in illustration of a poem which will be more fully noticed. 

" The fryday next before assumpcioun of oure lady, King Edeward mette 
Robert theBrus bisides seynt Johns toune in Scotland and with his companye, of 
whiche companye King Edewardc quelde sevene thowsand. When Robert the 
Brus saw this myschif and gan to flee, and hovd hym that men mygte nougt hym 
fynde, but S r Simond Frisell pursuede hym socore, so that he turnede ay en and 
abode bataille, for he was a worthy knyght and a bolde of body, and the 
Englisshe men pursuede hym sore yn every syde, and quelde the stede that S r 
Symond Frisell rood uppon, and ther toke hym and lad hym to the host. And 
S r Symond began for to flater and speke faire, and saide, Lordys, I shall yeve you 
iiij thousand marke of sylver and myne hors and harneys and all my armure and 
vicome. Tho answerd Theobaude of Pevenes, that was the Kinges archer, Now 
God me so helpe hit is for nougt that thou spexte, for alle the gold of Engelonde 
I wold the noght lete gone withoute commaundement of King Edeward. And 
tho was he lad to the King. And the King woldc not see hym, but commaunded 
to lede hym awey to his dome to London on our Ladyes even nativite, and he 
was honge and drawe, and his heede smyten of, and honged ayene with chynes 
of jren oppon the galwes, and his hede was sette oppon London brug on a sper. 
And ayens Cristesmasse the body was brent, for enchesoun that the men that 
kepte the body by nyghte sawe menye devellis rampande with jren crokes, ren- 
nynge uppon the gallews and horribliche tormented the body, and meny that ham 
sawe, anoon after thei deied for dred, or woxen mad, or sore sykenesse thei 
had." 

In one of the Harleian Manuscripts' 1 there is a ballad written on the subject, 
a few years after the circumstance took place, and which was published by 
Ritson. 6 The following stanzas are so extremely interesting, from the manner in 
which Fraser is alluded to, that, notwithstanding the length to which they 
extend, it is impossible to avoid inserting them. After noticing the capture and 
the fate of his unfortunate companions, the poet says : 



Harl. MSS. 266. d No. 2253. " Ancient Songs. 



SIMON DE FRESEL. 



219 



Cljcnnc saioc tlje tustirc tljat gentil is ant frc, 

&tre &imonD frpgcl, tbe ftpngcg traptour bat tbou fae, 

Jn toatet ant in lonbe tbat monie mpbten jit, 

tbou tbareto, bou toolt tljou quite tlje ? 



foul Ije tym 
taaron tru.stc 
Jrorto ^esse nap. 



pBemtb, go l)it toeg lonbtg latoe, 
j?or tl)at be toess lorDgtoph fucgt be toeg to Dratoe, 
mpon a retbereg b"fe fortb be toeg ptubt, 
&um tobile in pg time be toeg a mot1 ' *npl)t 

^n buerte. 

jicheDnegge ano gunne 
l?it i si (utcl tounnc , 

itbat mahetb tbe boop gmerte. 



j?or a! iji 8te poet pet be toeg 

anD gtopftebom at bit g'etb to nabt, 

in &rotfon& lutel toeg p^ tbobt, 
< tbe batDe iugement tbat bn toeg fapgobt 

3.n stounor. 

i?c tneg fourviitljc forstoorc 
(To tbe uuuj tljcr bif ore, 

2nD tbat bim btobte to gtounoe. 

iPitlj fetereg and toitb gpbeg icbot be toes to Drotoe, 
from tbe tout oE IConDone, tbat monie mpbte hnotoe, 
2jn a curtel o faurel agelfietbe topge, 
a tjcrianb on ns' beueo of tbe netoe 



.ttloni mon of <ngelont), 
for to s'c &pmont>, 

con lept. 



220 SIMON DE FRESEL. 



ije come to galetnejS fur.sit Ije totji an 
31 quits bpljeuebeb, rtjajb !)im rtjofcte longe, 
&etbtf)e be toe popeneb, ijS botoelejf pbrenb 
Cbe ieueo to Honfcone btugge inei 

Co gionoe : 
^o iclj eber mote tjje 
toi)ile toenbe jje 

Intel to tont>e. 



ritietl) tjjour!) tlje ite a# p telle map, 
gomen ano topt?) ^olajS, tljat ioe^ Ijere 

HLonoone brugge Ijee nome tJje toap, 
i toe^ tlje top\je^ rfjil tbat tljec on lafeetb a Dap, 



toe^ ibore, 

billicfjc forlorr, 

o fete mon asfe ijc vua.s. 



j^oto ^tont tt)t I)eut6 abobe tl)e tubrugge, 
JFa^te bi JBalei^, ^otj) forte gugge, 
after ^ocour of &cotlonb longe be motoe prpe, 
2nt after Jjelp of iFraunce, toet baft tyt to Ipe, 

3Jrfj toene. 

SBetere I)im toere in cotlonD, 
liti) i# ar in $$ jjono, 
Co plepen ot^e grene. 

3nt ti)t boOp bongetl) at t^e galetoeiS fas'te, 
iDitij prnene tla^pe^ (onge to la?tc, 
JForte topte toel tlje bobp, anb <f>cottp^ to 
f oure anb tttenti t^e beortj to jsotfje ate la^te, 



ief enp toere o 
bobp to remnp, 
to 



HRIAX FITZ ALAS. 221 

Frascr left (wo daughters his coheirs, one of whom married Sir Patrick Fle- 
ming, ancestor of the Earls of-Wigton ; and the other, named 
Mary, was the wife of Sir Gilbert Hay, ancestor of the Mar- 
quess of Tweedale. From Alexander Fraser his brother the 
Barons Saltoun and Lovat descended. 



The arms of Simon Fraser were, Sable, semee of roses 
Argent ; f but the descendants of his brother bear, Azure, 
three cinquefoils Argent.s 




BRIAN FITZ ALAN. 

[PAGE 36.] 

The description given by the Poet of this Baron tends to impress us with a 
favorable idea of his person and character. Courtesy and honor are among the 
best attributes even in a refined state of society ; and it would seem that they 
were as highly estimated in the rude age in which Fitz Alan lived. Had we not 
possessed that testimony to his merits, this notice of him would have been even 
more barren than it is, for nearly all the usual sources present no information 
respecting him ; hence the little which is known has been almost wholly derived 
from the invaluable labours of Sir William Dugdale. 

He succeeded his father, Brian Fitz Alan, before the 5th Edw. I. ; and on the 
6th April, 10 Edw. I. 1282, and 14th June, 1287, was summoned to serve with 
horse and arms in Wales. h In the 19th Edw. I. he obtained permission to make 
a castle of his house at Kilwardcby in Yorkshire ; and in the following year, 



f Page 36. 

S Wood's Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, from which such facts in the above memoir of Simon 
Fraser have been taken as are not stated to have been derived from other authorities, 
h Appendix to the First Peerage Report, pp. 39, .51. 

3 1 



222 BRIAN FITZ ALAN. 

being one of King Edward's vicegerents in Scotland, he, with others, received 
that monarch's precept to give John de Baillol possession of the kingdom. He 
was a witness to that personage's surrender of his crown on the 10th July, 1296, 
about which time he was constituted the King's Lieutenant in Scotland. Fitz 
Alan was present at the siege of Carlaverock in June 1300 ; ; and in the ensuing 
February was a party to the Letter from the Barons to Pope Boniface, in which 
he is styled " Lord of Bedale." k His seal affixed to that document has been the 
subject of remark, 1 for, instead of containing his arms, it presents a whimsical 
assemblage of animals, apparently consisting of two birds, a rabbit, a stag, and a 
pig or boar, all of which are looking to the dexter excepting the latter, which is 
regarding the chief; and is inscribed with this curious legend: 

TOT. CAPITA. TOT. SENTENCIE. 

The inference to be drawn from this singular seal tends to establish that its 
owner was eccentric or satirical ; for it must either have been used from un- 
meaning caprice, or with the intention of ridiculing the devices on the signets of 
his contemporaries. The allusion in the Poem to the arms of Fitz Alan is too 
important to be allowed to pass unnoticed. It not only informs us of an event 
in his life, by proving that he had been involved in a dispute with Hugh Pointz, 
but shows that it was always one of the fundamental laws of arms that no two 
persons should bear the same ensigns, and that there was then sufficient pride 
felt on the point to resent its infringement. 

All which is further known of Fitz Alan is that he was summoned to parlia- 
ment from the 23rd June, 23 Edw. I. 1295, to the 22nd January, 33 Edw. I. 
1305, though he died in 1302. The name of his wife is not stated, but it is 
almost certain that he married late in life; for, according to a note m of the inqui- 
sition held on his death, Maud his daughter was his heir, though on the death 
of his brother Theobald Fitz Alan in the 1st Edw. II. 1307-8, his heirs are 
said to have been Maud and Katherine, the daughters of his brother Brian Fitz 
Alan, the former of whom was then aged seven years and the latter five, so that 
Katherine, who made proof of her age in the 12th Edw. II. was probably a post- 
humous child. A discrepancy, however, exists on the subject ; for, agreeable to 

> Page 36 ante. k Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. 

1 Archaeologia, vol. XXI p. 213. m Penes auctoris. 



BRIAN FITZ ALAN. 223 

a note of the inquisition on the death of this Baron his daughter Maud was then 
eight years old, and Dugdalc says that Katherinc was at the same time aged six, 
which, if the other statement be correct, wsis impossible. Of these daughters, 
Maud married Sir Gilbert Stapleton, and, according to a pedigree in Dodsworth's 
MSS., secondly, Thomas Sheffield;" and Katherine became the wife of John 
Lord Grey of Rotherfield. 

Brian Fitz Alan was buried in the south aisle of Bcdale church in Yorkshire, 
and a sumptuous monument was there erected to his memory, a beautiful en- 
graving and accurate description of which arc given in Blore's " Monumental 
Remains." 

The arms of Fit/ Alan were, Barry Or and Gules ; but they are described 
in the contemporary roll in the Cottonian collection,? as, 
Gules, three bars Or. The latter agrees with the shield on 
the monument just mentioned, which is charged with 
barry of six, and the same coat occurs in several places 
in the windows of Bedale church. Dugdale informs 
us that the seal of this Baron's grandfather attached 
to a deed in the Cottonian library, contained the same 
bearings. 



i> Blore's Monumental Remains. Page 36. P Caligula, A. xvii. 



224 



ROGER DE MORTAIGNE. 

[PAGE 36.] 

A few facts are recorded of a Roger de Mortainc about the period in which 
this knight lived, but it is impossible to identify him as the person to whom they 
relate, though there can be little doubt on the subject. 

His name is of great antiquity ; but the pedigree of his family has never, it is 
believed, been compiled in an authentic manner, nor are there, perhaps, sufficient 
materials for the purpose. 

It would appear that he was the son and heir of Roger de Morteyne who died 
in vita patris, and that he succeeded as heir to his grandfather William de Mor- 
teyne's lands in the counties of Leicester, Notts, Lincoln, and Derby, in the 12th 
Edw. I., at which time he was twenty-one years of age.'i In the 26th Edw. I. 
1298, on the death of William de Luda Bishop of Ely, Isabella, the wife of 
Roger de Morteyn, and William Tuchet, were found to be the heirs to that 
prelate's lands in Buckinghamshire; 1 " and in the 33rd Edw. I. the said Roger 
and Isabella petitioned the King relative to the division of the Bishop's posses- 
sions, in which it is also said that William Tuchet was his other coheir, and 
that Luda was indebted to the crown at the time of his decease the sum of 
^128. 4s. 5d. s 

From the preceding Poem we learn that a Roger de Morteyne was at the 
siege of Carlaverock in June 1300, when, if he was the individual who suc- 
ceeded his grandfather in the 12th Edw. I. he must have been about thirty-seven 
years old. That he was ambitious to distinguish himself is the only descrip- 
tion given of him by the Poet. After that time there is no other record 
of the name than that in the 1st Edw. II. a Roger de Morteyne held the 
manor of Eyam and the castle of Peak in Derbyshire ; * and in the next year 

1 Esch. 12 Edw. I. r Esch. eod. ann. s R o t. Parl. vol. I. p. 182 b. 

* Calend. Inquis. ad quod damnum, p. 220. 



WALTER DE HUNTERCOMBE. 




was enfeoffcd of several manors in Lincolnshire and Cum- 
berland." 

The arms of Roger de Mortaigne, according to the Poem, 
were, Or, six lions rampant double-queued Azure ; but in 
the Roll in the Cottonian MS. X they are thus blazoned, 
" De Or, a vj lioncels de Sable, od les cuowes forchees." 



WALTER DE HUNTERCOMBE. 
[PAGE 36.] 

Notwithstanding the slight notice taken of this individual by the Poet, few of 
those whom he commemorates had more legitimate claims upon his attention ; 
for his services were long, zealous, and important. 

Walter de Huntercombe succeeded his father in his lands in the 55th Hen. III. 
at which time he was of full age ; and shortly afterwards married Alice, third 
daughter and coheiress of Hugh de Bolebec, and who, in the 2nd Edw. I., was 
found to be one of the coheirs of Richard dc Muntfichet, in right of her grand- 
mother Margery, his sister.? In the 5th Edw. I. he paid ,^50 for his relief of 
the barony of Muschamp ; and on the 12th December in that year was sum- 
moned to serve with horse and arms against the Welsh: 1 he received similar writs 
tested 6th April and 24th May, 10 Edw. I., a and 14th June, 15 Edw. I. b He 
was one of the peers who were present in parliament in the 18th Edw. I. when 
a grant was made to the King, for the marriage of his eldest daughter, of the 
same aid as had been given to Henry the Third for the marriage of his daughter 



" Calend. Inquis. ad quod damnum, p. 223. * Caligula, A. xvii. 

y Esch. 2 Edw. I. z Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 37. Ibid. pp. 40, 44. 

b Ibid. p. 51. 

3 M 



226 WALTER DE HUNTERCOMBE. 

the Queen of Scotland ; c and shortly afterwards the isle of Man was entrusted 
to his charge, but which he only held three years, as, in obedience to the King's 
commands, he surrendered the trust to John de Baillol in the 21st Edw. I. In 
the 19th Edw. I., by writ tested on the 16th April at Darlington, he was ordered 
to be at Norham equipped for the field by the ensuing Easter ; d and obtained a 
charter of free-warren in all his demesne lands in the county of Northumberland 
before the end of that year. On the 26th June, 1294, Huntercombe was ordered 
to join the expedition then made into Gascony. 6 His military services during 
the remainder of the reign of Edward the First were incessant, for he was in the 
Scottish wars in the 25th, 26th, 28th, 31st, and 34th years of that monarch; was 
Governor of Edinburgh Castle in the 26th ; Lieutenant of Northumberland in 
the 27th Edw. I. ; and afterwards Warden of the Marches there. In the 28th 
Edw. I. we find from the Poem that he was at the siege of Carlaverock ; and in 
the next year he was a party to the Letter to Pope Boniface, in which he is 
called " Walter Lord of Huntercombe." It appears from the Wardrobe accounts 
of the 28th Edw. I. that he was allowed ^10 as a compensation for a black nag 
which was killed by the Scots at Flete, on the 6th August, 1299. f But the 
nature and extent of Huntercombe's services are best shewn by his own state- 
ment of them in his petition to the King in the 35th Edw. I., praying a remission 
of his scutage for the expeditions in w r hich he had been engaged, with which 
prayer the Crown complied. He says that he had been in all the wars of Scot- 
land up to that time ; namely, in the first war at Berwick with twenty horse ; 
then at Stirling with thirty-two horse in the retinue of the Earl Warren ; then at 
Le Vaire Chapelle with thirty horse in the retinue of the Bishop of Durham ; 
afterwards at Gaway with sixteen horse ; and that he sent eighteen horse to 
the last battle, though he was not present himself, being then Warden of the 
Marches of Scotland and Northumberland.^ From that year nothing more is 
known of this Baron, excepting that he was summoned to parliament from the 
23rd June, 23 Edw. I. 1295, to the 16th June, 14 Edw. II. 1311, and died in 
1312 ; but after the 35th Edw. I. he was probably prevented by age from taking 
an active part in public affairs, for even allowing him to have been but 
twenty-one in the 55th Hen. III. he must have been above sixty in 1307; which 

c Rot. Pad. vol. I. p. 24-. d Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 54. 

e Ibid. p. 55. f Page 175. s Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 194 b. 



WILLIAM DE RIDRE. 



227 



calculation makes him to have been about fifty when he was at Carlaverock, and 
sixty-four at his decease. Though he was twice married he died without issue. 
His first wife was Alice de Bolebec, before mentioned ; but 
we only know that the Christian name of his second was Ellen, 
and that she survived him. Nicholas Newbaud, his nephew, 
son of his sister Gunnora, was found to be his heir. h 



rrrt 



The arms of Huntercombe were, Ermine, two bars gemells 
Gules. 1 



WILLIAM DE RIDRE. 

[PAGE 38.] 

William de Ridre appears to have been the individual who in most other places 
is called William dc Rithre or Rythre. The first occasion on which the name 
has been found is in the 18th Edw. I. on the Rolls of Parliament, when he was 
one of the manucaptors of William de Duclas. k In the 25th Edw. I. he was in 
the expedition into Gascony, and was in the wars of Scotland in the 26th, 29th, 
31st, and 32nd Edw. I. From the Poem we learn that he was at the siege of 
Carlaverock in June 1300 ; and he received his first writ of summons to par- 
liament in the preceding December. The accounts of the Wardrobe of Edward 
the First in the 28th year of his reign, inform us that " Dom. Will, de Rithre, 
Banerett," received ^67. 13s. for the wages of himself and his retinue, that is to 
say : for himself, two knights, and five esquires, from the 14th July, on which 
day his horses were valued, to the 29th September, when one of his knights, 



h Esch. 6 Edw. II. 

' Page 36; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii.; and the seal of this Baron, a 1301. 

^ Vol. I. p. 34. 



228 THOMAS DE FURNIVAL. 

namely, " Dom. William de Beeston," returned, being seventy-seven days, 
15s. ; for himself, one knight, and five esquires, from the 29th September to the 
13th October, on which day another of his knights returned, being fourteen days, 
^7. 14s. 5d. ; and for himself and his five esquires, from the 13th October to 
the 3rd November, being twenty-two days, ,^9. 18s. 1 He is mentioned as having 
been present in the parliament which met at Carlisle in the octaves of St. Hilary 
in the 35th Edw. I. a 1307, m but nothing more is known of him. 

Rythre was summoned to parliament from the 29th De- 
cember, 28 Edw. I. 1299, to the 26th August, 1 Edw. II. 
1307, about which year he died, and was succeeded by his 
son, John de Rythre, who was Governor of Skipton Castle in 
the llth Edw. but was never summoned to parliament. 



The arms of Rythre were, Azure, three crescents Or. n 




THOMAS DE FURNIVAL. 

[PAGE 38.] 

The praise which has been bestowed upon the knights who were at Carla- 
verock in the preceding pages, has been almost unvaried in its nature ; since 
scarcely any other merits have been ascribed to them than what characterize 
soldiers in the rudest state of society. If they performed actions of a more 
praiseworthy description no record of them has been preserved ; and they are con- 
sequently only known to us by their military services. It is therefore a pleasing 
relief to the monotony of these sketches to find one individual among them still 
remembered in the place where he resided, as a Benefactor ; and it will be seen 
that, considering the age in which Thomas de Furnival lived, few have higher 
claims to the appellation. 

1 Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 188. m p age 198. " Page 38 ; and Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xvii. 



THOMAS DE FURNIVAL. 229 

The exact period of his birth is no where stated, but he succeeded his father, 
Thomas de Furnival, in his lands, before the 7th Edw. I. anno 1279; and having 
performed homage, he obtained livery of them in the 9th Edw. I., at which time 
he was of full age. In the 10th and llth Edw. I. he was commanded to serve 
with horse and arms against the Welsh; on the 8th of June, 1294, he was 
summoned to attend a great council or parliament ; P and on the 14th of that 
month he was ordered to be at Portsmouth in September following, thence to 
join the expedition into Gascony.i 

In the next year Furnival was summoned to parliament, and in the 26th 
Edw. I. was in the wars of Scotland ; in the 27th Edw. I. he was constituted 
Captain-general and Lieutenant to the King in the counties of Nottingham and 
Derby ; and was again in the Scottish wars in the 28th, 32nd, 34th, and 35th 
Edw. I. The Poem informs us that he was at the siege of Carlaverock in June, 
1300, at which time he was about forty years of age, and the account given 
of him is amusing. After a compliment to his personal appearance, we are told 
that " when seated on horseback he did not resemble a man asleep," by which 
was probably meant that he always acquitted himself with honour in the field. 
Furnival was a party to the Letter from the Barons to Pope Boniface in Fe- 
bruary, 1301, in which he is styled "Lord of Sheffield;" 1 " and in the 4th and 8th 
Edw. II. he was again commanded to serve in the wars of Scotland. He was sum- 
moned to parliament from the 24th June, 23 Edw. I. 1295, to the 27th January, 
6th Edw. III. 1332 ; and died on the 3rd February, 1332 ; when, allowing that 
he was only twenty-one in the 9th Edw. I., he must have been seventy years 
of age. 

The conduct which entitles the memory of Thomas de Furnival to respect, and 
which has caused him to be still familiarly termed at Sheffield " the great 
grantor," was the emancipation of his tenants from their vassalage ; the regular 
establishment of a municipal court, with trial by jury; and the institution of a 
market and fair, in his demesnes. 8 In estimating his character, all his military 
services sink into nothing when contrasted with the important benefits which he 
thus conferred upon those under his protection : the praise which belongs to the 



Appendix to the First Peerage Report, pp. 40. 47. P Ibid. p. 56. 9 Ibid. p. 57. 

Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. Hunter's History of Hallamshire. 

3 N 



230 THOMAS DE FURNIVAL. 

former he shares in common with most of his contemporaries, but the everlasting 
honour which must be ascribed to the latter, is peculiarly his own. 

It would seem from Dugdale's statement that this Baron had Thomas, his son 
and heir, and other children, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Peter de 
Montfort, of Bcldcsert Castle in Warwickshire, Knight, and widow of William 
de Montacute ; and which is corroborated by the inquisition on the death of the 
said Elizabeth in the 28th Edw. III., where the following statement occurs : 
" Elizabetha de Montacute, uxor Willielmi de Montacute, et quondam nupta 
Thomae de Furnival, per quern exitum habuit Thomas de Furnival, qui filium 
habuit Thomas de Furnival;" 1 but it is opposed by the fact that William de Mon- 
tacute, her first husband, died in the 13th Edw. II. 1328-9, and that Thomas 
Furnival, the son of her second husband, was born in 1302, twenty-six years 
before the death of his mother-in-law's first husband ; and also by the circum- 
stance that among the persons whose souls this Elizabeth orders to be prayed for 
in the chauntry which she founded in the monastery of St. Frideswide at Oxford, 
she takes no notice of any children by Furnival, though he was to be remem- 
bered in the religious services, whilst all those by Montacute are particularly men- 
tioned. In the pedigree of Furnival in the " History of Hallamshire," this Baron 
is said to have had two wives ; first, Joan, daughter of Hugh le Despenser, by 
whom he is stated to have had his son and heir, Thomas 2nd Baron Furnival ; 
and, secondly, the above-mentioned Elizabeth Montfort. Besides the sons before 
noticed, he is considered to have had three daughters ; Maud, the wife of John 
Baron Marmion ; Katherine, who married William de Thweng ; and Eleanor, the 
wife of Peter, Baron de Mauley. 

Thomas the next Lord Furnival was summoned to parliament in his father's 
life-time and dying in 1339, was succeeded by his son of the same name, upon 
whose decease in 1364 s. p., the dignity devolved upon his brother William, the 
fourth Baron. He died s. p. M. in 1383, and in the same year Thomas Neville, 
brother of Ralph first Earl of Westmoreland, the husband of Joan, daughter and 
sole heiress of the last Baron, was summoned to parliament as Baron Neville of 
Hallamshire, and died s. p. M. in 1406, leaving by his first wife, Joan Furnival, a 
daughter Maud ; and by his second wife, Ankaret, daughter of John Lord 



t From a MS. note in the possession of the Editor. 



JOHN DE LA MARE. 



231 



Strange of Blackmere, a daughter, Joan, who married Sir Hugh Cooksey, Knt. v 
Maud married John Talbot, afterwards the celebrated Earl of Shrewsbury, who 
in her right was summoned to parliament as Lord Furnival in 1409. The barony 
of, Furnival continued vested in the Earls of Shrewsbury until 
the death of George Talbot, the 7th Earl, s. p. M. in 1616, 
when it fell into abeyance among his daughters and coheirs; 
and is now in abeyance between their representatives, namely, 
the present Lords Stourton and Pctre. 

The arms of Furnival are, Argent, a bend between six 
martlets Gules." 




JOHN DE LA MARE. 

[PAGE 38.] 

The particulars which are preserved of this Baron are remarkable only for 
their brevity. He was descended, Sir William Dugdale informs us, from a 
family which possessed lands in Oxfordshire from the time of Stephen ; but he 
does not state the name of his father, the time of his birth, or the period when 
he succeeded to his inheritance. The first occasion on which he is mentioned 
appears to have been in the 22nd Edw. I., having on the 14th of June in that 
year been commanded to serve with horse and arms in the expedition into Gas- 
cony." In the 26th Edw. I. he was in the wars of Scotland ; and in the year 
following was summoned to parliament among the Barons of the realm. It is 
evident that he was again in the Scottish wars in the 29th Edw. I., as we learn 



v Dugdale says both daughters were by Joan de Furnival, but the statement in the text stands 
on the authority of a pedigree in the College of Arms, B. 2. f. 17. 
" Page 38; Cotton MSS. Caligula A. xviii.; and the seal of this Baron in 1301. 
* Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 57. 



232 JOHN DE LA MARE. 

from the Poem that he served in the third division of the English arrny at Car- 
laverock in June 1300, though nothing more is there said of him than the de- 
scription of his arms. The subjoined account of his retinue is extracted from the 
" Liber Quotidianus Contrarotulatoris Garderobae," of that year : 

" Domino Johanni de la Mare, Baneretto, pro vadiis suis, duorum militum et 
viij scutiferorum suorum a xiij die Julij, quo die equi sui fuerunt appreciati, usque 
v diem Septembris, quo die unus de militibus suis, videlicet, Dominus Johannes de 
la Mare, et Rogerus de Levyngton, vallettus ejusdem, recesserunt de exercitu Regis, 
primo die computato et non ultimo per liiij dies, exceptis vadiis trium scutifero- 
rum suorum, videlicet, Johannis de Glaston, Hug' de Ingelton, et Willielmi de 
Styvinton, per xl dies, xxj die Augusti pro ultimo computato, per quos fecerunt 
servicium pro eodem Domino Johanne post appreciationem equorum suorum, 
xxxvij II. iiij s. Eidem, pro vadiis suis, unius militis et vij scutiferorum suorum, 
a v die Septembr' usque xxvj diem ejusdem mensis, utroque computato per xxij 
dies, xiiij II. vj s. per compotum factum cum eodem, per duas vices apud la Rose 
et Holm', mense Septembris. Summa Ij li. x s." y 

In the 33rd Edw. I. he petitioned the King to be forgiven the payment of one 
hundred marks, with which request his Majesty complied. 2 

De la Mare was regularly summoned to parliament from the 6th February, 
27 Edw. I. 1299, to the 26th July, 7 Edw. II. 1313; and died in the 9th 
Edw. II. 1315-16, apparently without issue, for his sister 
Isabella, wife of Thomas de Maydenhache, is stated to have 
been his heir, and who was then fifty years of age: a in that 
case his barony then became extinct. Joan, his widow, sur- 
vived him. b 

The arms of John de la Mare were, Gules, a maunch 
Argent. 




y P. 197. z Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 159 b. a Esch. 9 Edw. II. No. 274. b Ibid, 

c Page 38 ; and the Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. 



233 

JOHN LE STRANGE. 

[PAGE 38.] 

John le Strange succeeded his father in the 4th Edw. I., at which time he was 
twenty-two years of age ; d and obtained livery of his lands in the 6th Edw. I. 
On the 28th June, 11 Edw. I. 1283, he was summoned to be at Shrewsbury on the 
morrow of the feast of St. Michael next following, to attend a council relative to 
the proceedings of Llewellyn late Prince of Wales; and in the next year 
answered for three hundred marks to the King which his grandfather John le 
Strange had borrowed of the inhabitants of Cheshire to support the Welsh wars. 
In the 22nd Edw. I. he was summoned to serve with horse and arms in the ex- 
pedition into Gascony ; f and on the 26th September, 26 Edw. I. 1298, was com- 
manded to attend at Carlisle at the ensuing Easter with his followers against 
the Scots.? Le Strange was first summoned to parliament in December, 28th 
Edw. I. 1299, and in June in the next year he was at the siege of Carlaverock, 
when he must have been above forty-five years old. Of his retinue about that 
time the following record is preserved : 

" Domino Johanni Extraneo, banerctto, pro vadiis suis duorum militum et vij 
scutiferorum ; a vj die Julii, quo die equi sui fuerunt appreciati in guerra pre- 
dicta, usque xxiij diem Augusti, quo die reccpit de cxercitu Regis apud Douceur, 
primo die computato et non ultimo, per xlviij dies, per compotum secum factum 
apud Westm", mense Novembr', anno xxx. xxxvj //." h 

In February, 1301, Le Strange was a party to the Letter from the Barons to 
the Pope, in which, and on his seal affixed to that document, he is styled " Lord 
of Knokyn." 1 He was again in the wars of Scotland in the 31st Edw. I. ; and in 
the 33rd Edw. I. according to Dugdale, " was made a knight by bathing and 
other sacred ceremonies ;" but it is almost certain that it was his son and heir 
apparent who then received that honour, as he attained his majority in that year. k 

<1 Esch. 4 Edw. I. c Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 50. f Ibid. p. 58. 

S Ibid. p. 100. h Liber Quotidianus Garderobae, 28 Edw. I. p. 202. 

' Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. 

k In Anstis's " Authorities relative to the Order of the Bath," p. 5, there is an account of the 
robes granted to him on the occasion. 

3 o 



234 JOHN LE STRANGE. 

In the 1st Edw. II. he was permitted to make a castle of his house at Medle 
in Shropshire ; and having been summoned to parliament from the 29th Dec. 28 
Edw. I. 1299, to 12th Dec. 3 Edw. II. 1309, died in 1310, aged fifty-six ; leaving 
issue by Maud, daughter and heiress of Roger de Eiville, John, his son and heir, 
then twenty-seven years old ; a younger son, Eubolo ; and a daughter, Eliza- 
beth. 1 Maud his widow remarried, before the 8th Edw. II., Thomas Hastang ; J 
for Hastang and the said Maud petitioned the King, stating that Lord Strange 
and herself had bought the marriage of the son and heir of Madok ap Griffith 
Maillor for their daughter Elizabeth for ^=50 ; that the lands of the said Griffith 
having been seized into the King's hands, he had given the custody of them to 
Lord Strange until the heir became of age ; that after Strange's death it had 
pleased his Majesty to give the said lands to the custody of Sir Edward Hake- 
bute or Hakebutel ; and they prayed to have the said lands entrusted to their 
keeping, and also that regard should be paid to the circumstance that the chil- 
dren were contracted in the life-time of their fathers, and to the ^"50 which 
had been given for the said marriage. 1 A petition on the same subject follows 
from Roger Mortimer of Chirk. 1 

The Barony of Strange of Knockyn was vested in the male descendants of this 
Baron until 1477, when John le Strange, 8th Baron, died s. p. M. Joan, his 
daughter and heiress, having married George Stanley, son and heir apparent of 
Thomas 1st Earl of Derby, he was summoned to parliament in 1482 as Lord 
Strange, and the dignity continued in the Earls of Derby 
until the death of Ferdinand the fifth Earl in 1594, when it 
fell into abeyance between his three daughters and coheirs ; 
and is now in abeyance among their descendants and repre 
sentatives. 

The arms of Strange of Knockyn are, Gules, two lions 
passant Argent. m 

1 Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 306. 

m Page 38; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii; and the seal of John Baron Strange in 1301. 




23.5 



JOHN DE GREY. 

[PAGE 40.] 

There is scarcely an important event in English history, but in which some 
member of the illustrious house of Grey bore a conspicuous part ; and, as in this 
instance, it frequently happened that the representatives of two or more of its 
numerous branches are recorded to have participated therein. Of Henry Lord 
Grey of Codnor, the head of the family, who served in the first squadron, some 
particulars have already been given ; and of John de Grey, who was descended 
from Robert, a younger son of Henry de Grey, the great grandfather of the said 
Henry, it is now necessary to state all which is known. 

He succeeded his father, Robert, in his lands of Rotherfield in Oxfordshire in 
1295, at which time he was about twenty-four years of age ; and on the 26th Jan. 
25 Edw. I. 1297, was summoned to attend a great council or parliament at Salis- 
bury on the feast of St. Matthias next following." In the same year he was 
returned from the county of Oxford as holding lands or rents in capite or other- 
wise, to the amount of ^20 yearly and upwards, and as such was summoned to 
serve in person with horse and arms ; and was a commissioner of array in 
" Maylor Sexneth," and in other demesnes and lordships in the Marches.? 
In the 27th Edw. I. he was in the wars of Scotland ; and in June in the 
following year, 1300, we learn from the Poem that he was at the siege of 
Carlaverock, when he must have been nearly thirty years of age ; but no 
description of his personal appearance or character occurs, though it seems 



n Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 78. Although he succeeded to lands which seem 
to have been held in capite, and hence may be supposed to have been a Baron by tenure, it is 
very doubtful whether he was considered by his contemporaries as a Baron of the realm, since it 
is by no means certain that the meeting alluded to was a regular parliament, and he was never 
again summoned to any legislative assembly. This doubt is not a little increased by the fact that 
in the Roll of Arms in the Cottonian MS. Caligula, A. xviii, which was undoubtedly compiled in 
the early part of the reign of Edward the Second, his name is introduced among the knights in the 
county of Essex towards the end, instead of among the peers at the commencement of the manu- 
script. Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 290. P Ibid. p. 306-7. 



236 



JOHN DE GREY. 



that he was actively engaged in the siege.i These few sentences contain all 
which can be said of this individual, excepting that he died in 1312, aged 
about forty-two ; and by his wife Margaret, daughter and coheiress of William de 
Odyngsells of Maxton in Warwickshire, left issue John, his son and heir, then 
ten years old, who was summoned to parliament soon after he became of age. 
The barony continued vested in the male descendants of the subject of- this 
notice until 1387, when Robert fourth Lord Grey of Rothcrfield died s. p. M., 
on which event it devolved on Joan, his daughter and sole heiress, who married 
John Lord Deincourt, and by him left issue two daughters and coheirs ; of whom, 
Alice married William Lord Lovell ; and Margaret, the other, became the wife 
of Ralph Lord Cromwell : she died s. p., when the barony became vested in John 
Lord Lovell, the son of the said Alice ; but was forfeited on the attainder of 
his son and heir, Francis Viscount Lovell, K. G., in 1487. r 



The arms of Grey of Rotherfield are always considered to 
have been, Barry of six Argent and Azure, a bend Gules ; 
and which is corroborated by the description of them in the 
contemporary roll so frequently referred to/ and by the seal 
of John Lord Grey of Rotherfield in the 35th Edw. III. ;* 
but the Poem states that the bend in the arms of the John 
de Grey who was at Carlaverock was engrailed. 




q Page 79 ante. 

* That such was the fact appears from evidence. It is necessary to observe that the erroneous 
account of the family of Grey of Rotherfield in the " Synopsis of the Peerage," was taken from a 
pedigree by Vincent in the College of Arms. 

s Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. 

t Appended to a charter in the British Museum. 



237 

WILLIAM DE CANTILUPE. 

[PAGE 40.] 

In common with many of his contemporaries, the merits and services of this 
individual are alike forgotten ; and a very brief notice will contain all which can 
be gleaned respecting him from the records of his time. 

He was the eldest son of Nicholas de Cantilupe, by Eustachia, the sister and 
at length sole heiress of Hugh Fitz Ralph, Lord of Gresley in Nottinghamshire. 
In the 22nd Ed\v. I. he was summoned to serve in the expedition into Gascony ; 
and in the 26th, 27th, and 34th Edw. I. was in the Scottish wars. The Poem 
informs us that he was also there in the 28th Edw. I., as he was present at the 
siege of Carlavcrock in June 1300 ; and the writer praises him because he had 
" at all times lived in honour." The Wardrobe accounts of that year present the 
subjoined notice of him and his retinue : 

" Domino Willielmo de Cantilupo, baneretto, qui solebat comedere in aula 
Regis ante statutum factum apud Sanctum Albanum de aula non tenenda, et non 
coiiiedcnti amplius sed percipient! certa vad', videlicet, per diem vj s. pro se et 
milite suo per statutum predictum, pro hujusmodi vadiis, a xxvij die Junii, quo 
die vcnit primo ad curiam post statutum predictum, usque secundum diem Julii, 
utroque computato, per vj dies, per quos fuit in cur' et extra rotulum hospicii, 
per cornpotum factum cum Domino Ricardo de Nevill, militi suo, apud Drum- 
bou, j li. xvj*." u 

On the 29th December, 1299, Cantilupe was summoned to parliament; and in 
February, 1301, was a party to the Letter from the Barons to Pope Boniface the 
Eighth, in which he is styled " Lord of Ravensthorp :" v in January, 1303, he was 
ordered to place himself with all his forces under the command of John de Se- 
grave, the King's Lieutenant in Scotland;" and on the 9th of April following 
the knights and men at arms in the county of York were enjoined to obey his 
instructions concerning the expedition against the Scots. x Having been sum- 
moned to parliament from 1299 until the 5th August, 2 Edw. II., 1308, he died in 



Pp. 200-1. Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. 

Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 369. * Ibid. p. 371. 

3p 



238 



HUGH DE MORTIMER. 



1309, leaving William his son and heir, fifteen years old ; but who was never 
summoned to parliament, and died s. p., when the dignity devolved upon his 
brother, Nicholas de Cantilupe, who was regularly summoned to and sat in par- 
liament from 1337 until his decease in 1355. Upon the death of his grandson 
William in the 49th Edw. III., the issue of the Baron who was at Carlaverock 
failed ; and the dignity became extinct.? 

The arms of Cantilupe are said in the Poem to have been, 
Gules, a fess Vaire between three fleurs de lis issuing from 
leopards' heads Or; z or, as they would now be blazoned, 
three leopard's faces jessant fleurs de lis. In the contempo- 
rary roll in the Cottonian manuscript, 3 they are, however, 
thus described, " De Goules, a une fesse de Veer, a iij testes 
de lupars de Or ;" whilst on the seal of this Baron, affixed 
to the Letter to the Pope in 1301, his arms are repre- 
sented without the leopards' heads, and simply as a fess Vaire between three 
fleurs de lis. b 




HUGH DE MORTIMER. 

[PAGE 40.] 

Though a descendant from the common ancestor of the house of Mortimer, 
afterwards Earls of March, this branch assumed very different arms ; and after 
having existed for a few generations, the male line failed with the Hugh de Mor- 
timer whose career is the subject of this article. 

In the reign of Henry the Second, Robert de Mortimer, a younger son of 
Hugh, second Baron Mortimer by the tenure of Wigmore Castle, acquired 
Richard's Castle in Shropshire by marrying Margery, the daughter and heiress of 
Hugh de Say. His grandson, Robert de Mortimer, by Joyce, the daughter and 
heiress of William le Zouche, had issue Hugh, his son and heir, who succeeded 
his father in his lands in 1287; and obtained livery of them in 1295, about which 



y MS. Collections for Dugdale's Baronage by the late Francis Townsend, esq. Windsor Herald. 
* Page 40. a Caligula, A. xviii. b Archaeologia, vol. XXI. p. 212. 



HUGH DE MORTIMER. 239 

time he probably became of age. In the same year he was attorney for the 
commonalty of the baronies of Haverford and Roche, in some proceedings con- 
nected with the claim of the Earl of Pembroke in Wales : c in the 25th Edw. I., 
he was returned from the counties of Hereford, Northampton, Salop, and Staf- 
ford as holding lands or rents to the amount of ^20 yearly and upwards, either 
in caplte or otherwise, and as such was summoned to perform military service 
beyond the seas ; d and in the 27th Edw. I. he was in the wars of Scotland. The 
Poem informs us that he was also at the siege of Carlaverock in June 1300 ; 
and of his retinue in the Scottish wars the following account occurs in the Ward- 
robe Book of that period : 

" Domino Hugoni de Mortui Mari, banerctto, pro vadiis suis, duorum militum 
ct iiij scutiferorum suorum, a xxvj die Julii, quo die cqui sui fuerunt appreciati, 
usque iiij diem Augusti, quo die equi unius militis et unius scutiferis sui fuerunt 
appreciati, primo die comp' et non ultimo, per ix dies v //. viij s. Eidem, pro 
vadiis suis iij militum et v scutiferorum suorum, a iiij die Augusti usque j diem 
Septembr', utroque comp', per xxix dies, xxj //. xv s. per compotum factum cum 
eodem apud Drumbou j die Septcmbr'. Summa xxvij II. iij s" * 

Hugh de Mortimer was summoned to parliament on the 6th February and 10th 
April, 27 Edw. I. 1299 ; and also received writs to attend a great council two 
years before, namely, on the 26th January and 9th September, 25 Edw. I. 1297. 
He died in 1304, leaving by Maud his wife, who died in 1316, two daughters, 
Joan and Margaret, who were his coheirs. The former, who was then twelve 
years old, married, first, Sir Thomas Bikenore, who was her husband in 1316; 
and, secondly, Sir Richard Talbot, whose posterity enjoyed 
the lordship of Richard's Castle. Margaret, the second 
daughter, was eight years old at the death of her father, and 
in 1316 was the wife of Sir Geoffrey Cornwall, ancestor by 
her of the Barons of Burford. f 

The arms of Mortimer of Richard's Castle were, Gules, 
two bars Vaire. s 



rum 



c 



Rot. Pad. vol. I. p. 1 iO a. d Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," pp. 286, 288, 291. 

e Pp. 199-200. f See an elaborate pedigree in Baker's Northamptonshire, p. 415. 

S Page <K) ; and several seals of this Baron preserved in divers collections. 



240 



SIMON DE MONTACUTE. 

[PAGE 40.] 

The family of Montacute or Montagu, one of the most illustrious in the 
Peerage of England, have not only been ennobled in various branches, but have 
attained the highest honours to which a subject can aspire. 

Simon de Montacute, of whose life it is the object of this notice to give a 
brief account, was the common ancestor of every peer of his name ; and suc- 
ceeded his father, William de Montacute, in the early part of the reign of Ed- 
ward the First. In the 10th of that monarch he was commanded to serve 
with horse and arms against the Welsh ; e and in the llth Edw. I. was summoned to 
a parliament at Shrewsbury : f in the 18th Edw. I. he obtained a grant of numerous 
manors from the King ; and in the same year the ratification of an agreement 
between him and Matthew de Forneas, relative to a claim to some lands, was 
deferred.^ He was summoned to attend a great council on the 8th June, 1294; h 
and on the 14th of the same month to attend at Portsmouth, properly equipped, 
thence to join the expedition into Gascony.' In the 26th Edw. I. he was in the 
wars of Scotland : in the next year he was appointed Governor of Corfe Castle 
in Dorsetshire ; and in 1300 was returned from the counties of Somerset and 
Dorset as holding lands or rents, either in capite or otherwise, to the amount of 
^40 yearly and upwards, and as such was summoned to perform military service 
against the Scots.J At the siege of Carlaverock in that year he is stated to have 
brought up the third squadron of the English army, k a situation which, it would 
appear from another part of the Poem, was only conferred upon an experienced 
soldier. 1 From one of the notices of Montacute in the Wardrobe accounts of 
the 28th Edw. I. it seems that, on the 29th July, 1300, he was sent from Kirk- 
cudbright to Ireland, and returned in the September following : 



e Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 48. f Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 16. 
g Rot. Par), vol. I. p. 55. *> Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 56. ' Ibid. p. 57. 
j Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 336. * Page 41. 1 Page 47. 



SIMON DE MONTACUTE. 241 

" Domino Simoni dc Monte Acuto, banerctto, pro vadiis suis, duorurn mili- 
tum et quinquc scutiferorum suorum, a xiv die Julii, quo die equi sui fuerunt 
appreciati, usque xxix diem ejusdem inensis, (|iio die idem Dominus Simon, simul 
cum Domino Petro de Donewico, missus fuit per Regem de Kirkcudbright in 
Hibern' pro victualibus ibidem querend', primo die computato et non ultimo per 
xv dies, ix li. xv s. Eidem, pro vad' duorum militum et dictorum quinque scuti- 
ferorum morancium in exercitu Reg', cum ejus suis appreciatis, a xix die Julii 
usque xviij diem Septembr', quo die unus eorundem militum, videlicet, Dominus 
Humphridus de Bello Campo, simul cum uno scutifero suo, recessit de exercitu 
Reg' versus partes proprias, primo die computato et non ultimo per Ij dies, 
xxij II. xix s. Eidem, pro vadiis unius militis et quatuor scutiferorum suorum, a 
xviij die Septernbris usque xx diem ejusdem mensis, utroque computato per iij 
dies, xviij *. Eidem, pro vadiis suis, unius militis, et quatuor scutiferorum suorum, 
a xxj die Septembris, quo die idem Dominus Simon rediit ad Regem apud Holm' 
de partibus Hibern', usque tcrcium diem Novemb', utroque computato per xl dies, 
xxij //. per compotum factum cum eodem apud Karliol' x die Novembr'. Summa 
\vli. xij*." m 

Another entry is : 

" Domino Simoni de Monte-Acuto, pro fretto unius navis cariantis equos 
ejusdem et Domini Petri de Donewyco redeundo de Hibern' usque Skymburnesse 
in nuncium Regis, per manus proprias apud Holm' xxviij die Septembr'. j //." n 

In February, 29 Edw. I., 1301, he was a party to the Letter from the Barons 
to Pope Boniface, in which he is styled " Simon Lord of Montacute." Dug- 
dale says in the 34th Edw. I. in consideration of his services in the king's wars> 
he obtained pardon for a debt of cxx li. viij s. iiij d. due from his father to his 
Majesty's exchequer ; and in the same year, on his petition, search was ordered 
to be made in the exchequer for an account of his debts due to the King, of 
the payment of which he was granted a respite till it could be made, but he was 
not allowed to attermine without the King's permission^ In the 33rd Edw. I. 
he was one of the bail for William de Montacute, who was then prisoner in 
the Tower of London. 1 



n> Page 199. n Page 83. Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. 

P Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 166. q Ibid. p. 176. 

3a 



242 SIMON DE MONTACUTE. 

Having been summoned to the parliament held at Carlisle in the octaves of 
St. Hilary in the 35th Ed\v. I. 1307, he was excused from attending because he 
was in Scotland ; r in the 2nd Ed\v. II. he was appointed Constable of Beaumaris 
Castle in the island of Anglesea ; in the 4th Edw. II. he was constituted Admiral 
of the King's fleet then employed against the Scots ; and in the 7th Edw. II. 
he obtained a license to make a castle of his house at Yerdlington in Somer- 
setshire. 

Among the petitions on the Rolls of Parliament of the reigns of Edward the 
First and Second, is one from this Baron, praying that, in consideration of his 
long services, the King would pardon him the payment of c marks, which " Mons r 
William Martin," who is described as " late one of the King's justices," in 1306, s 
adjudged him to have forfeited for not having appeared before him in the King's 
court, as he was ignorant that he was in his part of the country ; with which 
prayer his Majesty complied.* In the 8th Edw. II. he was for the last ,time 
commanded to serve in Scotland ; and having been regularly summoned to par- 
liament from the 26th September, 28 Edw. I. 1300, to the 6th October, 9 Edw. 
II. 1315, closed a long life, distinguished by arduous and faithful services in the 
field, in 1316. He married Aufricia, sister and heiress of Orry King of the isle 
of Man," and by her had issue William, his successor in the barony, and Simon, 
a younger son. 

William de Montacute, the son of this Baron, died in 1319, and was succeeded 
by his son of the same name, who in 1337 was created Earl of Salisbury ; of 
which dignity his descendants continued possessed until 1428, when that title 
was conferred on Richard Neville, who had married Alice de Montacute, the 
daughter and heiress of the last Earl. The barony of Montacute and that Earl- 
dom became forfeited in 1471 by the attainder of their son, Richard Earl of 
Warwick and Salisbury. 



r Ibid. p. 188. s Rot. Pad. vol. I. p. 196 b. t Ibid. p. 477 a. 

" Among the " Ancient Charters" in the British Museum is one marked V. 73, by which " Au- 
frica de Counnoght, heir of the lands of Man," granted all her right in the same to " nobili et 
potenti viro D'no Simon' de Monte Acuto." It is dated at Bridgewater in the county of Somerset, 
on Thursday the vigil of the feast of the Annunciation, 1305, i. e. 24 March, 1306. In a deed 
in the same collection of the early part of the reign of Edward the Third, William de Montacute, 
his grandson, calls himself " Lord of Man." 



EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES. 243 

The arms of Montacute arc usually considered to have been, Argent, three 
fusils conjoined in fess Gules ; and which occur on the seal of Lord Monta- 
cute in 1301 ; x but in the Roll in the Cottonian MS. they arc- thus blazoned : 
" Quartile dc Argent e de Azure ; en les quarters de Azure les griffons de Or, 
en les quarters de Argent daunces de Goules ;"y whilst in the Poem, this Baron is 
said to have borne a blue banner and shield, charged with " a 
griffin rampant of fine gold." z The fact appears to have 
been that Simon de Montacute bore two coats ; the one, 
Argent, three fusils, which it is most probable was a corrup- 
tion of a fess dancette, or a dance, Gules ; and the other, 
Azure, a griffin segreant Or ; for on the secretum to his seal 
just noticed, is a griffin in that position. 8 




EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES, 

AFTERWARDS KING EDWARD THE SECOND. 

[PAGE 42.] 

The same reasons which prevented a memoir being given of King Edward the 
First, oblige this notice of his son, the Prince of Wales, afterwards Edward the 
Second, to be confined to remarks illustrative of what is said of him in tin 
Poem. 

Edward was born on the 25th April, 1284, and was consequently, as is there 
stated, in his seventeenth year in June 1300. The Poet informs us that he led 
the fourth squadron of the English army at the siege of Carlaverock, and which, 
he adds, was his first appearance in the field. Besides this fact in the biography 
of that Prince, the description given of his personal and mental endowments is 
interesting ; though the portrait may perhaps be deemed a flattering likeness. 



x ArchiEologia, vol. XXI.pp. 216-17. r Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. z p age 40. 

a See some remarks on the subject in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. XCVI. Part i. p. 412. 



244 



EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES. 



He says, Edward was well proportioned and handsome, courteous and intelligent, 
a good horseman, and was animated with a strong desire to display his courage. 
The young prince seems to have been entrusted to the especial care of John de 
St. John, " who went every where with him ;" b and from a subsequent passage it 
may be inferred that, besides St. John, the Barons Tony, Tyes, Latimer, Ley- 
burne, and Roger de Mortimer, were appointed as his body-guard, if such an 
expression may be allowed in reference to that period.. 

Such is the contemporary sketch presented of a prince in his minority, who 

subsequently became celebrated only for his misfortunes ; 

and the history of whose reign is a mere record of weakness, 

tergiversation, and crime. 

The arms borne by Edward in his father's life-time were 
those of England, Gules, three lions passant gardant Or, dif- 
ferenced by a label Azure. d 




JOHN DE SAINT JOHN. 

[PAGE 42.] 

Notwithstanding that the Poet in speaking of this distinguished knight has 
not indulged in any eulogy upon his merits, beyond attributing to him the simple 
epithet of brave, he was the oldest and most experienced commander in Edward's 
army. The confidence reposed in him by his sovereign is manifest from his being 
entrusted with the care of the Prince of Wales, whom, there can be no doubt, he 
was appointed to instruct in the duties of a soldier, a knight, and a chieftain. 
Nor could the King's choice have fallen upon a more worthy object, if the splen- 
did catalogue of his services, which will be more fully alluded to, may be received 
as evidence of his eminent merits. 



Pp. 42-43. 



- Pp. 46-47. 



Page 40. 



JOHN DE SAINT JOHN. 245 

He succeeded his father, Robert de St. John, in his lands in the 51st Hen. III. 
1267, and was immediately appointed to his situation of Governor of Porchester 
Castle ; on the 12th Nov. 4 Edw. I. 1276, he was one of the " magnates" present 
at the council of Westminster on judgment being given against Lewdlyn Prince 
of Wales ; e in the 5th Edw. I. he was summoned to serve with horse and arms 
against the Welsh ; f and again in the llth Edw. I.e St. John was one of the 
peers present in parliament on the morrow of the feast of the Trinity, 18 Edw. I. 
1290, when a grant was made to the King for the marriage of his eldest daugh- 
ter ; h and in the same year he was involved in a dispute with William de Valence 
relative to the manor of Cumpton, which had belonged to Robert de Punde- 
lande. 1 He was constituted the King's Lieutenant in the Duchy of Acquitaine, 
with an assignment of two thousand pounds tournois yearly for his expenses, in 
the 21st Edw. I., to be paid by the Constable of Bordeaux. His services about 
that period are thus described by Dugdale : " Whereupon being sent into Gas- 
coigne with five hundred men at arms and twenty thousand foot, he manned and 
fortified all the cities and castles in those parts ; but before the end of that year, 
upon a truce made with the French, he sold the provisions which were laid up in 
these garrisons, and came for England by the way of Paris. Shortly after which 
he was sent over to John de Britannia, Earl of Richmond, the King's nephew, and 
general of his army in Gascoigne ; and in 1295, 23rd Edw. I., continuing in those 
wars, assaulted the city of Bayon by sea, with such success, that it was soon ren- 
dred to him ; whereupon he laid siege to the castle there, and took it within eight 
days : thence he advanced towards Bellagard, at that time besieged by the Earl of 
Arras ; but meeting with the enemy, whose strength was too big for him, was 
taken prisoner and sent to Paris. It is said that being thus prisoner, Alfonsus 
King of Leon redeemed him ; and that being so enlarged and trusted by Alfonsus, 
he delivered up his country to the enemy." Upon the act of treachery thus im- 
puted to St. John it would be a waste of words to offer any comment, for it 
stands upon the authority of a writer who did not live until about a century 
aftenvarcls ; and from the way in which Dugdale speaks of it, it would appear that 
he considered the charge to be at least doubtful. The defeat and capture of St. 
John at Belgarde is thus quaintly related by a rhyming Chronicler of the period : 



e Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 5. f Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 38. 
S Ibid. p. 47. 1' Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 25. i Ibid. p. 3968. 

3a 



246 JOHN DE SAINT JOHN. 



!ebnebap nept at etoen befor 
a jJpie Diti &tr gjojjn lebe tljat tfranfcijS n#te non toai?, 
Bamelp, in tb,at pa, tbat Ije ulb lebe l)tm bi, 
$fe licb, tljat 3Juba, ten t^ou^anD toer rebi. 
&ir 3|on mab im yn$t, e tto^t tijat lo^engere, 
Ifig bataile toa^ formed, DijipIaieD ty$ bantte, 
aHe tty pa^, tjjat tijci alle o oreb, 

a^ fiftm Jjundreb #peD, 
3In foure grcte egrfjeleg alle to batail ette, 
OLfje fir.st l)e bi^confet toele, tjje totbec toitl) jjim ^o mette, 
^>it 3jon fuUe ftarDelp to figbt bib Iji# pepn, 
3nb bab jSic l^enrj? 5Lacp, tJjat i) ^utbe turne agepn, 
Ciji# o^te i# gret biforn, 51 rebe tJjat pe flc, 
Otbft titaile toa^ alle lorn, Ijernei^, anb tljer mone, 
Sir harness o 25eauc!bamp toonbeb, anb map not jStanb, 
3in a toatet jitampe }je toa^ bronWeb fleanb, 

gjon rtjorgb rtjam bta#t, bifore pe ijerb me nebcn, 

taften at th,e la^t, anb ty$ fenp^tesS elleben, 
3nb o ty$ jSquierie gentille nun au^tene, 
pribe anb tyer folie, 5| tvotoe, on th,am 



In the 25th Edw. I. he was again in the wars in Gascony; in 1299 he was 
sent with a great force into Scotland ; and in June in the next year he, in fact, 
commanded the fourth squadron of the army at the siege of Carlaverock, though 
it was nominally led by the Prince of Wales. 

The entries respecting this eminent soldier in the Wardrobe Accounts of the 
28th Edw. I., are not only interesting from the manner in which they elucidate 
many of the arrangements for the payments of an army at the commencement of 
the fourteenth century, but, from their proving the important situations filled by 
St. John, and giving the names of many of his retinue. 

The first is an allowance of money for such of his horses as had died in the 
King's service ; and as it shows the value of almost every description of those 
animals above five hundred years since, it is not a little curious : 



j Peter of Langtoft, ed. 1810, pp. 288-289. 



JOHN DE SAINT JOHN. 247 

" Domino Johanni de Sancto Johannc, pro restauro diversorum cquorurn appre- 
ciatorum pro quibusdam militibus et scutiferis suis, mortuorum in servicio Regis } 
et rcdditorum ad karvannuin per vices anno presenti, tarn moranti in partibus 
Cuinbr', pro custodia dicte Marchie inter vj diem Januar' et festum nativitat' 
Sancti Johannis Baptiste, quam in exercitu Regis in partibus Scotie, videlicet, 
unius dextrarii nigri apprcciati pro Domino J. de Sancto Johanne, filio suo, Ix 
marc unius dextrar' nigri cum stella in fronte appreciati pro Domino Ricardo 
de Borhunte, Ixxx marc' unius equi badii bauzeyn appreciati pro Domino Hu- 
gone de Sancto Johanne, xl marc' unius runcini powis appreciati pro Hugone 
de Cheyny, xij li' unius runcini grisei ferrandi appreciati pro Ricardo de Clif- 
ford, x marc' unius runcini nigri appreciati pro Ranulpho le Chaumberleng, 
viij marc' unius runcini ferrandi pomele appreciati pro Roberto de la Poynte, 
xx marc' unius runcini badii cum Stella in fronte appreciati pro Waltero Cres- 
pyn, xxv marc' unius equi albi appreciati pro Simone du Park, xx marc' unius 
runcini ferrandi pomele appreciati pro Nicholao de Romesey, x marc' unius 
runcini sori appreciati pro Alexandro le Mareschal, xx marc' unius runcini nigri 
cum duobus pedibus posterioribus albis appreciati pro Nicholao Gentil', xxx 
marc' et unius runcini badii cum Stella in fronte appreciati pro Johanne le 
Chaumberleng, xxv marc' per compotum factum cum Domino Thoma Paignel, 
milite suo, apud la Rose mense Septembris. Summa ccxliiij //." k 

From the next payment to him we learn that certain marches were entrusted 
to his custody : 

" Domino Johanni de Sancto Johanne, Capitaneo et Custodi Marchie 
Cumbr' et Wall' Anand', de dono Regis pro quibusdam expens' secretis factis 
per ipsum per ordinationem Regis et consilii sui factum apud Novurn Monaste- 
rium in vigilia Epiphanic anno presenti, morando in partibus predictis, in den' 
allocat' eidem ad comp' factum cum Domino Thoma Paynel, milite suo, apud la 
Rose, xxv die -Septembr'. ccccxiij li. xij A'." 1 

The account of the wages of his retinue proves the rank which he held in the 
English army, for it seems that they consisted on one occasion of two or three 
bannerets, twelve esquires, and fifty-four knights : 

" Domino Johanni de Sancto Johanne, baneretto, pro vadiis suis, quinque mi- 
litum et xxviij scutiferor' suor', cum equis appreciatis, a xxv die Junij usque xij 

k Page 176. l Ibid. p. 183. 



248 JOHN DE SAINT JOHN. 

diem Julij, utroque computato per xviij dies, xxxvij //. xvj s. Eidem, pro vadiis 
suis et Dominor' Roberti de Tonny et Henr' de Tyeys, banerettorum, xj militum, 
et Ij scutiferorum suorum, a xiij die Julij, quo die equi Dominorum dictorum 
Roberti et Henrici et Domini Radulphi de Gorges, quinque militum et xxiij scu- 
tiferorum eorundem fuerunt appreciati, usque xix diem ejusdem mensis, utroque 
computato per vij dies, xxix II. xv s. Eidem, pro vadiis suis, eorundem baneretto- 
rum, xij militum, et Ixiiij scutiferorum suorum, a xx die Julij, quo die equi unius 
militis, videlicet, Domini Willielmi de Kario et xiij scutiferorum suorum, et 
Domini Roberti de Tonny, fuerunt appreciati, usque xxx diem Augusti, quo die 
conventum fuit cum eo ad morandum apud Loghmaban tanquam Capitaneus et 
Custos Marchie Cumbr' Vail' Anand et parcium circumjacentium, primo die com- 
putato et non ultimo per xlj dies, ccv It. per compotum factum cum Domino 
Thoma Paignel, milite suo, apud la Rose xxvj die Septembr'. Sumina 
cclxxij li. xj *." m 

A John de St. John was a party to the Letter from the Barons to the Pope in 
February, 1301, but it was most probably the son of the subject of this notice, 
a8 the father is not recorded to have been ever summoned to parliament. That 
fact is not a little singular, for he was undoubtedly present in parliament in the 
18th Edw. I., and possessed a large share of his sovereign's confidence and esteem: 
it may perhaps be explained by his being constantly occupied in the wars of 
his times, and that in consideration of his long services he was exempted from 
what was then considered an onerous duty, though it subsequently, became and 
continues to be, an object of political ambition. 

St. John died towards the end of 1302; and though the time of his birth is not 

stated, he was, it may be safely conjectured, an old man at his 
A decease. By Alice his wife, daughter of Reginald Fitz Piers, 

'*> a ? r 7f w bo survived him, he left issue John his son and heir, who 

was likewise at Carlaverock, and who will consequently be 

again noticed. 

The arms of St. John were, Argent, on a chief Gules two 

mullets Or ; and his crest, a lion passant between, what seems 

to be meant for, two palm branches.P 



m Page 200. n Archaeologia, vol. XXI. p. 225. 

o Page 42; Cotton MSS. Caligula A. xviii.; and the seal of John de St. John, 1301. 
P The seal of John de St. John in 1301, which, though supposed to have been used by the son 
of this Baron, undoubtedly belonged to his father. See Archaeologia, vol. XXI. pp. 224-226. 



249 

ROBERT DE TONY. 

[PAGE 42.] 

The place assigned to this Baron and to Henry le Tyes who immediately fol- 
lows, proves the extreme accuracy of the Poet ; for in one of the extracts given 
in the preceding memoir from the Wardrobe Accounts, it is stated that these 
knights were in the retinue of John de St. John ; and they, with a few others, are 
said in another part of the Poem to have formed the guard of the young Prince 
Edward.i In the description of the siege, when Tony is again spoken of, his name 
occurs next to that of Ralph de Gorges, who is also included in the retinue of 
St. John in the entry referred to. 

Of this individual very little is known ; nor is that little particularly de- 
serving of attention. He succeeded his father, Ralph de Tony, a baron by 
tenure, in 1294, when he was of full age ; and shortly afterwards was ordered to 
serve in the wars of Gascony, and the next year in those of Scotland. On the 
13th July, 25 Edw. I. 1297, he was commanded to raise a hundred men from the 
townships of Elvet, Ughmenith, and Estmenith ; r in the 27th Edw. I. he ob- 
tained a grant of fairs and markets in divers of his manors ; and in the same 
year was summoned to parliament. We learn from the Poem that he was at 
the siege of Carlaverock in June 1300 ; and the Wardrobe Accounts show, as 
has been already observed, that he and his followers formed part of the retinue 
of John de St. John, and were attached to the person of the Prince of Wales. 
The notice of Tony by the Poet is curious ; he says he fully proved that he was 
a " Knight of the Swan," or perhaps " that he is from" or " with a Knight 
of the Swan." The line, 

lie it cjs't Du djcnaiicr a cigne, 

is obscure, but some remarks, attempting to explain it, will be found in the 
notes. He appears to have particularly signalized himself during the siege, as 



<l Page 46. r Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 294. 

3s 



250 



ROBERT DE TONY. 



he is said to have severely harassed those who were on the battlements of the 
castle. 1 " He was a party to the Letter from the Barons to Pope Boniface in Fe- 
bruary 1301, and is styled in that document, " Robertus de Touny, Dominus de 
Castro Matil." 8 

In the 34th Edw. I. Tony fell into disgrace, in consequence of his having left 
the wars of Scotland, in which he served in the retinue of the Earl of Hereford, 
without the King's license ; and precepts were sent to the sheriffs of Worcester, 
Essex, Hertford, Middlesex, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Norfolk, Suffolk, Hereford, 
and Gloucester, to seize his lands, goods, and chattels, in those counties, and 
to arrest his body.* Writs of summons to parliament were addressed to him from 
the 10th April, 27 Edw. 1. 1299, to the 16th June, 4 Edw. II. 1311, though he died 

in the year preceding. He married Maud, daughter of , but by her, who 

remarried in the 10th Edw. II. William le Zouch of Ashby, he had no issue ; and 
his sister Alice, the widow of Thomas de Leybourne was 
found to be his heiress, and at that time twenty-six years 
old. She married soon afterwards Guy de Beauchamp, Earl 
of Warwick ; and after his demise William Zouch, of 
Mortimer. 

The arms of Tony were, Argent, a maunch Gules." 




r Page 75. s Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. 

t Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 378. 

Page 42 ; Cottonian MSS. Caligula, A. xviii ; and the seal of this Baron in 1301 . It is remark- 
able, as tending to elucidate the expression of the Poet relative to " the Knight of the Swan," that 
the shield on that seal is surrounded by lions and swans alternately. 



251 

HENRY LE TYES. 

[PAGE 44.] 

The particulars which Sir William Dugdale has given of this individual render 
us but very imperfectly acquainted with his career. Every one who has re- 
ferred to the " Baronage of England," must have heen struck with the different 
manner in which the first and second volumes of that work are executed. The 
former is distinguished by the most laborious research and extraordinary accuracy, 
and confers honour upon its author ; but the latter is unfortunately of a very 
different character, and is much more remarkable for the paucity of its statements 
and its errors. This is not the place, however, in which an explanation of the 
cause of that fact can be attempted, but it is to the existence of it that so little can 
be said of many of the Barons who were at Carlaverock. 

Besides the remark that " in the time of Henry the Third Henry le Tyes held 
Shoresbury in the county of Oxford, by the grant of Richard Earl of Cornwall, 
which was part of the barony of Robert de Drucis," Dugdale takes no other notice 
of him than to state that in the 28th Edw. I. he obtained a charter from the King 
for a market every week, on Tuesday, in his manor of Mousehole in Cornwall, 
and a fair on the eve, day, and morrow after the feast of St. Barnabas the Apostle j 
that he also received a grant of free warren in all his demesne lands at Allerton 
in that county, Shereburne in Oxfordshire, and Hardwell in Berkshire ; and that 
he died in the first of the reign of Edward the Second. 

To this slight account of Henry le Tyes very little can be added ; but that little 
is of considerable importance as evidence of his military services, and of the rank 
he held in life. 

In the 10th Edw. I. 1283, he was summoned to perform military service due 
from the Bishop of Bath and Wells ; v on the 8th of June, 22 Edw. I. 1294, he 
was commanded to attend a great council or parliament ; w and on the 14th of that 
month to serve with horse and arms in the expedition then sent into Gascony.* 
On the 1st March, 25 Edw. I. 1297, he was appointed a Commissioner in the 
county of Southampton to receive the recognizances of such of the clergy as 

Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," pp. 228, 235. 

Appendix to the First PeerageReport, p. 56. * Ibid. p. 57. 



252 HENRY LE TYES. 

were willing to obtain the King's protection ; v and on the 4th of May following 
was commanded to be at London similarly equipped on the feast of St. John 
the Baptist next following, to serve against the King's enemies beyond the 
sea. u In July in the same year he was returned from the counties of Cornwall 
and Oxford, as holding lands or rents to the amount of ^20 yearly and upwards, 
cither in capite or otherwise, and as such was summoned to perform military service 
in person with horse and arms in parts beyond the sea ; x and again in October in 
that year.? On the 26th September, 26 Edw. I. 1298, he received the King's 
writ to attend at Carlisle to serve in the wars of Scotland, in the record of which 
he is called a Baron ; z and he was also ordered to the same place on the 16th July 
in the next year, 3 having in the February preceding been for the first time sum- 
moned to parliament. 11 That Tyes was in the Scottish wars in June 1300 is 
manifest both from the Poem and the Wardrobe Accounts of that year ; from the 
former we learn that he was then at the siege of Carlaverock, and from both, 
that he served in the retinue of John de St. John. c 

He was a party to the Barons' Letter to the Pope in February 1301,, in which 
he is called " Lord of Chilton ;" d and was repeatedly commanded to serve in the 
King's wars againt the Scots from the 30th to the 35th Edw. I. e Having been 
regularly summoned to parliament from the 6th February, 27 Edw. I. 1299, to the 
26th August, 1 Edw. II. 1307, he died in 1308, leaving Henry 
his son of full age, who was also summoned f from the 6th 
Edw. II. 1313, until the 14th Edw. II. 1321, when he was 
beheaded and attainted. He died without issue, leaving his 
sister, Alice, the wife of Warine L'Isle, his heiress ; and whose 
descendants are the representatives of this Baron. 




The arms of Henry le Tyes were, Argent, a chevron Gules. e 

v Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 394. Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 78. 

x Ibid. pp. 282. 290. y Ibid. p. 90. * Ibid. p. 101. 

a Ibid. p. 109. b Ibid. p. 104. c Page 248 ante, and p. 200 of those Accounts. 

d Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. e Ibid. See Digest, p. 865. 

f Dugdale has erroneously said that Henry le Tyes, the subject of this article, was summoned 
until the 14th Edw. II. ; but it was evidently his son to whom all the writs from the 6th to the 14th 
Edw. II. were addressed. 

S Page 44; the Cottonian MF. Caligula, A. xviii. ; and the seal of this Baron in 1301. His 
shield on that seal is surmounted by a Saracen's or blackamoor's head looking to the sinister, and 
which was probably his crest. Archaeologia, vol. XXI. p. 218. 



253 



WILLIAM LE LATIMER, 

[PAGE 44.] 

This veteran knight is first presented to our notice by Sir William Dugdale, 
as being appointed to a military and civil situation of equal importance, forty- 
seven years before he is commemorated by the Poet. In the 38th Hen. III. 
1253, he says he was constituted Sheriff of Yorkshire and Governor of York 
Castle ; and in the 39th Hen. III. Governor of the castle of Pikeryng in that 
county. In the 42nd Hen. III. he was ordered to attend with horse and arms to 
rescue the King's son-in-law, the King of Scotland, then a minor, from the hands 
of his rebellious subjects; 11 in the 43rd Hen. III. he was made Escheator- 
general in all the counties of England north of the Trent ; and in the following 
year succeeded the Earl of Albemarle as Governor of the castle of Cockermouth. 
He bought the wardship of the heirs of Hugh de Morewyk and the benefit of their 
marriages of the King for MCC marks in the 45th Hen. HI. ; and in the 47th 
Henry III. obtained the royal precept for the restitution of his lands, which had 
been seized during the baronial wars, when he seems to have been also de- 
prived of all his official situations. During those wars he was a firm adherent 
to the Royal party; and on the Tuesday after the feast of St. Lucie, 17 De- 
cember, 1262, he was one of the peers who undertook that the King should 
submit to the arbitration of the French monarch relative to the ordinances of 
Oxford. Immediately after Henry recovered the free exercise of his prerogative, 
he rewarded Latimer's fidelity by re-appointing him to the shrievalty of York- 
shire, and to the government of York and Scardeburgh castles ; and moreover, in 
the 50th year of his reign, granted him c marks for the expences which he had 
incurred. 

Upon the Prince, afterwards Edward the First, assuming the Cross in the 

h Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 15. 
3T 



254 WILLIAM LE LATIMER. 

54th Hen. III., this Baron also adopted that sacred badge, and it may be pre- 
sumed attended him to the Holy Land. In December, 5 Edw. I. 1276, and in 
May, 10 Edw. I. 1282, he was summoned to serve against the Welsh; 1 and 
was one of the peers present in parliament on the morrow of the feast of the 
Trinity, 29th May, 1290, when a grant was made for the marriage of the King's 
eldest daughter. k Latimer in the same year gave xxs. to John de Yarmouth on 
his quit-claim of a messuage in Yarmouth ; l and complained that Richard de Hole- 
brook, the King's steward of the forest of Rockingham, had committed waste in 
his manor of Corby, a long account of the proceedings on which are on the Rolls 
of Parliament." 1 In April, 19 Edw. I. he was ordered to be at Norham at Easter 
following, equipped for the field; 11 and in the 21st Edw. I., Dugdale says, " he 
accompanied John de St. John, that famous soldier, into Gascony." Whilst 
abroad, that writer adds, he obtained permission for his wife and family to reside 
in Skypton Castle, with an allowance of fuel from the woods there. Latimer 
was in the same year one of the manucaptors for William de Luda, Bishop of 
Ely, who was then involved in a dispute with the Archbishop of Dublin, in con- 
sequence of a quarrel between the servants of their respective households ; and 
he incurred the same responsibility for William de Montacutc, who was prisoner 
in the Tower of London, in the 33rd Edw. I.P 

Although Latimer is said to have gone into Gascony under St. John in the 
21st Edw. I., he was summoned on the 14th June in the next year to be at Ports- 
mouth on the 1st of the ensuing September, to join the expedition into that pro- 
vince ;i where he was again in the 25th Edw. I., about which year he obtained a 
grant of the marriage of Isabel, daughter and heiress of Simon de Sherstede, for 
his son and heir apparent, John le Latimer. In the 26th Edw. I. he attended 
Edward into Scotland ; and in the following year was appointed one of the com- 
missioners for fortifying the castles in that country. He was at the siege of Car- 
laverock in June, 28th Edw. I. 1300 ; and when, even allowing that he was but 
twenty-three on being appointed Governor of York Castle and Sheriff of York- 



' Appendix to the First Peerage Report, pp. 37 and 44. 

k Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 25 a. l Ibid. p. 33 b. m Ibid. pp. 35 b, 36 b. 

n Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 55. Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 112. 

P Ibid. p. 176. q Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 58. 



WILLIAM LE LATIMER. 255 

shire in 1253, he must have been seventy years of age; and the probability is that 
he was much older. The Wardrobe Accounts of that time contain the subjoined 
notices respecting him, from which it appears that his son William le Latimer 
was also in those wars : 

" D'no Willielmo Latimer, seniori, pro feodo suo hiemali anni presentis xxviij, 
per compotum factum apud Wcstmonast', xij die Marcij, vj //. xiij*. iiijrf. 

" D'no Willielmo Latimer, juniori, pro eodem, per compotum secuni factum 
ibidem eodem die, qui denar' allocatur eidem patri suo,vj //. xiij ,v. iiij d. n T 

Of his retinue in the 29th Edw. I., in which year he was in the garrison of 
Berwick, and received a grant of the manor of Danby in Yorkshire for his life, 
with remainder to his son William and Lucia his wife, and to her right heirs, 
the same Accounts contain the following particulars : 

" Domino Willielmo le Latimer, seniori, baneretto, pro vadiis suis, vj militum 
et xiij scutiferorum suorum, cum equis coopcrtis, morancium in comitiva Domini 
Edwardi filii Regis, in guerra predicta, a primo die Julij usque xxviij diem Sep- 
tembr', utroque computato 'per xc dies, per comp' factum cum eodem apud Net- 
telham, ix die Februar', anno xxix. cxxx li. x s. n 8 

In February, 29 Edw. I. 1301, he was a party to the Letter from the Barons 
assembled at Lincoln to Pope Boniface ; * and it must here be remarked that the 
entry extracted above, affords additional evidence that all the peers whose names 
are mentioned in the Letter to the Pontiff were actually present in parliament 
when it was written ; for on the 9th of February, 1300, we find Latimer was 
within four miles of the city where he is presumed to have been on the 29th of 
that month ; and to which he was doubtless then on his journey. In the 30th 
Edw. I. he received a grant of fairs and markets in his manors in Surrey, Kent, 



r Page 189. Page 201. 

t Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. The fact of his being within four miles of Lincoln on 
the 9th of February, and the description given of the Lord Latimer whose seal is affixed to that in- 
strument, " Willielmus le Latimer, Dominus de Corby," without the addition of the word " junior," 
renders it almost positive that it was this Baron rather than his son who was a party to it ; but it 
must not be forgotten that the father was not expressly summoned to the parliament then held at 
Lincoln, though he was so to the previous one, but which, being an adjourned parliament, he had 
a right to attend by virtue of the writ to the previous assembly, whilst the son is expressly recorded 
to have received a writ to be at Lincoln on that occasion. 



256 WILLIAM LE LATIMER. 

and York; and in the 31st Edw. I. was for the last time in the wars of 
Scotland. 

The earliest writ of summons on record to this Baron was tested on the 29t.h 
December, 28th Edw. I. 1299, though he manifestly sat as a peer of parliament 
ten years before ; and he was regularly summoned from the 28th Edw. I. to the 
22nd January, 33rd Edw. I. 1305, and died in the same year. 

The constant services of this distinguished soldier for nearly half a century, 
and his unvaried loyalty to his sovereign when menaced by his rebellious barons, 
render any eulogy unnecessary ; and his conduct seems fully to justify the com- 
pliment paid him by the Poet, 'who personifies Prowess, and supposes that she 
had chosen Latimer for her friend. 

His wife was Alice, the eldest daughter and coheiress of Walter Ledet alias 
Braybrooke, who died in 1316, by whom he had two sons ; John, who has been 
before spoken of; and William. John died in his father's lifetime without 
issue ; and William was summoned to parliament one year before his father is 
recorded to have received a writ of summons. According to the inquisition on the 
death of his mother in 1316, William le Latimer was born about the year 1276, 
which proves the error into which Dugdale has fallen in saying that in the 50th 
Hen. III. he accounted for divers sums due to the King ; that in the 54th Hen. 
III. he was personally in the court of Exchequer ; and that in the same year he 
performed the duties of sheriff of Yorkshire for his father. In all probability 
both these circumstances occurred to the subject of this article ; that it was the 
father of this Baron to whom all which has been attributed to him until the 
early part of the reign of Edward the First, related ; and consequently that the 
William le Latimer who was at Carlaverock was by no means so old a man, or 
his services so extensive in point of time, as has been supposed. As, however, 
there is only one part of Dugdale's statement which can be demonstrated to be 
positively wrong, and as it is possible that the Baron who served at Carlaverock 
was born sufficiently early to have held the offices attributed to him in 1253, it 
was not thought decorous towards so respectable an authority to differ so entirely 
from his statement without more satisfactory evidence of his error. 

The barony of Latimer, on the death of William, fourth Lord Latimer, K. G., 
the great grandson of the first Baron, in 1380, devolved on his daughter and 
heiress Elizabeth, who married, first, John Lord Neville of Raby, to whom she 
was second wife ; and secondly, according to some authorities, Robert Lord Wil- 




WILLIAM DE LEYBOURNE. 257 

loughby of Eresby. Her son and heir, John Neville, was 
summoned to parliament as Lord Latimcr in 1404 ; and died 
s. p. in 1430. Lord Willoughby de Broke, the descendant 
of his sister and heiress Elizabeth, is the present representa- 
tive of the house of Latimer ; and is entitled to the barony. 

The arms of Latimer are, Gules, a cross pate"e Or. u 



WILLIAM DE LEYBOURNE. 

[PAGE 44.] 

It would be difficult, even in the present state of literature, to find a more 
emphatic phrase to describe the uncompromising spirit which was the charac- 
teristic of a rude soldier of the fourteenth century, than that which the Poet has 
used with respect to William de Leybourne. He was, he says, a man " without 
but and without if " or, in other words, one who was not to be diverted from 
his purpose by any trifling impediment, but, having once resolved on a particular 
object, pursued it with a zeal and perseverance which generally ensure success. 

He was the eldest son of Roger de Leybourne, of whom Dugdale has given 
many particulars, by his first wife, Eleanor, daughter of Stephen dc Turnham, 
and succeeded his father in his lands in the 56th Hen. III. 1272. In the 5th 
Edw. 1. 1277, he was summoned to serve with horse and arms against the Welsh ; v 
again in the llth Edw. I. ; w and in the 22nd Edw. I. was made Constable of 
Pevensey Castle. On the 24th of June in the same year, 1294, he was commanded 
to be at Portsmouth on the 1st of the following September to join the expedition 

u Page 44 ; Cottonian MS. Caligula, A. xviii.; and the seal of this Baron in 1301. Though thus 
blazoned in both the MSS. cited, it must be observed that the word " pat<Se" evidently means what 
is now termed " flory," for it is so represented on the seal alluded to ; and which was also the opi- 
nion entertained of it by Glover, from whose drawing the banner in p. 44 has been exactly copied. 

v Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 37. w Ibid. p. 4'3. 

3u 



258 WILLIAM DE LEYBOURNE. 

into Gascony, when he was appointed Admiral of that part of the King's fleet 
which was at Portsmouth. In March, 25 Edw. I. 1297, he was constituted a 
commissioner in the county of Kent for the purpose of receiving the recogni- 
zances of such of the clergy as were willing to obtain the King's protection;" 
and in May following he was ordered to be at London in readiness to serve 
beyond the seas on the Sunday next after the feast of St. John the Baptist fol- 
lowing ; in January, 28 Edw. 1. 1300, he was one of the commissioners appointed 
to summon the knights of the county of Kent to meet the King for the purpose 
of performing military service against the Scots ; and by writ tested on the llth 
of the ensuing April, at St. Alban's, he was enjoined to enforce the muster of the 
levies of the men at arms in that county, and to return the names of the defaulters 
into the Wardrobe.? Leybourne was first summoned to parliament in February, 
27 Edw. I. 1299 ; he was in the wars of Scotland in the 28th Edw. 1. 1300 ; and 
the Poem informs us that he was present at the siege of Carlaverock in June 
in that year. 

The Wardrobe Accounts of the time contain two entries respecting him : 
" D'no "Willielmo de Leybourne pro feodo suo hiemali anni presentis xxviij, 
per manus D'ni Willielmi de Lecton, capellani sui, apud Berewicum super Twe- 
dam, xxvij die Decembr'. vj II. xiij s. iiij d" z 
The other relates to the wages of his retinue : 

" Domino Willielmo de Leyburn, baneretto, pro vadiis suis, quinque militum et 
tresdecim scutiferorum suorum ab viij die Julij, quo die equi sui fuerunt appre- 
ciati, usque vj diem Augusti, utroque computato per xxx dies, predicto D'no 
Willielmo per diem iij s. cuilibet militi suo per diem ij s. et cuilibet scutifero 
suo per diem xij d. xl li. xs. Eidem, pro vadiis suis, vj militum et xv scutifero- 
rum suorum, a vij die Augusti, quo die equi unius militis et ij scutiferorum suo- 
rum fuerint appreciati, usque ultimum diem ejusdem mensis, utroque computato 
per xxv dies, xxxviij li. xv s. per comp' factum cum Domino Willielmo de Cray, 
milite suo, apud Drumbogh, primo die Septembr' Ixxix li. v*." a 

In February, 1301, Leybourne was one of the Barons who sealed the Letter to 
Pope Boniface relative to his claim to the throne of Scotland, in which he is 
styled " Willielmus Dominus de Leyborn." b He was again in the Scottish wars 



Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 39 1. y Ibid. pp. 330 and 342. z Page 188. 

Page 195. b Or " Leyburne." Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. 



ROGER DE MORTIMER. 



259 



in the 29th and 32nd Edw. I. 1301, 1304 ; and in the 35th Edw. I. 1307, ob- 
tained a charter for a market and fair in his manor of Preston in Kent. 

Writs of summons to parliament are recorded to have been addressed to him 
from the 6th February, 27 Edw. I. 1299, to the 16th of June, 4 Edw. II. 131], 
though it is certain that he died in 1309. By his wife Julian, but whose other 
name is not stated, he had issue a daughter, Idonea, for whose husband he ob- 
tained Geoffrey, the son and heir of William de Say, in the 24th Edw. I. ; and a 
son, Thomas, who died in 1307 in his father's lifetime, leaving Julian, his daugh- 
ter, his heiress, and who was found heiress to her grandfather, the subject of this 
article, on his demise, and was then six years old. She married, first, John Baron 
Hastings ; and, secondly, William de Clinton Earl of Hun- 
tingdon ; but her issue failed in 1389, on the death of the 
last Hastings Earl of Pembroke, s. p., when the representa- 
tion of this Baron apparently became vested in the heirs of 
his daughter Idonea de Say above mentioned. 



The arms of Leybourne were. Azure, six lions rampant 
Argent. 



ROGER DE MORTIMER. 

[PAGE 44.] 

As this celebrated Baron was engaged in almost every expedition, and in many 
of the political events, which occurred from the year 1283 to 1330, a period 
of above fifty-three years, his life presents ample materials for that monotonous 
species of biography which consists of mere notices of services in the field ; 
of summonses to the legislative assembly ; of occasional acts of rebellion and 
outrage ; and of their consequent punishments or pardons. In these incidents 



c Page 44 ; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. ; and the seal of this Baron in 1301. 



260 ROGER DE MORTIMER. 

the long career of Roger de Mortimer abounded; and, however dull the following 
facts relating to him may be in perusal, the labour of collecting them could only 
have been adequately rewarded, if the result had produced a memoir of general 
interest. 

He was the second son of Roger Baron Mortimer of Wigmore, by Maud de 
Braose ; and as his eldest brother Edmund was, according to Dugdale, twenty-seven 
years old in 1282, he was probably born about the year 1260. The first circum- 
stance recorded of him is that, in March, 11 Edw. 1. 1283, the year following that 
in which his father died, when he probably succeeded to lands that imposed on 
their tenant the duty of serving in the field, he was summoned to attend with 
horse and arms against the Welsh. d In the 14th Edw. I. he obtained a charter 
of free warren in his lordships of Sawarden, Winterton, Hampton, and others, 
in Herefordshire and Shropshire : he was also possessed of the lordship of 
Chirke, of which from its importance he was generally described. That terri- 
tory is said to have fallen into his hands in no very creditable manner ; for the 
wardship of Lewelin, younger son of Griffith ap Madoc Prince of Wales, to whom 
the lordships of Chirke and Nanheydwy belonged, having been entrusted to this 
Baron, he " so guarded his ward that he never returned to his possessions, and 
shortly after obtained these lands to himself by charter," e a statement which is at 
least doubtful. On the 16th July, 15 Edw. I. 1287, he was directed to raise 
four hundred foot soldiers from his lordships to march against Resus films 
Mereduci ; and on the 14th of November was enjoined to reside on his demesnes 
until the rebellion of that individual was quelled/ Mortimer was commanded to 
answer relative to jurisdiction in the barony of Haverford West in the 18th Edw. 
I., and he appeared accordingly in the 20th Edw. I. : the whole proceedings on 
the subject are detailed at length on the Rolls of Parliament, whence we learn that 
he held certain lands of the Earl of Hereford-^ In the 21st Edw. I. he was in the 
expedition into France, in which year he was appointed Governor of Burgh upon 
the Sea, anciently called Mount Alban, in that kingdom. He was summoned on 
the 14th June, 1294, to be at Portsmouth on the 1st of the ensuing September, 



d Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 48. 

e Powel's History of Wales, p. 212, quoted by Dugdale. 

f Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," pp. 251, 253. 

g Rot. Parl. vol. I. pp. 34 a, 70 a, 71 b, 139 b, and 14-0 b. 



ROGER DE MORTIMER. 261 

there to join the expedition into France,* 1 and undoubtedly obeyed the writ, for 
he is expressly stated to have received letters of protection in that year in conse- 
quence of his being in the King's service in Gascony;' and for the same cause 
he and his tenants were exempted from the payment of any part of the tenth then 
granted to the crown. He was again in Gascony in the 25th Edw. I. : on the 
26th September, 26 Edw. I., 1298, he was commanded to be at Carlisle in the 
Easter following with horse and arms, in the record of which he is styled a 
Baron ; k in the same year he was a commissioner of array in Landuho, Moghelan, 
and La Pole -, 1 in the 27th Edw. I. he was summoned to parliament ; m and on the 
7th May, 16th July, and 17th September, 1299, was again ordered to be at Carlisle 
to serve against the Scots." He was, the Poem informs us, at the siege of Car- 
laverock in June 1300, at which time he must have been about forty years of 
age ; and it confirms Dugdale's statement that he was then in the retinue of the 
Prince of Wales. It is recorded in the Wardrobe Accounts that he received his 
winter's fee of ^6. 13s. 4d. in the same year ; and they give the following par- 
ticulars of his retinue : 

" Domino Rogero de Mortuo Mari, baneretto, pro vadiis suis, duorum mili- 
tum, et xiiij scutiferorum suorum, a xxviij die Julij, quo die equi sui fuerunt 
appreciati, usque xxix diem Augusti, utroque computato per xxxiij dies, xxxvj //. 
vj s. K i drm, pro expensis oris sui et unius militis sui, a ix die Julij, quo die venit 
ad curiarn apud Karlaverok, usque xxviij diem ejusdem mensis, quo die equi sui 
fuerunt appreciati, primo die computato et non ultimo per xix dies, per quos fuit 
in cur' et extra rotulum hospicii, percipienti per diem vj*. per statutum factum 
apud Sanctum Albanum de hospicio, vli. xiv*. per compotum factum cum eodem 
apud Lincoln', xx die Feb' anno xxix. Summa xlij //." P 

The places mentioned in that entry are singularly corroborative of two state- 
inrnts respecting Mortimer ; the one, in the Poem, that he was at the siege and 
capture of Carlaverock in June 1300 ; and the other, that he was a party to the 
Letter from the Barons of England assembled in the parliament at Lincoln on 
the 29th February 1301 ; for it appears that on the 9th of July 1300 he attended 
the court at Carlaverock, and on the 20th of February his accounts were settled 



1> Appendix to the First Peerage Report. i Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 14O. 

k Ibid. p. 100. 1 Palgrave's " Parliamentary \Vrits," pp. 313, 315. 

m Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 104. n Ibid. pp. 107, 110, 112. o Page 189. P Page 202. 

3x 



262 ROGER DE MORTIMER. 

at Lincoln. In the Letter to the Pope, Mortimer is styled " Lord of Penketlyn,"i 
one of the manors which he held of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford. He 
was summoned to the Scottish wars by two writs ; the first tested at Lincoln on 
the 1st of March, 29 Edw. I. 1301 ; r the other on the 7th of November, 30 
Edw. I. 1302 ; s and was present in the parliament held at Carlisle in January 
1304;* on the 5th of April in which year he was ordered to attend at Westminster 
to determine upon the aid to be granted to Edward on knighting his eldest son. 
Soon after this time Mortimer swerved from the fidelity which had hitherto 
marked his conduct, as in the 35th Edw. I. he and some other peers were 
accused of having quitted the King's service in Scotland and gone beyond the 
sea ; in consequence of which, orders were issued to the Escheator of the crown 
on each side of the Trent, dated on the 15th November, 1306, directing them to 
seize their lands and chattels." 

Upon the accession of Edward the Second he was restored to favour ; and was 
constituted the King's Lieutenant and Justice of Wales, having all the castles of 
the principality committed to his charge. In the 2nd Edw. II. he was made 
Governor of Beaumaris Castle ; and in the 4th Edw. II., of those of Blaynleveng 
and Dinas : in that year and in the 7th Edw. II. he was again in the wars of 
Scotland : x in the 8th Edw. II. he petitioned that he might be allowed the expenses 
he incurred, when Justice of Wales, in raising a force to repel the attack which 
Sir Griffith de la Pole made on the castle of Pole, on which occasion he spent 
altogether ,^332. 19s. 2d. ; y and in the same year stated that he held the land of 
Griffith, son of Madoc ap Griffiths, and prayed to be allowed to retain the same 
during his minority. 2 Early in the 9th Edw. II. he was one of the manucaptors 
for Hugh le Despenser, who was accused of having assaulted and drawn blood 
from Sir John de Roos in the cathedral court of York, in the presence of the 
King and the parliament. 3 In the 10th Edw. II. Mortimer was constituted Jus- 
tice of North Wales ; and in the llth Edw. II. was ordered to provide an hundred 
men out of his lordships of Blaynleveng o Talgarth, and two hundred out of 



<l Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. 

r Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 129. Ibid. p. 152. 

t Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 188. u Ibid. p. 216. 

* Appendix to the First Peerage Report, pp. 203, 235. 

y Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 305 b. z Ibid. p. 306 b. a Ibid. p. 352 b. 



ROGER DE MORTIMER. 263 

his territory of Lanlcdu, for the wars of Scotland He was again in the Scottish 
wars in the 12th and 13th Edw. II. and was assigned c //. for his services therein ; 
and in the 12th Edw. II. he was appointed Governor of Buelt Castle in Wales. 
On the 28th March, 1321, he was commanded to attend at Gloucester on the 
5th of April following, to devise how the insurrection in Wales might be sup- 
pressed; 15 and in the 15th Edw. II. was again made Justice of Wales, on the 
28th November, in which year, anno 1321, he was summoned to appear personally 
before the King. c Having taken an active part against the Despensers, the 
favourites of the young monarch, he exposed himself to Edward's enmity ; and 
two records are extant, which, though from immediately opposite parties, tend 
equally to prove the unenviable situation in which he was placed. In the loth 
Edw. II. he joined the Earl of Hereford in his quarrel against the Spencers/ 1 and 
having entered and burnt Bridgenorth, his Majesty declared him and the other 
Barons to have forfeited their lands : e about the same time the commonalty of 
North and South Wales petitioned the crown, praying that as Mons r Roger de 
Mortimer the nephew, and Mons r Roger de Mortimer the uncle, who had the 
custody of Wales, had risen against him and seized his castles, they might not 
be pardoned for their offences/ From this time the only thing certain which 
can be said of the subject of this article, is that in the 1st Edw. III. 1327, he 
and his nephew were restored to all their lands which had been forfeited in the 
16th Edw. II., and the whole of the proceedings on the occasion were reversed; 5 
that in the 4th Edw. III. he is styled in a writ from the King, " Justic' suo Wall' 
vel ejus locum tcncnti in partibus North Wall' et Camerario suo North Walliae ;" h 
and he was also described by the former of these titles in the 2nd Edw. III.;' 
hence the assertion of Lcland that he died in the Tower of London, to which his 



b Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 445, and Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 455 b. c Ibid. p. 461. 

d In the petitions from Hugh le Despenser the son, to Richard the Second, the injuries inflicted 
upon his lands and property in this insurrection are very minutely detailed, together with the names 
of the leaders, among which are those of this Baron and his nephew ; Rot. Parl. 21 Ric. II. vol. III. 
pp. 361-2. It is also necessary to state that a Roger de Mortimer was appointed to treat with the 
Earl of Lancaster relative to the political dissentions which then agitated the realm ; but as the 
usual addition of " de Chirk" does not occur, it is presumed to have been Lord Mortimer of Wig- 
more, the nephew of this Baron. 

e Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 471. f Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 400 a. 

e Calend. Rot. Pat. p. 100. *> Rot. Parl. vol. II. p. 35 c. > Ibid. p. 17 b. 



204 



ROGER DE MORTIMER. 



nephew and himself were committed by Edward the Second for the conduct just 
noticed, is proved to be erroneous : nor is the statement of other writers, that he 
died there on the 3rd of August, 1386, much more probable, as it is evident that 
he was restored to his office of Justice of Wales soon after the accession of 
Edward the Third, and continued to hold it with others of equal importance in 
that province until 1330. It is possible, however, that he fell into disgrace after 
that time, when all authentic accounts of him cease ; and perhaps died in the 
Tower a few years afterwards : it is positive that he lived until 1336, and must 
have been nearly eighty at his demise. By his wife Lucia, daughter and heiress 
of Sir Robert de Wasse, knt., he is said to have had issue Roger, who left a son, 
John de Mortimer ; but neither of them ranked as barons of the realm. 

Roger de Mortimer was summoned to parliament from the 6th February, 27 
Edw. I. 1299, to the 15th of May, 14 Edw. II. 1321, about which year he in- 
curred the King's enmity ; and it is remarkable that he was 
not again summoned after the, accession of Edward the Third, 
whose confidence he undoubtedly possessed. 



* * A 

^LJ 



The arms of this Baron were, Barry Or and Azure, a chief 
paly and the corners gyronny; an inescutcheon Ermine : k 
the latter being a distinction from the house of Wigmore, 
who bore the inescutcheon Argent. 



k Page 44 ; the Cottonian MS. Caligula, A. xviii., in which he is called " Sire Roger de Mor- 
timer le oncle ;" and the seal of this Baron anno 1301. 



265 



THOMAS EARL OF LANCASTER. 

[PAGE 46.] 

It would require no common talents to do justice to the life and character of 
Thomas Plantagcnet Earl of Lancaster ; for whilst hy one party he was vene- 
rated as a martyr and canonized as a saint, he was considered by the other as 
a hypocrite and a rebel. The difficulty of deciding between these conflicting 
opinions is by no means lessened upon viewing the materials for his history ; 
for the contemporary accounts which have been handed down to us are so 
deeply imbued with the prejudices of their authors, that but little reliance can be 
placed on the fidelity of their statements. In the following sketch it will be im- 
possible to do more than detail the principal events of his life ; and as an inquiry 
into the motives of his conduct would extend the article to a length totally incon- 
sistent with its object, it will not be attempted. 

Thomas Plantagenet was the eldest son of Edmond, Earl of Lancaster, Chester, 
and Leicester, Steward of England, second son of King Henry the Third ; and 
succeeded his father in all those dignities in 1295, at which time he was of full 
age. His mother was Blanch, daughter of Robert Count of Artois, third son of 
Louis VIII. King of France. 

On the 26th Sept. 26 Edw. I. 1298, he was commanded to serve in the wars of 
Scotland, 1 which appears to have been the first writ of service addressed to him ; 
and on the 6th February in the next year he was summoned to parliament. 111 In 
May following he was ordered to be at Carlisle " on the morrow of the gule of 
August," the 2nd of August ensuing, with horse and arms, to serve against the 
Scots," a command which was repeated in several subsequent writs postponing the 
day of meeting there, from time to time, until the feast of St. John the Baptist, 
1300. The English army then assembled, and immediately afterwards besieged 
Carlaverock ; on which occasion the Earl served in the squadron led by his cousin 



1 Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 100. n> Ibid. p. 103. "> Ibid. p. 107. 

o Ibid. pp. 112, 118. 

3Y 



266 THOMAS EARL OF LANCASTER. 

the Prince of Wales, and was about twenty-five years old. He is rarely, even if he 
is once, mentioned in the Wardrobe Accounts of the period, an omission which 
is not a little remarkable. Lancaster was a party to the Letter from the Barons 
to the Pope in February, 1301 :P his seal affixed to that document has given rise 
to some observations, from his being described on it as " Earl of Lancaster, Leices- 
ter, and Ferrers ;"i and he was again in the wars of Scotland in the 31st, 32nd, 
and 34th Edw. I. At the coronation of Edward the Second the Earl of Lancaster 
bore the Sword of Mercy, or Curtana: r on the 17th March, 3 Edw. II. 1310, he 
was appointed one of the Peers to regulate the kingdom and the royal household : s 
in the 4th Edw. II. he married Alice, daughter and heiress of Henry de Lacy, Earl 
of Lincoln, a memoir of whom has been given in a preceding page, 1 when to his 
own immense possessions he added those of that powerful house ; and on the 28th 
Nov. 1311, he was commanded not to attend the ensuing parliament with an 
armed retinue, or otherwise than in the usual manner/ About the 5th Edw. 
II. he first distinguished himself in political affairs by heading the party of 
Barons against Piers de Gaveston, the favourite of the young King ; and it is 
said that his father-in-law, the Earl of Lincoln, enjoined him on his death-bed to 
maintain that quarrel to the utmost of his power. The confederated nobles 
having bound themselves to expel Gaveston, appointed Lancaster their gene- 
ral ; and whether his zeal against the favourite arose from patriotism or personal 
hatred, he prosecuted their views with zeal and success ; but the details of 
these transactions, and the important part taken in them by the Earl, are too 
well known to justify repetition. After Gavcston's death his goods were placed 
in the hands of the Earls of Lancaster and Warwick, Lord Percy, and others, 
who obtained an acquittance for them from the King on the 7th February, 6 
Edw. II. 1313." 

Being absent on the King's service, probably in the Scottish wars, in January, 
8 Edw. II. 1315, commissioners were appointed to hold the parliament which 
then assembled at Lincoln until his arrival; 1 in which parliament Edward caused 
it to be signified to him and his adherents that he entertained sincere good will 

V Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. q Archaeologia, vol. XXI. p. pp. 201-203. 

r Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 36. s R o t. Parl. vol. I. p. 443. 

t Pp. 89-98. v R t. Parl. vol. I. p. 447 b. 

" Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 203. For a list of part of these articles see pp. 139-40 ante. 

Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 350 a. 



THOMAS EARL OF LANCASTER. 267 

towards them, and that he particularly wished the Earl to be at the head of his 
council ; who, having consented, was sworn accordingly.* In the 12th Edw. II. 
a new treaty was entered into hetween Lancaster and King Edward, certain lorda 
having been sent from Northampton to confer with him relative to the welfare 
and honor of the King and his realm. An agreement was accordingly drawn up 
with the view of terminating the dissentions between the two parties, a copy of 
which is preserved, but it is too long to be more fully alluded to in this place. 1 
Thus his quarrel with Edward was amicably terminated ; but their friendship was 
of short duration, even if it was for a moment sincere. Another favourite, Hugh 
le Dcspencer, occupied the place of Gaveston, and became the source of new sus- 
picions and jealousy ; and in the 14th Edw. II. the discontented Barons openly 
evinced their disgust by proclaiming both the Despencers traitors to their country. 
In this crisis Hugh le Despencer seized upon some lands which were the sub- 
ject of a dispute between the Earl of Hereford and Lord Braose. Hereford 
represented the insult offered to the laws and himself to the Earl of Lancaster, 
who appears to have gladly seized the excuse for appealing to arms against his 
sovereign. Having collected his forces, he proceeded to St. Alban's, openly 
avowing his resolution to reform the abuses in the government of the kingdom ; 
and sent the Bishops of Ely, Hereford, and Chichester to the King, to require 
the banishment of both the Spencers, and letters of amnesty to himself and his 
adherents. These demands being refused, the Earl marched to London ; and 
soon after his arrival Edward finding he had no alternative gave way, and the 
obnoxious favourites were formally banished. But this apparent compliance with 
the wishes of his rebellious subjects was of no longer duration than was sufficient 
to enable the King to raise an army capable of opposing them ; and in the next 
year he took the field. At that moment some of the Earl's adherents quitted his 
banner, and were received under that of Edward. The King, finding himself thus 
strengthened, immediately pursued Lancaster, who posted himself at Burton 
upon Trent ; but being deserted by many of his followers he took to flight, and 
the Earls of Kent and Surrey were despatched in pursuit. It would be useless to 
repeat the details of all the events which preceded the termination of his career, 
for they are familiar to every historical reader ; hence it is sufficient to observe 
that having reached Boroughbridge on his way to Pomfret, he found Sir Andrew 

y Rot. Pari. vol. 1. p. 351 b. * Ibid. pp. 453-454-. 



268 THOMAS EARL OF LANCASTER, 

Harcla, drawn up to oppose him ; that in the attempt to force the passage 
he was repulsed, his most powerful ally, the Earl of Hereford, hcing slain; 
and his whole army was routed. Incapable either of defence or flight, Lan- 
caster was seized without resistance, and conducted to the King at Pomfrct. His 
treason was deemed too notorious to require, and the eagerness to dispatch him 
was too great to allow, of the delay necessary for the observance of the usual 
forms of law. He was merely brought before the King, and the Earls of Kent, 
Richmond, Pembroke, Warren, Arundel, Athol, and Angus, some Barons, and 
other great men of the kingdom, 3 who sentenced him to be drawn, hanged, and 
beheaded. In consequence of his royal descent, the more disgraceful parts of 
his sentence were omitted ; and he was merely beheaded, b on the morrow after 
the feast of St. Benedict, 22 March 1322, at Pomfret, and was buried in the 
priory of St. John at that place. 

Such was the veneration of the multitude for the Earl of Lancaster, that they 
worshipped his effigy, which, with those of others, was sculptured on a tablet in 
St. Paul's cathedral in London, until the King expressly forbad them to do so by 
a mandate to the Bishop of London, dated 28th June, l,323. d The commons 
prayed the King in 1327, for the honour of God and of Holy Church, and for the 
benefit of the kingdom, to supplicate the Pope to canonize the noble Earl of Lan- 
caster and Robert Winchelsea, Archbishop of Canterbury, who replied that it 
appeared to his council that the advice of the prelates should be taken/ His 
memory continued to be held in the highest veneration for several centuries, 
miracles being said to have been wrought at his tomb, attended by the usual 
sign of sanctity, blood issuing from it ; and many instances are mentioned 



a Rot. Parl. vol. II. p. 3. 

b Rot. Parl. vol. II. pp. 3, 4, 5, where the whole proceedings against the Earl are recorded. 

c In the Act of Resumption, 34-th Hen. VI. alluding to that priory, it is said, " And how that 
the blissyd and holy Erie, Thomas late Erie of Lancastre, owre dere and nygh cosyn, is honorably 
tumylat and restyng within the priory of Seint John Th'appostill aforseid, to the honour and wor- 
shuppe of God, plaisir and comfort of us." Rot. Parl. vol. V. p. 308. 

<1 Vincent, in his " Discoverie of Errors," p. 295, has given a copy of the record alluded to. The 
words are, " in qua statuae sculpture seu imagines diversorum, et inter cactera effigies Thomas 
quondam Comitis Lancastriae." 

e Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 7 a. f Ibid. p. 11 a. 



THOMAS EARL OF LANCASTER. 



269 



of offerings being made at his shrine.s It would be dangerous to draw 
any positive conclusion as to the real character of this once powerful 
nobleman. That he was the popular idol is but primd facie evidence of his 
worth ; nor are the epithets bestowed on him by those of the royal party more 
conclusive proofs of his crimes. In both instances in which he appeared in arms 
against his sovereign, there were undoubtedly wrongs which cried loudly for 
redress ; but whether he was animated alone by a desire to remove the grievances 
under which the country suffered, to rescue the King from the thraldom in which 
he was held, and to enforce the execution of strict and impartial justice through- 
out the realm ; or, made these the mask, either of his own personal ambition, or 
of individual hatred towards Edward and his minions, is a question upon which 
it is scarcely possible to throw any light, and hence extremely difficult to form an 
accurate judgment. 

The Earl of Lancaster died without issue, and his lands and dignities were de- 
clared to be forfeited ; but all the proceedings against him were reversed imme- 
diately after the accession of Edward the Third, in favour of his brother and heir, 
Henry, the subject of the next memoir. Alice his Countess survived him ; but 
he repudiated her some years before his death, and, as is stated in a former 
page, she married, secondly, Eubolo le Strange, who was her 
husband in 1330, h and, thirdly, Hugh le Frenes, but died 
issueless in October, 1348. h 

The arms of the Earl of Lancaster were those of Eng- 
land, Gules, three lions passant gardant Or; with a label 
of France, his mother's arms, Azure, semee of fleurs de 
lis, Or. 1 




g Humphrey Earl of Hereford ordered by his will in 1361, that " a man should be sent to Pom- 
fret to offer xl s. at the tomb of Thomas late Earl of Lancaster." Testamenta Vetusta, p. 68. 
h Page 98. 
i Page Hi; Cotton MSS. Caligula A. xviii.; and the seal of the Earl, 1301. 



3z 



270 



HENRY DE LANCASTER. 

[PAGE 48.] 

As has been observed in the preceding memoir, Henry de Lancaster was the 
second son of Earl Edrnond by Blanch of Artois ; and we may presume was born 
about the year 1276. k 

Upon the death of his father he had livery of the town, castle, and honour of 
Monmouth: in September, 26th Edw. I. 1298, he was commanded to serve 
against the Scots, in the record of which writ he is styled a Baron, and is placed 
at the head of the list of those of that rank. 1 In the next year he was summoned 
to parliament; and on the 7th May, 16th July, and 30th December, 1299, he re- 
ceived writs of service for the wars of Scotland;" 1 and was, it appears from the 
Poem, present at Carlaverock in June, 1300. Lancaster was a party to the Letter 
from the Barons at Lincoln to Pope Boniface, in February, 1301, in which he 
is styled " Henry of Lancaster, Lord of Munemue," but on his seal attached to 
that document he is called " Lord of Monemutse," both being intended for Mon- 
mouth. 11 He was again in the expeditions into Scotland in the 32nd and 34th 
Edw. I. : on the 22nd January, 1 Edw. II. 1308, he was commanded to attend at 
Dover to receive the King and Queen on their return from France ; and at the 
coronation of Edward the Second he bore the rod or sceptre with a dove on 
the top.P In March, 1310, he was one of the peers appointed to regulate the 
state of the royal household and of the kingdom.i He was enjoined to serve 



k A MS. note of the inquisition held in the 1st Edw. III. of the lands of which Thomas Earl of 
Lancaster was possessed, states that Henry was then forty years old, in which case he was born 
about the year 1287 ; but this must be erroneous, for he was most probably of full age when sum- 
moned to serve in the Scottish wars in 1298, and in 1301 he sat in parliament as a peer of the realm. 

1 Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 100. m Ibid. pp. 107, 109, and 118. 

n Appendix to the Fourth Peerage Report. 

Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 31. P Ibid. p. 36. 

q Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 443 b. 



HENRY DE LANCASTER. 271 

in Scotland in the 7th and 8th Edw. II.; and in the llth Edw. II. was ordered 
to provide one hundred foot soldiers out of his lands in Wales for the wars there. 

It appears that Henry de Lancaster did not in any degree participate in the 
rebellion of his brother, for he not only continued to be summoned to parliament 
after the Earl's execution, but, probably as a compensation for the honours he 
had lost in consequence of his brother's attainder, Edward created or rather 
restored him to the dignity of Earl of Leicester on the 29th March, 17 Edw. II. 
1324 ; and on the 4th of August in that year he was summoned to parliament 
by that title. 

Notwithstanding this mark of the King's favour, his patriotism was supe- 
rior to his gratitude : he confederated with his cousin, the Earl Marshal, against 
the royal authority, or rather against the mere shadow of it, the real power of 
the crown being then usurped by the Queen and her paramour, Mortimer. The 
deposed monarch was for a short time in his custody ; and when Edward the 
Third was proclaimed, the Earl of Lancaster girded him with the sword of knight- 
hood, and was entrusted with his tuition as soon as he was crowned. 

The earliest act of the first parliament of Edward the Third was to reverse all 
the proceedings against Thomas Earl of Lancaster ; and his brother being his 
heir, he consequently succeeded to the earldoms of Lancaster and Chester, and to 
his immense possessions. In the 1st Edw. III. he was appointed Captain-ge- 
neral of all the King's forces in the Marches of Scotland. About this period, from 
some cause now unknown, it is said that the Earl refused to attend the parlia- 
ment that was to meet at Salisbury in the quindesme of St. Michael, 2 Edw. II. 
anno 1328, which offended the young monarch, who, being impressed with the 
belief that he meant to destroy him, raised a great force, and marched against 
him to Bedford ; but through the influence of the Earl Marshal and the Earl of 
Kent the quarrel was speedily reconciled. In the 14th Edw. III. 1340, he was 
appointed one of the council to assist the Duke of Cornwall, who was constituted 
guardian of the realm in the King's absence/ after which he docs not appear to 
have been ever connected with public affairs. The Earl of Lancaster died in 
1345 ; and allowing him to have been only twenty-one in 1298, when first sum- 
moned to the field, he must have been very nearly seventy at his decease. He 



Rot. Parl. vol. II. p. 1 14 b. 



272 



HENRY DE LANCASTER. 



married Maud, the daughter and heiress of Sir Patrick Chaworth, 8 in the 27th 
Edw. I. 1299, and by her had Henry, his son and heir, who was of full age at 
his father's death ; and six daughters ; Blanch, wife of Thomas Lord Wake ; 
Maud, who married William de Burgh, Earl of Ulster, and afterwards Ralph de 
Ufford, son of the Earl of Suffolk ; Joan, the wife of John Lord Mowbray ; 
Isabel, Prioress of Ambresbury ; Eleanor, who married, first, John Lord Beau- 
mont, and, secondly, Richard Earl of Arundel ; and Mary, who became the wife 
of Henry Lord Percy. 

The Earl of Lancaster was buried at Leicester, where a handsome tomb was 
erected to his memory. His son and successor was of full age in 1345 ; he was 
created Duke of Lancaster in the 25th Edw. III. was one of the founders of 
the order of the Garter, and died s. p. M. in 1360. Maud, his eldest daughter 
and coheiress, married William Duke of Bavaria, but died issueless ; Blanch, his 
second daughter, was the first wife of John of Gaunt, who, in consequence of his 
marriage, was created Duke of Lancaster. 



The arms of the Earl of Lancaster, in the lifetime of his 
elder brother, were, Gules, three lions passant gardant Or, 
England, with a baton Azure; 1 but whether he changed 
them on becoming the heir male of his house in 1321 has 
not been ascertained ; Henry Duke of Lancaster, his son, 
bore the arms of his uncle and grandfather, England, with a 
label of France. 




Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 315. A drawing of a seal of the Earl in 1318, in the Cottonian MS. 
Julius, C. vii. represents the secretum as being impaled with Chaworth. 

1 Page 48; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. ; and the seal of this Baron in 1301. 



273 



WILLIAM DE FERRERS. 

[PAGE 48.] 

This nobleman was the eldest son of William de Ferrers, second son of Wil- 
liam eighth Earl of Derby, who, having obtained the lordship of Groby in Lei- 
cestershire, part of the inheritance of his mother, Margaret, daughter and co- 
heiress of Roger de Quincy, Earl of Winchester, adopted her arms as his pater- 
nal coat. 

William de Ferrers, the subject of this notice, succeeded his father at Groby in 
1288, when he was eighteen years of age. In the 22nd Edw. I. 1294, he was 
commanded to serve in person against the King of France in parts beyond the 
sea ; u and about that time was a witness to the proceedings relative to John Baliol, 
King of Scotland:" in the 25th Edw. I. 1297, he was summoned to attend a 
council or parliament at Salisbury;? and in the same year letters of credence 
were addressed to him as a Scottish Baron, " dwelling on this side the Forth," 
concerning military service to be performed by him. z He was repeatedly enjoined 
to serve with horse and arms from the 26th Edw. I. 1297, to the 29th Edw. I. 
1300 ; a and in June in that year he was present at the siege of Carlaverock in 
the fourth squadron, at which time he was above thirty years old. In February, 
1301, Ferrers was a party to the Letter from the Barons at Lincoln to the Pope, in 
which he is styled " Lord of Groby ;" b and he was again frequently summoned to 
serve against the Scots from the 29th to the 35th Edw. I. a On the accession of 
Edward the Second he was ordered to attend the coronation ; c and was several 
times commanded to perform military service against the Scots during that 
reign. d In the 9th Edw. II. he was one of the manucaptors of Hugh le De- 
spencer, who was accused of having wounded Sir John de Roos, Knt. in the 



u Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 262. * Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 115 b. 

y Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 52. z Ibid. p. 285. 

a Ibid. Digest, p. 596. b Ibid. pp. 102-3. 
c Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 176. d Ibid. p. 181 et seq. 

4A 



274 



WILLIAM DE FERRERS. 



presence of the King and Parliament, in the cathedral church of York. 6 Ex- 
cepting that Ferrers was summoned to parliament from the 26th September, 28 
Edw. I. 1300, to the 20th February, 18 Edw. II. 1325, f the preceding are all the 
facts which appear to be recorded of his life ; and it is not necessary to point out 
the impossibility of drawing from them any deductions illustrative of his charac- 
ter. He died in 1325, aged about fifty-five, leaving by his wife, who, according 
to some authorities, was Margaret the daughter of John Lord Segrave, Henry 
his son and heir, then twenty-two years old. 

The barony of Ferrers of Groby was enjoyed by the male descendants of this 
Baron until the death of William, fifth Baron by writ, in 1445 ; and in the next 
year Sir Edward Grey, husband of Elizabeth, his granddaughter and heiress, 
was summoned to parliament in her right as Lord Ferrers of Groby : their grand- 
son, Thomas Grey, was created Marquess of Dorset, and his son, Henry, Duke 
of Suffolk ; but this barony, with all his other dignities, be- 
came forfeited, on the Duke's attainder in 1554. The present 
representative of William Lord Ferrers who is commemorated 
in the preceding Poem, is her Grace, Ann Eliza, Duchess of 
Buckingham and Chandos. 

The arms of Ferrers of Groby were, Gules, seven mascles 
voided of the Field.? 




e Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 352 b. 

f Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," Digest, p. 596, and the Appendix to the First Peerage 
Report. 

g Page 48 ; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii., where the charges are, however, described as 
" losenges ;" and the seal of this Baron in 1301, on which his arras are represented on the breast 
of a double-headed eagle. See Archa?ologia, vol. XXI. p, 210. 



275 

RALPH DE MONTHERMER. 

[PAGE 48.] 

It is singular that nothing should be known of the origin of an individual who 
became the son-in-law of the King of England, and possessed in right of his 
wife the powerful earldoms of Gloucester and Hertford. Until his marriage with 
Joan d' Acres, widow of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, and 
daughter of King Edward the First, early in 1297, his name does not once occur 
in the records of the period ; and it may therefore be conjectured that both his 
birth and station were obscure, and that he was solely indebted to his splendid 
alliance for the wealth and honours he obtained. We are told indeed that he had 
long nourished a passion for the Countess, and that he had suffered deeply for 
her; h but this must be the language of poetry instead of truth, unless his attach- 
ment commenced during the lifetime of her first husband, who did not die until 
1295. The fact probably was, and many similar instances could be cited, that 
Joan Plantagenet's first marriage was one of policy rather than affection; and that 
in her second she gratified her heart rather than her pride. At the time of her 
union with Monthermer she was scarcely more than twenty-four years old, and 
perhaps his age was about the same. The account which is given by Dugdale 
of her second marriage supports these suggestions, as he says, " she matched 
herself to a plaiu esquire, called Ralph de Monthermer, clandestinely, without the 
King her father's knowledge, whom afterwards she sent to her father to receive 
the honour of knighthood. But when the King understood that she had much 
debased herself by marrying so meanly, being highly incensed, he caused all her 
castles and lands to be seized on, and sent her husband, Monthermer, to strait 
imprisonment in the castle of Bristol. Nevertheless at length, through the me- 
diation of that great prelate Anthony Beck, then Bishop of Durham, a reconci- 
liation was made." 1 Besides the disparity between the rank of the parties, an- 
other cause for Edward's displeasure may be found in the fact that he intended 
she should have married, to her second husband, Amadeus Count of Savoy ; for 

h Page 48 ante. Baronage, tome I. p. 215. 



276 RALPH DE MONTHERMER. 

it appears that Otho de Grandison was specially instructed to treat for that alli- 
ance on the 16th March, 25 Edw. I. 1297. k 

The first occasion on which Monthermer is mentioned, is in the 25th Edw. I., 
when, by the appellation of a Knight, he is stated to have married Joan Countess 
of Gloucester and Hertford, and to have done homage to the King on Friday 
the morrow of St. Peter ad Vincula, 2nd August, 1297, at Eltham ; immediately 
after which she performed the same ceremony : 

" Memorandum quod Radulphus de Mahermer, Miles, qui Johannem Comi- 
tissam Glouc' et Hertford' duxit in uxorem, fecit fidelitatem Domino Regi die 
Veneris in crastino Sancti Petri ad Vincula apud Eltham, et postmodum filio 
Regis, et incontinenter ibidem fecit Cornitissa fidelitatem eisdem." 1 

By a writ tested on the 31st July, 1297, the Countess's lands, with some ex- 
ceptions, were restored to her, upon condition that she should provide one hun- 
dred men at arms to serve in the King's wars in France, of whom she was to 
appoint any captain excepting her husband, Ralph de Monthermer, he having 
the King's license to remain in England. 1 " On the 8th of September following 
he was summoned to appear with horse and arms at Rochester:" on the 10th 
of April, by the title of " Ralph de Monthermer, Earl of Gloucester and Hert- 
ford," he was commanded to attend a parliament at Salisbury, accompanied by as 
small a retinue as possible ; and in June, 26th Edw. I. 1297, his bailiffs were 
enjoined to assist the commissioners of array in raising foot soldiers against the 
Scots.? By these appellations he continued to be summoned both to parliament 
and to perform military service until 1307 :<! he was present at the siege of Car- 
laverock in June 1300 ; and in the parliament held at Lincoln in February 1301, r 
when the peers of England addressed the memorable Letter to the Pope which 
has been so frequently noticed in these memoirs, he was a party to that instru- 
ment by the same titles. Upon the occasion of Monthermer attending at York, 
some years before, Peter of Langtoft says, 

rle 3;on ot ^>utraj com toi't^ jjrete potoere, 
<3louce^tre toute anti gap, &it jSauf the Hio^ermere, 
t.s toif , ame 3Jone, tohtlom StlfaerDe' o Clare. 8 



k Fcedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 861. 

1 Rot. Fin. 25 Edw. I. m. I. cited in a note to Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 745. 
m Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 296. Ibid. p. 297. o Ibid. p. 65. 

P Ibid. p. 314. q Ibid. Digest, p. 745. ' r Ibid. pp. 102-3. Ed. 1810, p. 301. 



RALPH DE MONTHERMER. 277 

In the 35th Edw. I. the King granted Monthermer the lands and dignity of 
the Earl of Athol in Scotland ; l about which time, being engaged in the wars of 
that country, he was defeated by Robert Bruce, and was obliged to take refuge 
in the castle of Ayr, where he was besieged until Edward sent forces to relieve 
him. Early in that year Joan his Countess died, for orders were issued on the 
1st April, 35 Edw. I. 1307, to the Bishop of London, to cause her obsequies to 
be celebrated, and her soul to be prayed for in his diocese." Neither the title of 
Earl of Gloucester nor of Earl of Hertford was ever afterwards attributed to him, 
and from that time until the 2nd Edw. II. he is not recorded to have been sum- 
moned to parliament or to the field. This fact is a remarkable elucidation of the 
descent of earldoms in the fourteenth century, as it tends to show that they were 
considered to be attached to the tenure of lands ; and that the tenant jure uxttrla 
of such lands was also entitled to the dignity. On the 4th March, 2 Edw. II. 
1309, Monthermer was again summoned to parliament, but with the rank of a 
Baron only ; and he continued to receive similar writs until the 30th October, 18 
Edw. II. 1324 ; x during which period his name also occurs in the writs of service 
against the King's enemies in Scotland;? and on the 2nd August, 2 Edw. II. he 
obtained a license to hunt in all the royal forests on both sides of the Trent. 2 In 
the third year of his reign, Edward the Second granted the manor of Warbling- 
ton in tail general " to his nephews, Thomas and Edward, sons of Ralph de Mon- 
thermer ;" a and in the next year gave the said Ralph and his two sons the manor 
of Westenden. b The father received ccc marks in the 5th Edw. II. in reward of 
his services in Scotland, being part of DC marks which he was to have paid for 
the wardship of John ap Adam. He was taken prisoner at the battle of Bannock- 
burn in the 7th Edw. II., when, Dugdale says, " he found favour in regard of 
former accidental familiarity with the King of Scots in the court of England, 
and was pardoned his fine for redemption ; who thereupon returned, and brought 
the King's target which had been taken in that fight, but prohibited the use 
thereof." In the 8th Edw. II. 1315, he was appointed to hold an inquest in con- 
sequence of a petition from John Earl of Richmond relative to his claim to the 



t Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 66 b; et Calend. Rot. Chart, p. 137 b, anno 34 Edw. I. 

u Fcedera, N. E. vol. I. p. J013 ; see also p. 1016. 

x Appendix to the First Peerage Report. y Ibid. 

* Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 5t. Calend. Rot Pat. p. 71 b. b Ibid. p. 72 b. 

4a 



278 RALPH DE MONTHERMER. 

towns of Great Yarmouth and Gorleston. With this notice all information 
respecting Monthermer terminates ; and it is supposed he died about the 18th 
Edw. II. though no inquisition appears to have been held on his decease. By 
the Countess of Gloucester he had issue a daughter, Mary, who married Duncan, 
twelfth Earl of Fife; d and two sons, Thomas and Edward. The latter is pre- 
sumed to have been the Edward de Monthermer who received writs of summons 
to parliament on the 23rd April and 21st June, llth Edw. III. 1337, and who was 
commanded, from Sussex, to serve with horse and arms against the Scots, in 
December, 8 Edw. III. 1334. e Thomas de Monthermer, the eldest son, though 
never summoned to parliament, was a knight, and was partially distinguished in 
political affairs .for, by the appellation of the King's kinsman, he obtained pardon 
in the 1st Edw. III. for having been an adherent of the Earl of Lancaster/ He 
was enjoined to serve with horse and arms against the Scots by writ tested 21st 
March, 7 Edw. III. 1333,? and again on the 27th March, 9 Edw. III. 1335 ; h 
and was ordered to provide six armed men for the same purpose on the 6th 
October, 11 Edw. III. 1337.' Dugdale informs us that he was slain in the great 
sea-fight between the English and French in 1340. By Margaret his wife, who 
survived him until the 23rd of Edw. III., he left issue a daughter, Margaret, who 
was found to be ten years of age at her father's death, and twenty-one on that 
of her mother, and then the wife of Sir John de Montacute, second son of Wil- 
liam first Earl of Salisbury. Sir John Montacute was summoned to parliament 



c Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 301 a. 

d Permission was ordered to be asked of the Pope, by Edward the Second soon after his acces- 
sion, for a dispensation for the marriage of Mary, who is expressly called " Mary de Mon- 
thermer, the King's niece," with Duncan Earl of Fife, notwithstanding their relationship. Foedera, 
N. E. vol. II. pp. 5 and 6, but which was only a repetition of a similar request made by Edward 
the First in October 1306. Ibid. vol. I. pp. 1001-2. On the 22nd December, 8 Edw. II. 1314, a 
passport was granted to the said Duncan, at the instance of Ralph de Monthermer, his father- 
in-law, for leave to come into England, and to pass through it to parts beyond the sea. Ibid. 
vol. II. p. 258. According to Douglas's Peerage, the issue of the Earl of Fife and Mary de Mon- 
thermer was Duncan 13th Earl of Fife, whose only daughter and heiress, Isabel, though twice mar- 
ried, died s. p. 

e Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 433. 

f Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 107 a. See also Fredera, N. E. vol. II. p. 796, where several notices 
occur relative to the wardship of his daughter. 

g Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 421. h Ibid. p. 443. i Ibid. p. 488. 



RALPH DE MONTHERMER. 



279 



in the 31st Edw. III., and his son succeeded to the earldom of Salisbury, in 
which dignity the barony of Monthermer, created by the writ of 2 Edw. II., con- 
tinued merged. It, however, became forfeited in 1400 ; was restored in 1421 ; 
and was finally forfeited by the attainder of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick 
and Salisbury, on whom it had devolved, jure matrix, in 1471. 

After the death of the Countess of Gloucester Ralph de Monthermer married 
Isabel, the widow of John de Hastings, and sister and coheiress of Aymer de 
Valence, Earl of Pembroke ; and in the 13th Edw. II. 1319, he received a pardon 
of the fine he had incurred for having done so without the King's license, k but 
by her he is not stated to have had any children. She survived him, and by his 
will he left her certain houses in the parish of St. Dunstan's in London. 1 

The arms of Monthermer were, Or, an 
eagle displayed Vert ; m and a similar eagle 
appears from the seal of this Baron in 
1301 to have been his crest. n It would 
seem that did not bear his own arms on 
his banner at Carlaverock, but that it was 
charged with those of Clare, the family 
whose honours he temporarily enjoyed; 
namely, Or, three chevronels Gules ; but he is expressly said to have been 
"vesfed" in his own ensigns, and which alone appear on his seal. 





k Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 403. 1 Calend. Inquisit. post mortem, vol. III. p. 327. 

n Page 48; Cottonian MS. Caligula, A. xviii. ; and the seal of Ralph de Monthermer in 1301. 

n Archaeologia, vol. XXI. 



280 



ROBERT DE LA WARD. 

[PAGE 50.] 

As the account given of this individual by Dugdale, commences with the 31st 
year of Edw. I., and only fills four lines, nothing can, perhaps, be said of his pa- 
rentage or birth. It is most probable that he was the Robert de la Ward who 
complained of being unjustly imprisoned in the 18th Edw. I. 1290, by Ralph de 
Hengham, one of the King's justices ; and who, on the'lOth September, 23 Edw. I. 
1295, obtained a remission of the tenth of his goods which had been granted to 
the Crown.P In the 25th Edw. I. he was returned from the counties of Notting- 
ham and Derby as holding lands or rents to the amount of .20 yearly value and 
upwards, either in capite or otherwise ; and as such was summoned to perform 
military service in person with horse and arms in Scotland/* He was commanded 
to serve in Flanders in the ensuing year; r and in the 27th Edw. I. 1299, was 
summoned as a Baron to serve against the Scots. 5 La Ward received his first 
writ of summons to parliament in 1300 ; in June in which year he was at Car- 
laverock, and he appears to have distinguished himself at the siege of the castle.* 
On the 12th of the following February he was a party to the Letter from the 
Barons to Pope Boniface, in which he is styled " Lord of Alba Aula." u He was 
again in the Scottish wars in the 31st Edw. I. ;* and in the 34th Edw. I. 1306, 
was appointed steward of the King's household ; x on the 24th of October in 
which year he was present when James Steward of Scotland took the oath of 
fealty to Edward at Lanercost ;? after which time nothing seems to be known of 
him. De la Ward was summoned to parliament from the 29th December, 28 
Edw. I. 1299, to the 3rd of November, 34 Edw. I. 1306 ; z and died in the 35th 
Edw. I. 1307 ; a leaving by Ida b his wife, who, according to some authorities, was 



o Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 52. p Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 391. 

q Ibid. p. 288. r Ibid. pp. 304, 306. s Ibid. p. 318. 

t Page 78 ante. u Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 103. * Ibid. p. 366. 

y Fcedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 1001. z Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," Digest. 

a Esch. eod. ann. b Ida is said to have been his wife in the Escheat on his death. 



JOHN DE SAINT JOHN. 



281 



/yy 

OL 



/in 



is is 



the daughter of Robert Lord Fitz Walter, a son, Simon de la 
Ward, who was summoned to parliament from the 18th Edw. 
II. to the 8th Edw. III. and died s. p. ; and a daughter, Joane, 
who married Sir Hugh Meignill, km. and became heir to 
her brother ; and in whose descendants the representation of 
this baronv is vested. 



The arms of De la W T ard were, Vaire, Argent and Sable. d 



JOHN DE ST. JOHN. 
[PAGE 50.] 

This Banneret was the son and heir apparent of the John de St. John, of whom 
a memoir has been given in a former page, and was born in 1274. Soon after 
he became of age he was summoned to the field, for, by the description of " John 
le St. John the son," he was ordered to serve in Flanders in November, 1297 ; e 
and by the appellation of a Baron was, in the 27th Edw. I. 1299, commanded to 
perform military service against the Scots/ In March, 28th Edw. I., he was 
summoned to parliament \z and was enjoined to be at Carlisle properly equipped 
with horse and arms on the 24th June following, 11 about which day he was at the 
siege of Carlaverock, when he must have been just twenty-six years of age. Some 
notice of him will be found in the extracts from the Wardrobe Accounts of the 
time relating to his father's retinue ; and to which it is only necessary to refer.; 



c MS. marked " Black Book," f. 4-38, in the College of Arms. See also the pedigree of Meignell 
in Nichols's Leicestershire ; and in Dugdale's Warwickshire, where she is called the eldest daughter 
and heiress of Robert de la Ward, and is said to have been the second wife of Sir Hugh Meignell. 

'' Page 50 ; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii., where the name of Robert de la Ward has been 
added to the list of the names and arms " abatues" of great personages. 

e Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs," p. 3M. f Ibid. p. 318. 6 Ibid. p. 82. 

h Ibid. p. 3 17. i Page 247 ante. 

4c 



282 JOHN DE SAINT JOHN. 

As has been already observed, it is by no means certain whether it was this Baron 
or his father who, by the title of " Lord of Hanak," was a party to the Letter 
from the Barons to the Pope in 1301 ; but most probably the fonnerJ In the 
31st Edw. I. he was again summoned to the Scottish wars ; k and he succeeded 
his father in 1302, when, performing his homage, he had livery of his lands. 
In the 35th Edw. I. he petitioned the King to issue his precept to Hugh le De- 
spenser, who was then Justice of the Forests, to permit him to enjoy his park at 
Shereburne, in the county of Southampton, which his father had made with the 
King's license ; he was answered that any park which had been formed since the 
deforestation should be laid open. 1 

During the early part of the reign of Edward the Second this Baron was fre- 
quently enjoined to serve in the Scottish wars, but nothing memorable is recorded 
of him. Writs of summons to parliament were addressed to him from the 29th 
December, 28 Edw. I. 1299, to the 10th October, 19 Edw. II. 1325, though 
Sir William Dugdale cites an escheat to prove that he died on the 14th of 
May, 12 Edw. II. 1319. By Isabel, daughter of Hugh de Courtenay, he left 
issue Hugh his son and heir, then twenty-six years old, who, in the 5th Edw. III. 
" represented to the King by petition, that, whereas his father had served King 
Edward the Second in his wars both in Gascony and Scotland, according to the 
tenor of a certain indenture, whereby he was retained with that King as well in 
times of war as peace, upon certain wages then agreed upon for himself and 
those of his retinue, and to have recompense for as many horses as should be lost 
in such service ; as also to receive in times of peace such wages as other ban- 
nerets of the King's household had ; and moreover that divers sums of money 
due to him, both for his wages and loss of horses in those wars, were then in 
arrear ; and did thereupon obtain the King's precept to the Lord Treasurer and 
the Barons of his Exchequer to account with him for the same, and to make 
satisfaction for what should be found in arrear." 

The said Hugh de St. John died in 1337, without being summoned to parlia- 
ment, and Edmund his only son dying at Calais on the 18th August, 21 Edw. 
III. 1347, s. p., Margaret and Isabel, sisters of Edmund, became his heirs ; of 



i Page 248 ante. k Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 366. 

l Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 201. 



RICHARD FITZ ALAN, EARL OF ARUNDEL. 



28;* 



whom Margaret married John dc St. Philibert, but left no issue that survived ; 
and Isabel, married before the 23rd Edw. III. to her second 
husband, Lucas de Poynings, by whom she had a son and heir, 
Thomas de Poynings, who was called Lord St. John. Henry 
de Burghcrsh, the first husband of the said Isabel, died s. p. 



The arms of St. John were, Argent, on a chief Gules two 
mullets Or ; but during the lifetime of his father this Baron 
bore a label Azure for difference." 1 




RICHARD FITZ ALAN, EARL OF ARUNDEL. 

[PAGE 50.] 

Notwithstanding that almost every writer on the subject has considered that 
both the father and the grandfather of this individual were Earls of Arundel, 
in consequence of the marriage of John Fitz Alan, the father of the latter, 
with Isabel, the second sister and coheiress of Hugh de Albini, Earl of 
Arundel, in whose right he acquired Arundel Castle, it has been satisfactorily 
proved by the Lords' Committees in their " First and Second Reports on the Dig- 
nity of a Peer of the Realm," n that neither of them enjoyed that honour; but that 
the first Earl of Arundel of the family of Fitz Alan, was the person of whose 
life the following memoir will contain all which is known. 

On the antiquity of the house of Fitz Alan, or the achievements of the long 
line of peers who inherited the earldom of Arundel, it is not necessary to enlarge, 
for the former is known to every genealogist, and their deeds are matter of 
history. 

Richard Fitz Alan was the son and heir of John Fitz Alan, by Isabel, daughter 



Page 50; Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. 



Page 410 et seq. 



284 RICHARD FITZ ALAN, EARL OF ARUNDEL. 

of Roger de Mortimer of Chirk ; and succeeded his father in his lands in March, 
12/2, at which time he was just five years of age, having been born on the feast 
of St. Blaze, 3rd February, 1267. The custody of his lands were, in the 1st 
Edw. I. 1273, committed to John de Oxinden, and his wardship to Roger de 
Mortimer; but in the 8th Edw. I. 1280, Isabel his mother, by the description 
of " Isabelle, que fuit uxor Johannis fil' Alani," obtained the custody of the 
castle and honour of Arundel during her son's minority,? though in the 10th 
Edw. I. Roger de Mortimer received a grant from the King of the custody of the 
castles of Arundel and Oswaldestre.i He became of full age in February, 11 
Edw. I., 1283, and by the appellation of " Richard Fitz Alan" only, obtained a 
grant of a fair at his manor of Arundel in the 13th Edw.. I. : r his bailiffs of 
" Blaunc Monster" and Clone were directed to raise foot soldiers to march 
against Resus filius Mereduci, 8 in July, 15 Edw. I. 1287 : he was enjoined to 
reside on his demesnes and lordships in Wales, until the rebellion of the said 
Resus was quelled, by writ tested on the 14th November following :* he was 
ordered to give credence to William de Henley, Prior of the Hospital of St. 
John of Jerusalem, in matters which the Prior was to declare to him, in the 16th 
Edw. I. 1288 : u and was again desired to reside on his lordships in Wales, for the 
purpose of defending them against Resus filius Mereduci, in November, 17 Edw. 
I. 1288." In the 20th Edw. I., Fitz Alan was first styled " Earl of Arundel," by 
which title he was summoned by two different writs to answer to the King 
respecting the hundred of Pesseburn and other property in Shropshire ; and it is 
justly inferred that he became Earl of Arundel between the 1 7th and 20th Edw. I. 
1288 and 1291J By writs tested at Westminster on the 18th and 27th October, 
22 Edw. I. 1294, and addressed to him as " Richarl Earl of Arundel," he was ap- 
pointed commander of the forces destined for the relief of the castle of Bere : z in 
the 23rd Edw. I. 1297, he was summoned to parliament; 3 and in the same year 
he obtained a quietus for remission of the tenth charged upon his own proper 



Escheat cited in the First and Second Peerage Reports, p. 416. I 1 Ibid. p. 418. 

q Dugdale, p. 315, on the authority of Pat. 10 Edw. I. m. 8. 

r First and Second Peerage Reports, p. 420. 

s Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 251. l Ibid. p. 252. " Ibid. p. 254. 

x Ibid. p. 255. >' Peerage Reports, I. and II. p. 420. 

z Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 264. " Ibid. p. 29. 



RICHARD FITZ ALAN, EARL OF ARUNDEL. 



285 



goods by virtue of the grant made by the laity of the kingdom. b In November 
following the Earl was ordered to perform military service in person in Gas- 
cony ; c from which time until the 29th Edw. I., he was repeatedly commanded 
to serve in the wars either in Gascony or Scotland, and was summoned to every 
parliament that was held within that period.* 1 

The Poem informs us that the Earl of Arundcl, " a handsome and well beloved 
knight," was at the siege of Carlaverock in June, 1300; and in February, 1301, 
he was a party to the Letter from the Barons to Pope Boniface, in which he is 
styled " Earl of Arundel." This was, however, perhaps the last public action of his 
life, as he died before the 9th of March, 1302, in the thirty-fifth year of his age. f 
He married Alizon, the daughter of the Marquess of Saluces 
in Italy, by whom he had issue Edmond, the next Earl, who 
was sixteen years old at his father's death ; and, according to 
Dugdale, two daughters, Maud, wife of Philip Lord Burnel, 
and Margaret, who married Philip Boteler of Wemme. 



The arms of Fitz Alan are, Gules, a lion rampant 
Argent.s 




ALAN LE ZOUCHE. 

[PAGE 50.] 

Alan le Zouche was the son and heir of Roger le Zouche, and succeeded to his 
father's lands at Ashby in Leicestershire in the 13th Edw. I. 1285, when he was 
eighteen years old. Dugdale states that having, on the feast of St. Dennis, 
16th Edw. I. 9th October, 1288, about which time he became of age, offered 



b Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 391. c Ibid. p. 269. 

d Ibid. Digest, p. 599. e Ibid. pp. 102-3 * Peerage Reports, I. and II. p. 421. 

p Page 50; Cottonian MSS. Caligula, A. xviii.; and the seal of this Earl, in 1301. 

4D 



286 ALAN DE ZOUCHE. 

his services to the King in Gascony, " he was courteously received," in conse- 
quence of which his homage was respited ; and a special precept was immediately 
sent to Walter de Lacy, the King's Escheator in Ireland, to deliver to him all 
his lands there, which he had seized for neglecting to perform that essential 
ceremony. In the 22nd Edw. I. 1294, he was excepted from the general sum- 
mons of persons holding by military tenure or serjeantcy which was then issued 
for the King's expedition into Gascony: 11 on the 7th July, 25 Edw. I. 1297, he 
was ordered to serve with horse and arms in person beyond the sea: 1 in the 
same year he was returned from the counties of Northampton, Sussex, and Surrey, 
as being possessed of lands or rents to the amount of ^20 yearly and upwards, 
either in capite or otherwise ; and as such was summoned under the general writ 
to perform military service abroad. k About the same time he was commanded to 
attend a great council before Edward the King's son, the Lieutenant of England, 
at London, on the 30th of September, 1297 :* on the 24th November, he was 
enjoined to serve in Flanders ; m and on the 6th December following against the 
Scots. n 

Zouche received his first writ to parliament in March, 1299 ; and on the 6th 
of June in that year was summoned as a Baron to the Scottish wars; again on 
the 12th of November ;P and to be at Carlisle, equipped for the field, on the 24th 
June, 1300,1 in which month we learn from the Poem that he was at the siege 
of Carlav crock. The charges in his arms are there alluded to in a manner 
which, if any thing was positively meant, would admit of the inference that he 
was of a generous, or rather, profuse disposition ; for the writer adds," I know well 
that he has spent more treasure than is suspended in his purse." He was at that 
time thirty-three years of age. In February, 1301, Zouche was a party to the 
memorable Letter from the Barons of this country to Pope Boniface the Eighth, 
in which he is styled " Lord of Ashby :" r in the ensuing June he was com- 
manded to serve in the wars of Scotland ; and again in the 31st and 34th Edw. I., 
1303 and 1306. 8 He was a manucaptor of William de Montacute, then a 
prisoner in the Tower of London, in the 33rd Edw. 1. 1305 ;* and on the acces- 



h Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 260. ' Ibid. p. 282. k Ibid. pp. 288-294. 

1 Ibid. p. 56. m Ibid. p. 304. n Ibid. p. 302. Ibid. p. 318. 

p Ibid. p. 324. q Ibid. p. 327. r Ibid. pp. 102-3. * Ibid. Digest, p. 88. 
t Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 176 b. 



ALAN LE ZOUCHE. 



287 



sion of Edward the Second he was one of the peers summoned to attend that 
monarch's coronation." In the 1st, 3rd, 4th, oth, and 7th Edw. II. he served 
against the Scots : u in the 5th Edw. II. he was appointed Governor of Rocking- 
ham Castle in Northamptonshire, and Steward of that forest ; and having been 
regularly summoned to parliament from the 6th February, 27 Edw. I. 1299, to 
the 26th November, 7 Edw. II. 1313, died in 1314, aged about forty-seven. By 
Eleanor his wife, but whose maiden name is not known, he left issue three 
daughters who were his coheirs ; namely, Elene, who was then twenty-six years 
old, and the wife of Nicholas St. Maur ; Maud, aged twenty- 
four, the wife of Robert de Holand ; and Elizabeth, then a 
nun at Brewode in Staffordshire, and twenty years of age. 
The said Elcne married, secondly, before the 15th Edw. II. 
Alan le Cherleton. 



The arms of Zouche of Ashby were, Gules, Bezant^.* 



" Appendix to the First Peerage Report. 

* Page 50; the Cottonian MS. Caligula, A. xviii. ; and the seal of this Baron in 1301, on which 
the shield appears suspended to the neck of a demi-lion rampant. It is also worthy of remark that 
round the shield six lions are placed, and which, there can be no doubt, alluded to his mother's 
arms, Ela, the daughter and coheiress of Stephen de Longespee, who bore six lions rampant. As 
a curious example of the manner in which arms were differenced in the early part of the fourteenth 
century, the following notice of the coats of Zouche, mentioned in the Roll in the Cottonian 
MS. just cited, may be acceptable. 
BARONS. 
Alan le Zouche, Gules, besante" Or. 

William le Zouche, Idem. a quarter Ermine, 

[of Haryngworth, first 
cousin of Alan.] 

KNIGHTS IN LEICESTERSHIRE. 
Sir William Zouche, Idem. a label Azure. 

Sir Oliver Zouche, Idem. a chevron Ermine. 

Sir Amory Zouche, Idem. a bend Argent. 

Sir Thomas Zouche, Idem. on a quarter Argent, a mullet Sable. 



288 

ANTHONY BEK, BISHOP OF DURHAM. 

[PAGE 54.] 

Although this eminent prelate was not present at the siege of Carlaverock, he 
occupies so large a share of the Poet's attention, the eulogy on him is so 
striking, and the number of his retinue in the English army was so great, 
that it is necessary a brief notice should be given of his career. The task 
is comparatively an easy one, because his character has been pourtrayed in so 
masterly a manner by the Historian of Durham, that little else is required than 
to abridge his interesting memoir : thus the idle affectation will be avoided of 
trying to do better, what few could have performed so well. 

Of the period of Bek's birth we have no precise information. He was a 
younger son of Walter Bek, Baron of Eresby ; and in the 54th Hen. III. 1270, 
was signed with the cross on going to the Holy Land with Prince Edward/ who 
nominated him one of the executors of his will, which was dated at Acre in June, 
1272. z In the 3rd Edw. I. 1275, being then a clerk, he was appointed Con- 
stable of the Tower of London ; a and was constituted Archdeacon of Durham as 
early as 1273. b He was present in the parliament at Westminster at the feast of 
St. Michael, 6 Edw. I. 1278, when the King of Scotland did homage to 
Edward ; e and on the 9th of July, 1283, was elected Bishop of Durham. The 
ceremony of his consecration was performed by the archbishop of York, in the 
presence of the King, on the 9th of January following ; but at his enthronization 
at Durham on Christmas Eve, a dispute arose between the Official of the Arch- 
bishop of York and the Prior of Durham as to the right of performing the office, 
which the Bishop elect terminated by receiving the mitre from the hands of his 
brother, Thomas Bck, Bishop of St. David's : on the festival of St. John the 
Evangelist, he presented the church with two pieces of rich embroidery, wrought 
with the history of the Nativity. 



y Dugdale's Baronage, vol. I. p. 426. In this memoir all the statements are taken from Surtees' 
History of Durham, excepting where other authorities are cited. 

z Royal Wills, p. 18, and Testamenta Vetusta, p. 8. a Dugdale's Baronage, vol. I. p. 426. 

b Le Neve's Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, p. 353. c Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 224. 



ANTHONY BEK, BISHOP OF DURHAM. 289 

It is impossible to state even the principal occasions on which Bishop Bok 
was conspicuous ; it being perhaps sufficient to observe that scarcely a tingle 
event of any importance took place during the reign of Edward the First, 
whether of war or diplomacy, but in which he was concerned. Several facts 
might be mentioned which tend to prove the influence that he at one time pos- 
sessed over the mind of his sovereign : according to Fordun it was by his advice 
that Edward supported the claim of Baliol instead of that of Bruce, in the com- 
petition for the crown of Scotland ; and he was frequently a mediator, not only 
between the King and his Barons, but between his Majesty and his children. 
The Prelate's ambition was equal to his resources ; and both were evinced by the 
splendour of his equipage and the number of his followers. If his biographer/ 
from whom Mr. Surtces has derived great part of his statements, may be believed, 
the retinue with which he attended the King in his wars amounted to twenty- 
six standard bearers of his household, 6 one hundred and forty knights, and five 
hundred horse ; and one thousand foot marched under the consecrated banner 
of St. Cuthbert, which was borne by Henry de Horncestrc, a monk of Durham- 
The Bishop's wealth and power soon however excited the suspicion of the King ; 
and the process of " quo warranto" was applied with the view of reducing them. 
His temporalities were seized, but he recovered them after an appeal to parlia- 
ment ; and his palatine rights were confirmed in the most ample manner by the 
Justices Itinerant in 1293. From the proceedings in parliament in the 21st Edw 
I. it seems that on the Wednesday before the feast of St. James the Apostle, in 
the 20th Edw. I. namely, on the 23rd July, 1292, at Derlyngton, and afterwards 
at Alvcrton, and other places, the Archbishop of York had formerly excommu- 
nicated the Bishop of Durham, he being then engaged in the King's service in 
the North ; for which offence the Archbishop was imprisoned, but pardoned on 
paying a fine of 4000 marks/ Bek's frequent quarrels with the Prior of Durham 
whom he had of his own authority deprived and ejected, soon afforded a pretext 
for the royal interference ; and a formidable attack was afterwards made upon 
his possessions. About the same time he espoused the popular cause, by joining 

c See p. 275 ante. 

d Robert de Gledstanes, who was elected Bishop of Durham in 1333, but was set aside by the 
Pope, and died soon afterwards. His labours are preserved in the Cottonian MS. Titus, A. ii. 
e " Habuit de familia sua xxvj vexillarios' 1 Bannerets were most probably meant, 
f Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 102, et seq. 

4E 



'290 ANTHONY BEK, BISHOP OF DURHAM. 

the Earl Marshal and the Earl of Hereford against the crown ; and when charged 
by the King with deserting his interests, he boldly replied, " that the Earls laboured 
for the advantage and honour of the sovereign and his realm, and therefore he 
stood with them, and not with the King against them." In the meanwhile he 
obeyed a second citation to Rome for having deprived the Prior, where he appeared 
with his usual magnificence, and triumphed over his adversaries by obtaining from 
the Pontiff a confirmation of his visitorial superiority over the convent. By quitting 
the realm without license he exposed himself to the enmity of the crown ; and 
his vassals availed themselves of his absence to urge their complaints. The 
Palatinate was seized into the King's hands ; and in July, 1301, the temporalities 
of the See were committed to the custody of Robert de Clifford. In the parlia- 
ment in the following year, having effected a reconciliation with his vassals and 
submitted to the King, the Bishop obtained a restitution of his temporalities. 
But Bek's intractable spirit soon involved him in fresh disputes with the Prior ; 
and being accused of having infringed on the dignity of the crown by some in- 
struments which he had obtained from Rome, his temporalities were, in December 
1305, once more seized ; and the King seems to have used every exertion not 
only to humiliate the haughty prelate, but to divest his See of some part of its 
extensive territories. From this time until Edward's demise he continued under 
the royal displeasure ; but no sooner was Edward the Second on the throne than 
he added to his power and titles by procuring the dignity of King of the Isle of 
Man, together with ample restitution of what had been wrested from him by the 
late monarch. 

It is here, however, necessary to refer to the notice of the Bishop in the pre- 
ceding Poem. Mr. Surtees has evidently adopted the translation given of it in 
the " Antiquarian Repertory," where the words " uns plaitz," are rendered " a 
wound ;" as he says, " the Bishop of Durham is described in the Roll of Car- 
laverock as being absent from the siege on account of a wound," whereas the 
passage is presumed to have meant that the Bishop was detained in England in 
consequence of a treaty or some other public transaction. It appears that he then 
sent the King one hundred and sixty men at arms ; and at the battle of Falkirk 
he is stated to have led the second division of the English army with thirty-nine 
banners.^ In the 35th Edw. I. being sent to Rome with other Bishops and 

e This passage probably meant that among the Bishop's followers there were thirty-nine 
Bannerets. 



ANTHONY BEK, BISHOP OF DURHAM. 291 

the Earl of Lincoln to present some vessels of gold to the Pope from the Kinir, 
his Holiness conferred on him the title of Patriarch of Jerusalem. 11 Thus, Mr. 
Surtees remarks, on receiving the sovereignty of the isle of Man, " his haughty 
spirit was gratified by the accumulated dignities of Bishop, Count Palatine, 
Patriarch, and King." The last political transaction of his life was his union with 
the Earl of Lancaster against Piers de Gaveston in 1310 ; and on the 3rd of 
March following, 1310-11, he expired at his manor of Eltham in Kent. 

The character of Anthony Bek is given with more elegance than truth in the 
Poem. " The mirror of Christianity" is an emphatic allusion to his piety and 
virtue ; and his wisdom, eloquence, temperance, justice, and chastity, are as for- 
cibly pointed out, as the total absence of pride, covetousness, and envy for which 
he is said to have been distinguished. But this is rather a brilliant painting than 
a true portrait ; for if all the other qualities which are there ascribed to him be 
conceded, it is impossible to consider that humility formed any part of his merits. 
His latest biographer, Mr. Surtees, has however described him with so much dis- 
crimination and elegance, that his words are transferred to these pages, because 
they form the most appropriate conclusion of this sketch, and powerfully tend to 
redeem its many imperfections. 

" The Palatine power reached its highest elevation under the splendid pontificate 
of Anthony Bek. Surrounded by his officers of state, or marching at the head 
of his troops, in peace or war, he appeared as the military chief of a powerful 
and independent franchise. The court of Durham exhibited all the appendages 
of royalty: nobles addressed the Palatine sovereign kneeling, and, instead of 
menial servants, knights waited in his presence chamber and at his table, bare- 
headed and standing. Impatient of control, whilst he asserted an oppressive 
superiority over the convent, and trampled on the rights of his vassals, he jea. 
lously guarded his own Palatine franchise, and resisted the encroachments of the 
crown when they trenched on the privileges of the aristocracy.' When his pride 
or his patriotism had provoked the displeasure of his sovereign, he met the 
storm with firmness ; and had the fortune or the address to emerge from dis- 
grace and difficulty with added rank and influence. His high birth gave him a 



h Dugdale's Baronage, vol. I. p. 426. 

> During one of Edward's progresses to Scotland, a palfrey belonging to the royal train threw 
and killed its rider, and Anthony seized the palfrey as a deodand : " dedeins sa fraunchise roiale." 



2!>2 ANTHONY BEK, BISHOP OF DURHAM. 

natural claim to power, and he possessed every popular and splendid quality 
which could command obedience or excite admiration. His courage and con- 
stancy were shown in the service of his sovereign. His liberality knew no 
bounds ; and he regarded no expense, however enormous, when placed in com- 
petition with any object of pleasure or magnificence. k Yet in the midst of 
apparent profusion he was too prudent ever to feel the embarrassment of want. 
Surrounded by habitual luxury, his personal temperance was as strict as it was 
singular ; and his chastity was exemplary in an age of general corruption. 1 Not 
less an enemy to sloth m than to intemperance, his leisure was devoted either to 
splendid progresses" from one manor to another, or to the sports of the field ; 

k He gave 40*. for as many fresh herrings : ' Aliis magnatibus tune in Parliament*) ibi consis- 
tentibus pro nimia caristia emere non curantibus.' Grayst. c. 14*. On another occaion, hearing 
one say ' this cloth is so dear that even Bishop Anthony would not venture to pay for it ;' he 
immediately ordered it to be bought and cut up into horse cloths. Ibid. 

1 ' Castissime vixit, vix mulierum faciem fixis ocuJis aspiciens ; unde in translatione S. Willelmi 
Eboracensis cum alii Episcopi ossa ejus timerent tangere, remordente eos conscienti& de virginate 
amissa, iste audacter manus imposuit ; et quod negotium poposcit reverenter egit.' Ibid. 

m < Quietis impatiens vix ultra unurn somnum in lecto expectans, dixit ilium non esse hominem, 
qui in lecto de latere in latus se verteret.' Ibid. 

n 'In nullo loco mansurus, continue circuibat de manerioin manerium, de austro in boream; et 
equorum, canum et avium sectator.' Ibid. And here one cannot avoid being reminded of the sati- 
rical lines of Piers Plowman : 

' And piked a boute on palfrays : fro place to maners 
Have an hepe of houndes at his ers: as he a Lord were.' 

Bishop-Middleham, then a fortress of the first class, appears, from the date of several charters 
to have been Anthony Bek's chief residence within the county of Durham. The reasons which 
led to this preference are obvious : defended by a morass on two sides, and by broken ground to the 
north, the fortress presented an almost impregnable stronghold during the wars of the Border, whilst 
Auckland lay bare and defenceless, on the direct route of Scottish invasion. It is no wonder that 
in after-times Middleham was deserted for the green glades of Auckland. 

The following lines are extracted, from an inedited poem on the ' Superstitions of the North :' 
' There Valour bowed before the rood and book, 

And kneeling Knighthood served a Prelate Lord ; 
Yet little deigned he on such train to look, 

Or glance of ruth or pity to afford. 
There time has heard the peal rung out by night, 
Has seen from every tower the cressets stream : 
When the red balefire on yon western height, 
Had roused the Warder from his fitful dream ; 



ANTHONY BEK, BISHOP OF DURHAM. 293 

and his activity and temperance preserved his faculties of mind and body vigorous 
under the approach of age and infirmity. 

" In the munificence of his public works he rivalled the greatest of his pmlr- 



Has seen old Durham's lion banner float 

O'er the proud bulwark, that, with giant pride, 
And feet deep plunged amidst the circling moat, 

The efforts of the roving Scot defied. 

" Long rolling years have swept those scenes away, 

And peace is on the mountain and the fell ; 
And rosy dawn, and closing twilight gray, 

But hears the distant sheep-walk's tinkling bell. 
And years have fled since last the gallant deer 

Sprung from yon covert at the thrilling horn : 
Yet still, when Autumn shakes the forest sear, 

Black Hugo's voice upon the blast is borne. 
Woe to the wight who shall his ire provoke, 

When the stern huntsman stalks his nightly round, 
By blasted ash, or lightning-shivered oak, 

And chears with surly voice his spectre hound." 

Of this black Hugh take the following legendary account : '. Sir Anthon Bek, Busshop of Dureme 
in the tyme of King Eduarde, the son of King Henry, was the maist prowd and masterful! Busshop 
in all England, and it was cora'only said that he was the prowdest Lord in Christienty. It chanced 
that emong other lewd persons, this Sir Anthon entertained at his court one Hugh de Pountchardon, 
that for his cvill deeds and manifold robberies had been driven out of the Inglische Court, and had 
come from the southe to seek a little bread, and to live by stalynge. And to this Hughe, whom 
also he imployed to good purpose in the warr of Scotland, the Busshop gave the lande of Thikley, 
since of him cnulid Thikley-Puntchardon, and also made him his chief huntsman. And after, this 
blake Hugh dyed afore the Busshop: and efter that the Busshop chasid the wild hart in Galtres 
forest, and sodainly ther met with him Hugh de Pontchardon that was afore deid, on a wythe horse; 
and the said Hugh loked earnestly on the Busshop, and the Busshop said unto him, ' Hughe, what 
makethe thee here ?' and he spake never word, but lifte up his cloke, and then he shewed Sir 
Anton his ribbes set with bones, and nothing more ; and none other of the varlets saw him but the 
Busshop only ; and the saide Hughe went his way, and Sir Anton toke corage, and cheered the 
dogges ; and shortly efter he was made Patriarque of Hierusalem, and he sawe nothing no moe ; and 
this Hughe is him that the silly people in Galtres doe call Le gros Venour, and he was seen twice 
efter that by simple folk, afore that the forest was felled in the tyme of Henry, father of King 
Henry that now ys.' 

4F 



294 ANTHONY BEK, BISHOP OF DURHAM. 

cessors. Within the bishopric of Durham he founded the colleges of Chester 
and Lanchcster, erected towers at Gainford and Coniscliff, and added to the 
buildings of Alnwick and Barnard Castles. He gave Evenwood manor to the 
convent, and appropriated the vicarage of Morpeth to the chapel which he had 
founded at Auckland. In his native county of Lincoln he endowed Alvingham 
Priory, and built a castle at Somerton.P In Kent he erected the beautiful manor- 
house of Eltham, whose ruins still speak the taste and magnificence of its 
founder. Notwithstanding the vast expenses incurred in these and other works, 
in his contests with the crown and with his vassals, in his foreign journeys, and 
in the continued and excessive charges of his household, he died wealthier than 
any of his predecessors, leaving immense treasures in the riches of the age ; gal- 
lant horses, costly robes, rich furniture, plate, and jewels.^ 

" Anthony Bek was the first prelate of Durham who was buried within the 
walls of the cathedral. His predecessors had been restrained from sepulture 
within the sacred edifice by a reverential awe for the body of the holy confessor ; r 
and on this occasion, from some motive of superstition, the corpse was not 
allowed to enter the doors, although a passage was broken through the wall s for 
its reception, near the place of interment. The tomb was placed in the east 
transept, between the altars of St. Adrian and St. Michael, close to the holy 
shrine. A brass, long since destroyed, surrounded the ledge of the marble, and 
bore the following inscription : 



' Sed ipso mortuo Radulphus filius Willielmi Dominus de Graystoke patronatum prafata? Ec- 
clesiae per litem obtinuit ; et presentato per ipsum per Episcopum admisso et institute, capella 
indotata remansit.' Grayst. c. 22. The patronage still remains with the heir of Greystoke. 

p " Castrum de Sometton curiosissime acdificavit." Grayst. c. 22. q Ibid. 

r " Ante ilium enim ob reverentiam corporis S. Cuthberti non est permissum corpus mortuum 
ingredi ecclesiam Dunelmensem.' 1 Anthony Bek was, therefore, the first who dared to bring 

" A slovenly, unhandsome corse, 
Betwixt the wind and his nobility." 

s If, however, the funeral of the Patriarch Bishop was conducted with the same solemnities as 
that of his successor Cardinal Langley, the breaking an entrance through the wall was a matter of 
necessity rather than superstition, for Langley's hearse was drawn into the nave of the Cathedral 
by four stately black horses, which, with all their housings of velvet, became the official perquisite 
of the Sacrist. 



JOIfN DE HASTINGS. 



293 



" Presul magnanimus Antonius hie jacet inius 
Jerusalem strenuus Patriarcha fuit, quod opiums 
Annis vicenis regnabat sex et j plenis 
Mille trecentenis Christo moritur quoquc denis." 

The Bishop's heirs were found, by the inquisition held after his decease, to be 
his nephew, Robert de Willoughby, son of Alice his eldest 
sister ; and his nephew, John de Harcourt, son of his second 
sister, Margaret. 



The personal arms of Bishop Bek were, Gules, a fer de 
moulin Ermine ; l and which it appears were borne on his 
banner without any junction with those of his see, he being 
deemed merely a temporal Noble when in the field. 




JOHN DE HASTINGS. 

[PAGE 54.] 

A eulogy better calculated to render the memory of man an object of respect 
could not have been devised than that which the Poet has bestowed on John de 
Hastings. His conduct, we are told, was uniformly honourable : that in the field 
he was distinguished as much by bravery, as in the hostel he was eminent for mild- 
ness, graciousness, and suavity of manners ; whilst his love of equity was not even 
exceeded by that of cither of the King's Justices Itinerant. 

The individual thus recommended to our attention was the son and heir of 
Henry Baron Hastings, by Joan, the sister of George de Cantilupe, Baron of 
Abergavenny. He succeeded his father in the 53rd Hen. III., at which time he 
was a minor ; but on the death of his maternal uncle, George de Cantilupe, in 



Page 54 ; and Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. 



296 JOHN DE HASTINGS. 

the 1st Edw. I., he was found to be one of his heirs, and was then of full age: 
hence he must have been born about the year 1251. 

In the 12th Edw. I. he was in the expedition then made into Scotland; and in 
the loth Edw. I. 1287, attended the Earl of Cornwall into Wales, in which year 
he was enjoined to reside on his lordships and demesnes, until the rebellion of 
Resus fil. Mereduci was quelled ; u and in the following year he was ordered to 
defend them against that person." He was present in parliament in May, 18 
Edw. I. 1290, when the aid was granted for the marriage of the King's eldest 
daughter;? and about the same time was a party to the Letter addressed to the 
Pope on the behalf of the Earls, Barons, and " Proceres" of England, com- 
plaining of the attempt made to appropriate certain prebends of the cathedrals of 
York and Lincoln to the hospital of the Holy Ghost and the Basilica of St. 
Peter's of Rome ; z and in the same year was one of the manucaptors of William 
de Duclas. a In the 20th Edw. I., Hastings obeyed the King s mandate to attend 
at London relative to the disputes between the Earls of Hereford and Gloucester, 1 * 
and became one of the manucaptors of the latter, as well as a surety for his pay- 
ment of the fine of 10,000 marks which was then imposed upon him. d 

In the 21st Edw. I. John de Hastings was one of the claimants of the crown 
of Scotland, 6 in right of his grandmother, Ada, daughter of David Earl of Hun- 
tingdon, brother of William the Lion. In April, 29>Edw. I. 1294, he was at 
Dublin, and a plea was then held before the Earls of Gloucester and Ulster, him- 
self, and other barons : f on the 1st September following he was commanded to 
perform military service in Gascony ;S and in the next year he was summoned to 
parliament. In the 25th Edw. I. he was ordered to raise one hundred men 
from his lordship of Abergavenny ; h and from that time until his demise con- 
tinued to be summoned to nearly every parliament, and was commanded to serve 
in every expedition which occurred, but it is not necessary to mention the dif- 
ferent occasions. 1 



u Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs, 1 ' vol. I. p. 253. * Ibid. p. 255. 

y Ibid. p. 20, and Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 25. z Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," vol. I. p. 20. 

a Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 34. b Ibid. pp. 70, et seq. c Ibid. pp. 75 b, 76 a. 

d Ibid. p. 77. e Ibid. p. 114 a. f Ibid. p. 132. 

g Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 259. h Ibid. p. 294. 

i Ibid. See Digest, p. 659 ; and Appendix to the First Peerage Report, pp. 174, 226. 



JOHN DE HASTINGS. 297 

Hastings was present at the siege of Carlavcrock in June 1300, at which time 
he was about fifty years of age. Besides his own retinue he then commanded 
the men at arms furnished by the Bishop of Durham, with whom it is stated he 
was on terms of the greatest friendship ; and in February, 1301, he was a 
party to the Letter from the Barons at Lincoln to Pope Boniface the Eighth, in 
which he is styled " Lord of Bergavenny." k In the 30th Edw. I. he was ap- 
pointed the King's Lieutenant in the duchy of Acquitainc, to which circumstance 
Peter of Langtoft thus alludes : 

for penile of guiffc ppngeiJ, tlje ftnng purbeieD to go, 
it 3jon of tyagtpngejS \>t toa^ ffrt of tjjo, 
HnD &ir <2merp tfce 23rme to Oagtojm fcrto tocnoe, 
o bioe tjpe terme gette, tfje treu.s Ijoto it ulD cnbc. 1 

In the 33rd Edw. I. he was one of the English peers appointed to treat with the 
Scotch representatives concerning the government of Scotland ; but he was pre- 
vented from attending by illness. On James, Steward of Scotland, performing 
homage before the council at Lanercost on the 23rd October, 34 Edw. I. 1306 
Hastings was one of the barons then present ; n and in the same year he received 
a grant from the King of the whole county of Menteith in Scotland, with the 
isles, together with all the other lands of Alan late Earl of Menteith, who was 
declared a rebel. On the 30th September, 1st Edw. II. 1307, he was ordered 
to assist in repressing a rebellion in Scotland; and on the 18th January fol- 
lowing he was summoned to attend the King's coronation :P in the 3rd Edw. II. 
being constituted Seneschal of Acquitaine, he obtained the King's precept to the 
Constable of Dover Castle for license to transport himself and his family, plate, 
money, &c. ; and letters were written to the King of France to give him safe 
conduct into that duchy. 

Having been summoned to parliament from the 23rd June, 23 Edw. I. 1295, 
to the 22nd May, 9 Edw. II. 1313, this eminent soldier died in the Gth Edw. 
II. 1312-1313, aged about sixty-two. From the time he attained his majority 



k Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," pp. 102-3. 1 Ed. 1810, p. 318. 

m Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 161 ; and Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 297. 
n Ibid. p. 180 ; and Foedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 1001. o Feeders, N. E. vol. II. p. 8. 

p Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 176. 

4c 



298 JOHN DE HASTINGS. 

until his decease, a period of above forty years, he was distinguished by his con- 
stant devotion to the service of his country ; and by his undeviating fidelity to hia 
sovereign. However remarkable he may have been for the amiable qualities 
attributed to him in the preceding Poem, the fact that he is not once recorded 
to have incurred the royal displeasure, speaks loudly in favour of his prudence, 
his zeal, and his loyalty ; and in considering him one of the brightest ornaments 
of the peerage in the fourteenth century, we probably shall not overrate his real 
merits, even if we do not implicitly believe in the correctness of the beautiful view 
which the Poet has presented of his character. 

He was twice married : first to Isabel, daughter of William, and sister, and 
in her issue coheiress, of Aymcr de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, by whom he had 
John ; William 1 and Henry, who both died s. p. ; Joane ; r Margaret ; and Eliza- 
beth, who married Roger Baron Grey of Ruthyn. Hastings' second wife was Isabel, 
daughter of Hugh le Despencer, by whom he had Hugh, who is said to have 
been born before his mother's marriage, and Thomas. John, his eldest son, was 
twenty-six years old at his father's decease ; succeeded him in his honours ; and 
became the ancestor of the Hastings Earls of Pembroke ; upon the extinction of 
whom in 1389, his issue failed, when the descendants of Eli- 
zabeth de Grey, his sister, and of Hugh, his half brother, 
had the memorable contest for the right to the arms of 
Hastings, which was determined in favour of the former. 8 
Isabel, the Baron's widow, remarried Ralph de Monthermer, 
whom she also survived. 4 




The arms of Hastings were, Or, a maunch Gules . u 



q It would appear that this William was the eldest son, and either married, or was intended to 
marry, the daughter of William Martin : " 25 Edw. I. Maritagium inter Willielmum de Hastinges, 
iilium et haeredem Johannis de Hastinges, Domini de Abergavenny, et Alienoram, filiam se- 
niorem Wil!i_>lmi Martin, Domini de Kamoys, ad Ed'dum, filium et haeredem dicti Willielmi, et 
Jonetf, filiam seniorem dicti Johannis." Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 58 b. 

r See the preceding note. She probably died young, and before the marriage was consummated. 

s Placita, 14 Ric. II. whence the genealogical particulars here stated have been taken. 

t Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 403, and Calend. Inquisit. post Mortem, vol. III. p. 327. See also 
p. 279 ante, where however, on the authority of Dugdale, she is erroneously called the sister and 
coheiress of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke. 

" Page 54 ; and Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. The extraordinary seal used by him to the 



299 



EDMUND DE HASTINGS. 

[PAGE 56.] 

Of Edmund de Hastings, a younger brother of the subject of the preceding 
memoir, very little is known ; and as the great biographer of the Peerage of 
England has merely mentioned his name, the few facts which are recorded of 
him have been almost entirely deduced from the invaluable collection of " Parlia- 
mentary Writs" lately printed. 

As his elder brother was born about 1251, it may be inferred that his birth 
took place a few years afterwards ; and hence that he did not become of age until 
the 5th or 6th Edw. I. 1276-7. The earliest notice which occurs of him is in June, 
27 Edw. I. 1299, when he was commanded as a Baron to perform military service 
against the Scots ;* and in March following he received his first writ of summons 
to parliament.? In June, 1300, he was, we learn from the Poem, present at the 
siege of Carlaverock in his brother's retinue ; and from the notice of his cha- 
racter it is to be inferred that his zeal in the pursuit of honour was too ardent 
not to be attended by success. 

Edmund de Hastings was a party to the Letter from the Barons to the Pontiff 
in February 1301, in which he is styled " Lord of Enchuneholmok," or " Enchime- 
holmok ;" z but where this place was has not been discovered. Though included 
in the general summons to parliament, dated on the 24th July, 1302,* he was 
commanded to remain in the King's service in Scotland by a special writ, tested 
at La Sele on the llth September following ; b and from that time until his 
decease in the 7th Edw. II. he was frequently enjoined to serve in the field or to 



Letter from the Barons to the Pope in 1301, is the subject of some remarks in the " Archaeologia,'- 
'vol. XXI. p. 205. On one side it contained a shield charged with a cross with five fleurs de lis 
between four fleurs de lis ; and on the other a shield with a cross similarly charged, between, 1st 
and 4th, a lion passant guardant, and, 2nd and 3rd, a lion rampant, all looking to the dexter. 

* Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," vol. I. p. 318. y Ibid. p. 82. 

* Ibid. p. 103. a Ibid. p. 1 U. b Ibid. p. 117. 



300 JOHN PAIGNEL. 

attend parliament. In the 5th Edw. II. he was appointed Gustos of the town of 
Berwick ; d and having been summoned to parliament from the 29th Decem- 
ber, 28 Edw. I. 1299, to the 26th July, 7 Edw. II. 1313, he probably died about 
1314, as no further notice occurs of him. Whether he 
was married and left issue is unknown, for no inquisition 
is recorded to have been held on his death ; nor is any- 
thing stated on the subject in the pedigrees of his family. 

The arms of Edmund de Hastings were those of his brother, 
Or, a maunch Gules, differenced by a label Vert or 
Sable. 6 




JOHN PAIGNEL. 
[PAGE 56.] 

Who can fail to be interested in an individual who is introduced to our 
notice as, 

Un Bachelor jolif et cointe, 

De amours et dVmes bien acointe ; 

qualities so very similar to those which an eminent living poet has described as 
necessary to ensure the esteem of a chieftain by his followers : 



c Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," Digest, p. 658 ; and Appendix to the First Peerage Report. 

d Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 73 b. 

e In the Poem the label is stated to have been " Noir," but in the Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. 
xviii. it is called " Vert." His seal to the Barons' Letter in 1301, however, contains a very dif- 
ferent bearing, the shield being charged with barry wavy of six: the legend is, S. EDMUNDI 
HASTING COMITATU MENETEI. It is suggested in some remarks on the seals attached to that 
document in the " Archaeologia," vol. XXI. p. 218, that the place of which Edmund Hastings 
described himself was probably St. David's in Wales. 



JOHN PAIGNEL. .'{01 

They love a Captain to obey, 
Boisterous as March yet fresh as May ; 
With open hand, and brow as free, 
Lover of wine and minstrelsy ; 
Ever the first to scale a tower, 
As venturous in a lady's bower.f 

It unfortunately happens, however, that of this Banneret but few facts are 
recorded ; and from the following circumstance it is extremely doubtful whether 
he can be identified with them. Dugdale takes no notice of any baron of this 
name, but from the " Parliamentary Writs" we learn that a John Paynel was 
summoned from the county of Suffolk to perform military service in person 
against the Scots on the 25th May, 1298 ; again for the same purpose as a Baron 
in June, 1299; to attend parliament in March, 1300; and to assemble at Car- 
lisle against the Scots on the 24th June, 1300 ; hence it might be considered 
that all these circumstances related to the knight who in that month was present 
at the siege of Carlavcrock, were it not that, in February, 1301, a John Paynel, 
who is styled " Lord of Otteleye," was a party to the Letter to the Pope, and to 
whom it is most probable that the greater part if not all of those records referred, 
and who could not possibly have been the person alluded to in the Poem, for the 
arms of the former, as they occur on his seal to the Barons' Letter, were two 
bars between eight martlets, whilst those of the latter were, Vert, a maunch Or. 

Thus it is evident that there were two individuals of the same names,e and 
possessed of nearly the same rank, living in June, 1300 ; and as there are no 
possible means of identifying them, except by their seals which of course do not 
occur .to the writs alluded to, or by their lands which were seldom mentioned, it 
would be worse than useless to do more than to remark that a John Paynell 
continued to be summoned to parliament from the 28th Edw. I. to the 12th 
Edw. II.; that in the 12th Edw. II. 1318, a John Paynell, who held lands in 
Sussex, Surrey, Southampton, and Wilts, died, leaving Maud his daughter, the 
wife of Nicholas dc Upton, his heir ; h and that in the 18th Edw. II. 1324, a 
person of those names, who was seised of lands in Dorsetshire, Berks, Lincoln, 
and Sussex, died, leaving two daughters his heirs ; Elizabeth, then aged nine, 

f " Scott's Marniion." 

g Although the name is spelt " Paignel" in the Poem, it is written " Paynell" in the Roll of 
Arms in the Cottonian MS. h Esch. 12 Edw. II. 

4H 



302 



JOHN PAIGNEL. 



and the wife of John de Gastryk, and Margaret, who was at that time seven 
years old; 1 and that as a John Paynel, who bore Vert, a 
maunch Or, is mentioned in the Roll of Arms just cited, it is 
almost certain that the Knight who was at Carlaverock was 
living as late as the 10th or 12th Edw. II. k 

The arms of the subject of this notice were, Vert, a 
maunch Or. 1 




i Esch. 18 Edw. II. 

k A William Paynell, whose arms were also two bars between eight martlets, and who styled 
himself " Lord of Tracyngton," was likewise a party to the letter to the Pontiff in 1301. " Otteley," 
of which John Paynell described himself, was probably in Suffolk ; and it is somewhat remarkable 
that Lord Hastings, under whose immediate command John Paignel served at Carlaverock, held 
Ottley manor, and Lyttelton Paynel in Wiltshire. The escheats of Paynell, from the commence- 
ment of the reign of Edward the First to the end of that of Edward the Second, besides the one 
mentioned in the text, were, 

4> Edw. I. John Paynell, who held the manor of Combe in Dorsetshire, and left John Paynell, 

his son, his heir, who was then set. 14. 

15 Edw. I. John Paynell, who held lands in Lincoln, York, and Dorset, and left Philip his bro- 
ther, aet. 18, his heir. 
25 Edw. I. Katherine Paynell, who held lands in Dorset and Wilts, and who left Philip Paynel], 

aet. 25, her son, her heir. 
27 Edw. I. Philip Paynell, who held lands in Lincoln, York, and Dorset, and left John his son, 

aet. 1, his heir. 

7 Edw. II. Thomas Paynell, who held lands in Southampton and Dorset, and who left William 
Paynell, aet. 60, his brother, his heir. 

10 Edw. II. William Paynell, who held lands in Middlesex, Surrey, Wilts, and Sussex, and who 

left John, aet. 50, his brother, his heir. 

11 Edw. II. Ralph Paynell (Joan his wife) who held lands in Bedfordshire, and left John, son 

of Baldwin Pygott, aet. 27, his cousin and heir. 
17 Edw. II. Isabella, wife of John Paynell, who held lands in Kent, and left Maud, aet. 40, her 

daughter, her heir. 

It is singular, however, that numerous as those escheats of Paynell are, neither the name of 
" Ottley" nor " Tracyngton," of which the Barons Paynell styled themselves " Lords" in the Letter 
to the Pontiff, once occur in them. The 



1 Page 56 j and Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. 



303 



EDMUND DEINCOURT. 

[PAGE 56.] 

As this individual was not present at the siege of Carlaverock, it is not neces- 
sary that much should be said of him ; and, were it possible to collect the 
requisite particulars, this article ought rather to contain a memoir of those " two 
brave sons whom he sent in his stead," and to whom he entrusted his banner 
and his followers. 

Unfortunately, however, the name of but one of them has reached us ; and so 
utterly has the other been forgotten, that Dugdale considers Edmund Deincourt 
to have had only one son. That the Poet's statement is correct is singularly 
proved by a document lately printed among the " Parliamentary Writs," dated 
about a year after the siege of Carlaverock, namely, in April, 1301, by which 
the father was commanded to attend with horse and arms at Carlisle on the 
24th of June following, or " to send his sons, with ' decenti comitiva.' " It 
is consequently certain not only that Deincourt had more than one son, but that 
he occasionally sent them to perform the services which he owed to the crown. He 
was, it is most likely, at that time an aged man, for though he lived until many 
years afterwards, he could not have been then less than about sixty-five, as he 
was in all probability of full age in the 42nd Hen. III. 1257-8 when he " answered 
for twenty-five knights' fees, upon levying the scutage of Wales." 

From the 5th Edw. I. to the 20th Edw. II., a period of half a century, 



The following Knights of the name of Paynell occur in the Roll of Arras in the Cottonian MS. 
Caligula, A. xviii. : 

BARONS. 
Sir John Paynell, Vert, a maunch Or. 

WILTSHIRE AND HAMPSHIRE. 

Sir Thomas Paynell, Or, two bars Azure, between martlets Gules. 
Sir William Paynell, Argent, two bars Sable, between martlets Gules as a border. 

LEICESTER. 

Sir John Paynel, Gules, a quatrefoil Argent. 
Sir Ralph Paynel, Argent, a bend Sable. 



304 EDMUND DEINCOURT. 

Edmund Deincourt was almost uninterruptedly summoned to the field or to par- 
liament, 1 but his career docs not appear to have been distinguished by any pecu- 
liar incident. He was present in the parliament at Lincoln in February, 1301 ; and 
was a party to the Letter to the Pope, in which he is styled " Lord of Thurger- 
ton," and in 1305 he was appointed a Justice of Trailbaston ; m but the most 
remarkable fact of his life is his anxiety to preserve the importance of the male 
line of his family ; for in the 7th Edw. II. 1313-14, in consequence of his grand- 
daughter being his heir apparent, he obtained the King's license to settle his lands 
on whomsoever he pleased ; and he accordingly entailed them on William" the son 
of John Deincourt in tail general, with remainder to John Deincourt, the brother 
of the said William, in like tail, with remainder to his own son Edmund in fee. 
The pedigree of Deincourt has never, and probably does not admit of, being 
established by evidence ; hence it has been variously stated. Dugdale does not 
inform us whom Edmund Lord Deincourt married, and, as is before ob- 
served, says he had only one son, who was called Edmund, who had a daughter, 
his heiress, named Isabel ; nor does he attempt to explain in what manner the 
Baron was related to the William and John Deincourt, on whom he settled 
his lands in the 7th Edw. II. The late Mr. Blore, in his " History of 
Rutland," bestowed considerable research on the subject, and he evidently 
availed himself of every possible source of information, but which scarcely 
proves all that he has asserted. According to that pedigree Edmund Lord Dein- 
court married Isabel, the daughter of Reginald Mohun, and by her had two 

1 Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," and Appendix to the First Peerage Report. 

m Parliamentary Writs." 

n The following is the copy of the license in question in the Cottonian MS. Julius, C.vii. f. 244 b . 
" Secunda p's Pat. a 10 Edw. II. m a 13. Rex, &c. Sciatis ut, cum nuper pro eo qu6d dilectus'et 
fidelis noster Edmundus Deincourt advertebat et conjecturabat qubd cognomen suum et eius arma 
post mortem suam in p'sonam Isabella? filiae Edmundi Deincourt hajredis eius apparentis a mernoria 
deferentur, accorditer affectabat q'd cognomen, et arma sua post eius mortem in memoria in 
posteru' haberent', ad requisic'o'em eiusdem Edmundi, et ob grata et laudabilia servitia qua? bonae 
memoriae D'no Edward' quondam Regi Anglia; patri nostro, et nobis impendit, per 1'ras n'ras 
patentes concesserimus, et licentiam dederimus pro nobis et haeredibus quantu' in nobis est, eidem 
Edmundo q'd ipse de omnib's manerijs terris et ten'tis, et qua; de nobis tenet in capite, feoffare 
possit quemcumq' velit, habendum et tenendum sibi et haeredibus suis de nobis et haeredib's nostris 
per servitia inde debita imperpetuu'." 

o Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 77. 



EDMUND DEINCOURT. 305 

daughters : Margaret, who married Robert Lord Willoughby of Eresby, and Maud 
who was the wife of Sir William Fitz 1 William ; and an only son, John, who 
died in vita patris, leaving, but by whom does not appear, three sons : namely 
1. Edmund, who died in his grandfather's lifetime, leaving by Johanna, who in 
the 1st Edw. III. was the wife of Hamon de Massy, an only child, Isabel, who 
died before her great-grandfather without issue ; 2. William, who was twenty-six 
years old in the 20th Edw. II. 1326, and who was then found cousin and heir 
to his grandfather, and from whom the subsequent Lords Deincourt descended ; 
3. Sir John Deincourt, Knight, ancestor of the family of Deincourt of Upminster 
in the county of Essex. From this statement it is to be inferred that the William and 
John Deincourt on whom the lands were settled in the 7th Edw. II. were the grand- 
sons of Edmund Lord Deincourt ; that their elder brother Edmund was then 
dead ; that his daughter and heiress Isabel was at that time living ; but that, 
from her uncle William being found heir to her great-grandfather on his demise 
in 1326, she had died issueless before that year. 

The only part of this account which can be proved to be erroneous, is with 
respect to the sons of Edmund Lord Deincourt, as he had undoubtedly at least 
two sons ; and it may be supposed that the John Deincourt mentioned in another 
part of the Poem as bearing a shield charged with the same arms, and as dis- 
playing much bravery in the assault of the castle,? was one of them. 

Although the following notices 1 respecting individuals of the name of Dein- 
court afford but little positive information on the pedigree, they are useful to 
illustrate it. 

Edmund Lord Deincourt received a variety of writs of summons, both to the 
field and to parliament, from the 5th Edw. I. 1277, to the 20th Edw. II. 1326 ; 
and as in 1300 two returns were made from the county of Lincoln that an Ed- 
mund Deincourt held lands of the yearly value of .40 and upwards, it has been 
conjectured 1 " that one of them related to Edmund the son ; and it is also pre- 
sumed that the writ of summons to Edmund Deincourt from Northamptonshire, 
to serve against the Scots in June, 1300, referred to the latter. In 1295 a 
John Deincourt obtained a quietus for the remission of the tenth charged on his 



P Page 82, ante. 

q All of which are taken from Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," Digest, pp. 565-6. 

r Ibid. 

4l 



306 EDMUND DEINCOURT. 

goods ; in 1297 he was returned from the counties of Nottingham and Derby as 
holding lands there of ^20 yearly value and upwards, and as such was enjoined 
to perform military service in Scotland : he was a Justice of Oyer and Terminer 
in Derbyshire in May, 1300 ; and in June, 1301, was impowered to inquire into 
the conduct of the bailiffs in that county. In 1301 a Ralph Deincourt was 
elected by the " communitas" of the county of Cumberland to be an assessor 
and collector of the fifteenth, and held that office in 1302. In. 1282 Robert 
Deincourt performed military service due from his brother Edmund Lord Dein- 
court, the father of the knights who were at Carlaverock ; and in 1 295 a Wil- 
liam Deincourt obtained a quietus for remission of the tenth charged on his 
property. 

If an opinion may be hazarded as to the real facts of the case, it would be 
observed that the probability is that Edmund Lord Deincourt had two sons ; 
that the eldest was called Edmund, and died in his father's lifetime, leaving Isabel 
his daughter his heiress, and who it is most likely died before the 20th Edw. II. 
s. P. ; that Lord Deincourt's second son was named John, and was the indi- 
vidual alluded to in the account of the assault of Carlaverock Castle, and in 
the writs addressed to John Deincourt which have been just noticed ; and that 
he also died before his father, leaving two sons, the William and John on whom 
the Baron's lands were settled in the 7th Edw. II. 

It is remarkable that only two individuals of the name of Deincourt should 
be mentioned in the Roll of Arms in the Cottonian Manu- 
script, namely, Sir John Deincourt among the peers, whose 
arms are said to have been, Azure, billett6 and a dancette Or ; 
and Sir William Deincourt, of Yorkshire, who bore, Argent, 
the same charges Sable. 

The arms of Edmund Lord Deincourt were, Azure, billette 
surmounted by a dancette Or. r 



a a a a 
a, 




a ~ a 



Page 56 ; and his seal in 1301. 



307 



JOHN FITZ MARMADUKE. 

[PAGE 56.] 

The little which can be said respecting Fitz Marmaduke, has been chiefly 
taken from the same source whence the greater part of the particulars of the 
Bishop of Durham were derived ; and the accuracy and research of Mr. Surtees 
render his labours worthy of the utmost credit. 

He was the eldest son of Marmaduke Fitz Geoffrey/ Lord of Hordene in the 
Bishoprick of Durham, 8 who in the 45th Hen. III. 1260-1 obtained the King's 
license to embattle his mansion-house there.* In August, 1282, John Fitz Mar- 
maduke, with nine other knights, performed services due from the Bishop of Dur- 
ham," who styled him on another occasion, " nostre tres cher bachelier, Mons r 
Jehan le Fitz Marmaduk ;" but from that time nothing is recorded of him until 
February, 1301, when he was a party to the Letter from the Barons of this country 
to the Pontiff, in which he is called " Lord of Hordene," * excepting that he was 
at the siege of Carlaverock in June, 1300, where his bravery was particularly 
conspicuous. He came, we are told, to assail the castle with a great and full troop 



r The following is the pedigree of Fitz Geoffrey in the College of Arms, and which Mr. Surtees 
has partially proved by evidence : 

Richard, to whom his uncle, Bishop Ralph Flatnbard, granted his manor of Ravensworth.== 

Robert Fitz Richard. Geoffrey de Hordene.=j= 

Geoffrey Fitz Emma.=Sir Roger de Epplingdene, Knt. he had with her in free marriage 

Geoffrey. ^= lands in Silkesworthe. 

Marmaduke Fitz Geoffrey ~= Richard Fitz Geoffry. William Fitz Geoffrey. 

JOHN FITZ MARMADUKE^P Robert Fitz Mar-=Juliana. CeciliaJohn Fitz Richard 



-} maduke. 



de Parco. 



John, fil. John de Parco. 

s Surtees's Durham, vol. I. part 2, p. 24, from a pedigree in the College of Arms, 
t Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 33. PaJgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," pp. 228, 235. 

i Ibid. pp. 103-4. 



308 JOHN FITZ MARMADUKE. 

of good and select bachelors/ and stood as firm as a post, and his banner received 
many a rent difficult to mend. 2 

It is most extraordinary that for nearly twenty years no notice can be found in 
the records of the time of an individual who, at the end of that period, was a 
party to an instrument from the Baronage of the realm ; and it was from this 
circumstance, the similarity of their arms, and his surname, that he was con- 
founded with Marmaduke de Thweng in the " Synopsis of the Peerage." 3 

In the 31st Edw. I. Fitz Marmaduke was commanded to appear before the 
King in the first Sunday in Lent, with full powers from the community of the 
bishoprick of Durham to accept his Majesty's mediation between them and the 
Bishop ; b and in April in the same year he was appointed a Commissioner of 
Array. 6 On the 30th September, 1 Edw. II. 1307, he was ordered, with others, 
to proceed to Galloway to repress the rebellion of Robert de Brus; d and in 
October following he was commanded to serve with horse and arms against the 
Scots ; e after which time his name does not occur among the writs of service. 
He continued in the wars of Scotland, " comme une estache ;" and on the 21st 
June, 1308, was again enjoined to oppose the attempts of Bruce. f On the 16th 
February, 3 Edward II. 1310 he was authorised with others to treat with the Scots 
for a truce.s Fitz Marmaduke died in 1311, at which time he was Governor of 
St. John's Town of Perth ; h and a very curious fact is recorded respecting his 
funeral. He particularly requested to be interred within the precincts of the 
cathedral of Durham, but as the state of the country prevented the removal of 
his corpse in the usual manner, his domestics adopted the expedient of dismem- 
bering the body, and then boiling the flesh from the bones ; by which means they 
preserved his reliques until an opportunity offered of transmitting them with safety 
across the border. For this outrage against an ecclesiastical canon, which had 
been promulgated in consequence of the frequency of the practice, Cardinal 
Berengarius, Bishop of Jerusalem, imposed on the offenders the mild penance of 



y Page 68, ante. z Page 70, ante. 

a Page 772. The arms of Marmaduke de Thweng were, Argent, a fess Gules between three 
popinjays Vert ; but the colours of course could not be distinguished on his seal. 
b Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 405. c Ibid. pp. 371-2. 

d Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 8. e Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 175. 

I Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 52. g Ibid. p. 104. b Ibid. p. 108. 



JOHN FITZ MARMADUKE. 313 

attending their master's obsequies in the cemetery of the cathedral of Durham, 
having first used the authority of the church to ensure the quiet transportation 
of his remains. 1 

Fitz Marmaduke was twice married : first, to Isabella, sister and heiress of 
Robert Brus, of Stanton, by whom he had Richard, his son and heir ; and a 

daughter, Mary, who married Lumley ; and, secondly, Ida, who survived 

him, and was living his widow in 1313. Richard Fitz Marmaduke was Seneschal 
of the bishoprick of Durham, and was slain in 1318 by his kinsman, Robert 
Neville, on the old bridge of Durham, as he was riding to hold the county court, 
which event is described as " a most strange and detestable action." ' Though 

married to Alianora , he died without children, when Mary his sister became 

his heiress. She left issue Robert Lumley, of Ravcnshohn, 
who married Lucia, the daughter and coheiress of Marmaduke 
de Thweng. They had issue a son, Marmaduke Lumley, 
whose representative is the present Earl of Scarborough.! 





The arms of Fitz Marmaduke were, Gules, a fess between 
three popinjays Argent ; k his son, Sir Richard, bore the same 
coat, differenced by a baton Azure. 1 



i An old Chronicle quoted in Surtees' Durham. 

j Harleian MSS. 294. That volume contains an exceedingly valuable collection of pedigrees, 
compiled from escheats and other records ; but as they are not indexed they are comparatively 
useless. It will be seen how erroneous is Collins's account of the early state of the Lumley pedi- 
gree, as he says that John Fitz Marmaduke, the subject of the memoir in the text, was descended 
from the common ancestor of the house of Lumley ; and some grounds exist for considering that 
his other statements respecting that family before the reign of Richard the Second are equally 
incorrect. Peerage, ed. 1779, vol. IV. p. 116. 

k Page 56 ; Cotton MS. Caligula, A. xviii., where his name occurs among the Barons ; and his 
seal in 1301, which is inscribed with the motto CREDE Micm. See " Archteologia," vol. XXI. 

1 Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. ; where his name occurs under the counties of Northumber- 
land and Cumberland. 



4 K 



314 



MAURICE DE BERKELEY. 

[PAGE 58.] 

Maurice de Berkeley was the eldest son, and, when present at the siege of 
Carlaverock, the heir apparent of Thomas Baron Berkeley. He was horn in 
1281, 1 and is said to have displayed a disposition for military pursuits at a very 
early period of his life. He was present at the tournaments held at Doncaster, 
Dunstahle, Stamford, Blithe, and Winchester ; and in the 23rd Edw. I. 1294-5, he 
accompanied his father in the expedition into Wales : in the next year he was at the 
siege of Berwick ; and in the 25th Edw. I., was again with his father in Flanders. 

On the 7th July, 25 Edw. I. 1297, he was returned from the counties of 
Somerset and Dorset as holding lands or rents to the amount of ,^20 yearly 
value and upwards, either in capite or otherwise, and as such was summoned 
under the general writ to perform military service in parts beyond the sea. m For 
several years afterwards he was engaged in the wars of Scotland, apparently with 
his own retinue, for in the 28th Edw. I. 1300, he was commanded to serve with 
horse and arms, and to assemble at Carlisle on the 24th of June," in which 
month we accordingly find him at the siege of Carlaverock. As in the case of 
Lord Dcincourt, the father of Maurice de Berkeley was, in 1301, enjoined to 
attend at Berwick on Tweed with his followers, or to send his sons in his stead ; 
a circumstance which corroborates the line in the Poem in which the bravery 
of the " brothers Berkeley" is mentioned.? Of those brothers a few words will 
hereafter be said. 

In the 35th Edw. I. 1306-7, he accompanied his father, who, with the Bishop of 
Worcester, were appointed ambassadors to the court of Rome, relative to some 
affairs between Edward and the King of France; and on the 16th of August, 2 
Edw. II. 1308, he was summoned to parliament as a Baron.i On the 2nd Aug. 



1 MS. note of the inquisition on the death of his father in the 15th Edw. II. 

m Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 292. n Ibid. p. 337. - Ibid. p. 357. 

i' Page 82 ante. q Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 185. 



MAURICE DE BERKELEY. 315 

4 Edw. II. 1310, he was enjoined to serve in the Scottish wars; r and again in 
May following; 8 and in the 6th Edw. II. 1312-13, was made Governor of 
Gloucester; hut was once more summoned to the wars in Scotland in the 7th 
Edw. II. 1 In April, 1315, he was appointed Governor of Berwick upon Tweed ; u 
and was ordered to treat with Rohert de Brus on the 12th Feb. 1310 : v in the 9th 
Edw. II. 1315-16, Berkeley was constituted Justice of South Wales," having all 
the castles there entrusted to his custody; and in 1316 he was present when 
Aymer Earl of Pembroke conferred the honour of knighthood on Richard de 
Rodney, and placed the spur on the young Chevalier's right foot: x in the llth 
Edw. II. 131 7, he and his two sons, Thomas and Maurice, formed part of the retinue 
of Roger de Mortimer, and marched with him into Scotland. 

On the 28th February, 13 Edw. II. 1320, by the appellation of " dilectus con- 
sanguineus Regis," a title which was probably applied to him in consequence of 
his marriage with Isabel, the pretended sister and coheiress of Gilbert dc Clare, 
Earl of Gloucester/ the King's nephew, Maurice de Berkeley was made 
Steward of Acquitaine, with an assignment of two thousand pounds tournois.* 
On the 28th March, 14 Edw. II. 1321, his father and himself, with five 
other peers, were ordered to attend at Gloucester on the 5th of April fol- 
lowing, to devise how the insurrection in Wales might be suppressed;* and 
in July, 15 Edw. II. 1320, he succeeded his father in his lands, at which 
time a MS. note of the inquisition held on Thomas Lord Berkeley's decease, 
states that Maurice his son and heir was forty years of age. About the same 
period he joined the Earl of Lancaster in his attempt to reform the abuses 
of the government, and in harassing the Spencers ; and he, with Roger 
de Mortimer and others, having burnt the town of Bridgenorth, the King 
issued a writ to the Constable of Bristol, commanding him to seize all his lands 
and goods ; h and part of the latter were conferred on Hugh le Despenser, junior. 
Relying on letters of safe conduct, which were granted to him and his other con- 

r Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 203. Ibid. p. 206. 

t Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 396. u Rot. Scotia, vol. I. p. 145 ; and Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 266. 

v Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 286. 

A writ was addressed to him by that title on the 20th Nov. 1316. Ibid. p. 301. 
* Selden's Titles of Honour, p. 612, cited in " Anstis's Collections of Authorities on the Order 
of the Bath," p. 8. y See the next page. 

z Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 418. a Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 455 b ; and Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. I U. 
b Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 471. = Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 91. 



316 MAURICE DE BERKELEY; 

federates to go to the King for the purpose of conferring amicably with him, he 
was made prisoner, and conveyed to the castle of Wallingford, an act of treachery 
which his sons revenged by laying waste the lands of the obnoxious favourites. 

In the same year George de Brithmereston complained that Sir Maurice de 
Berkeley the father, and the son, by collusion with the Sheriff of Wiltshire, 
had seized on a manor which had belonged to him, whilst the petitioner was in 
confinement on a charge of felony ; but he was answered that as Maurice was 
then in prison he must wait till he was released. 2 

Berkeley, however, died a prisoner ; for although Sir John de Goldingham 
endeavoured to rescue him in 1325, the attempt failed, and on the 31st May, 
1326, he departed this life in Wallingford Castle, and was buried in the south 
aisle of the conventual church of the abbey of St. Austin near Bristol, under the 
arch before the door of the quire. 

He was twice married : first, to Eva, the daughter of Eudo la Zouch by Milisent 
sister and coheiress of George de Cantilupe, by whom, who died on the 5th De- 
cember, 1314, he had issue, 1. Thomas, his successor in his honors ; 2. Maurice, 
ancestor of the Berkeleys of Stoke Giflfard in Gloucestershire, of Bruton in 
Somersetshire, and of Boycourt in Kent ; 3. John, to whom it is necessary again 
to allude ; 4. Eudo, rector of Lampredevaux in Wales ; 5. Peter, a prebendary of 
the cathedral church of Wells ; and a daughter, Isabel, who married, first, Robert 
Lord Clifford, and, secondly, Thomas Lord Musgrave. 

The second wife of Maurice de Berkeley was Isabel, who claimed to be the 
sister and coheiress of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, but her pretensions 
were proved to be unfounded by the proceedings on the subject in the 9th Edw. 
II., though she was returned as one of the heirs of the Earl in the inquisitions 
held in several counties ; a hence it is most probable that she was the natural sister 
of that nobleman. In the 1st Edw. III. 1327, by the description of " Isabel de 
Clare, who was the wife of Maurice de Berkeley, deceased," she petitioned for 
the recovery of the manors of Shipton and Barford, which she said had been 
granted to her by her brother Gilbert de Clare, late Earl of Gloucester ; b and 
died without issue by Lord Berkeley in 1338. c 

z Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 396 a. a Ibid. p. 353. 1> Ibid. vol. II. p. 431. 

c Collins's Peerage, ed. 1779, vol. V. p. 10. The name, however, of " Isabel de Clare, wife of 
Maurice de Berkeley," occurs in the Calendar of the Inquisitions post Mortem of the 1st Edw. III. 
Second Numbers, No. 10, vol. II. p. 10. 



MAURICE DE BERKELEY. 



317 



It is said by Dugdale that Thomas, Maurice, and John, the three elder sons 
of Maurice Lord Berkeley, were with their father in Scotland in the 28th, 29th, 
31st, and 32nd Edw. I., and consequently that it was to them the Poet alludes ; 
but that eminent genealogist must have been mistaken, for it is impossible that 
either of them could then have been sufficiently old. Thomas Lord Berkeley was 
found to be thirty years of age at the death of his father in the 9th Edw. I. 
1280, hence his son Maurice could scarcely have been born before 1270, though 
the inquisition on the death of his father in the 15th Edw. II. states that he was 
then forty, which would make him to have been born in 1281. Allowing, how- 
ever, that his birth occurred in 1270, his eldest child could not have been born long 
before 1290, so that in 1299, when he is stated to have had three sons in the 
wars of Scotland, neither of them could by any possibility have been above 
twelve years old ; whilst, if the age attributed to him in the MS. note of the 
inquisition on the demise of Thomas Lord Berkeley in the 15th Edw. II. be cor- 
rect, they must have been much younger. Thus it is almost certain that 
the John Berkeley whom Dugdale considers was the son of the subject of this 
article, was in fact his brother. 

Thomas, the eldest son, succeeded to his father's honours, and became con- 
spicuous by his connection with the murder of King Edward 
the Second : from him all the subsequent Barons and Earb 
of Berkeley are descended. 



The arms of Berkeley are, Gules, crusilly of crosses patee, 
over all a chevron Argent ; but when at Carlaverock those of 
this Baron were differenced by a label Azure, " because his 
father was alive." d 




Page 58 ; and Cottonian MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. 



4L 



318 

ALEXANDER DE BALIOL. 

[PAGE 58.] 

The brother and uncle of a King of Scotland claims more than usual attention 
from the biographer of the Knights who were at the siege of Carlaverock ; and 
considerable trouble has been therefore taken to collect every particular which is re- 
corded of his life. Though much has been found, when compared with what is said 
of him by Dugdale, the facts which can be related are not more interesting than 
what have been stated in these pages of his contemporaries. It may excite our 
surprise that a witness of the splendid rank which his brother possessed should 
have omitted to allude to it ; but this can be explained by the circumstance of 
John de Baliol being then dethroned, and nothing could at that moment jus- 
tify the expectation that his son would ever wield the Scottish sceptre. But 
it certainly is extraordinary that the compilers of all the printed pedigrees of the 
royal families of Scotland, should have been so careless or so ignorant in their 
accounts of the house of Baliol, as entirely to pass over the subject of this 
memoir and the other members of his family. To supply those defects the fol- 
lowing account of the immediate relatives of John Baliol, King of Scotland, is 
here submitted : 

John de Baliol, the founder of Baliol College, Oxford, married Devorguila, 
the daughter and heiress of Alan Lord of Galloway, by Margaret, the daughter and 
coheiress of David Earl of Huntingdon, brother of William the Lion, King of 
Scotland, through which alliance his descendants derived their claim to the crown. 
Baliol died in 1269, e leaving, by the said Devorguila, who survived until the 16th 
Edw. I.: Alexander ; f John/ who became King of Scotland; another Alex- 

e Esch. 53 Hen. III. No. 4.3. It would be very desirable to ascertain who was found to be his 
heir by this inquisition. 

f Esch. 6 Edw. I. and 16 Edw. I. Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," pp. 194., 209. He is 
stated in those writs to have been the son of a John de Baliol : his brother John was his heir in the 
6th Edw. I. and was then about twenty-one years of age. On the death of Devorguil his (presumed) 
mother, in the 16th Edw. I. John her son was her heir, who was then thirty years old, which 
tends to identify him as the same John who was found heir to Alexander ten years before, 
as his age at the respective periods exactly agrees. Moreover, the Alexander who died in the 6th 
Edw. I. held two manors of which John de Baliol died seised in the 53d Hen. III. 

g Esch. 6 Edw. I. See the last note. 



ALEXANDER DE BALIOL. 319 

andcr; h and, according to one pedigree,' Alan, who died s. P.; Hugh, Lord of 
Bywell, who married Agnes, daughter of William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, 11 
but also died without children : l and four daughters, Margaret, Lady of Multon 
Ada, who married William Lord Lindscy, and whose daughter and heiress, Chris- 
tiana, was the wife of Ingelram de Guisnes ; Cecilia, wife of John de Burgh, junior ; 
and Mary, who married John Lord Comyn. Alexander, the eldest son, by the 
description of "Alexander, filius Johannis de Baliol," was summoned to perform 
military service against Llewellin Prince of Wales, in July, 5 Edw. 1. 1277 ; m and 
in the 5th Edw. I. being then a knight, acknowledged the service of three knights 1 
fees in Hache, Bey velle, and Wodehorn, which was performed by himself and two 
knights, Ralph de Coton and John de Coton, in the expedition against the said 
Prince of Wales, on the 16th July in the same year. n He died issueless in the 
6th Edw. I.P leaving John, his brother, his heir, and who was then twenty- 
one years old.i 

Notwithstanding that it cannot perhaps be established by evidence that the 
Alexander de Baliol who served in Edward's army at Carlaverock was the bro- 
ther of the King of Scotland, still, as it has been asserted by such respectable autho- 
rity, and has remained wholly uncontradicted, as no circumstance can be 
adduced to render it unlikely, but on the contrary as so many facts tend to 
support it, that account of his birth will be assumed to be correct. The 
period when it took place can only however be surmised, but he was probably 
born about 1258, the year following his brother John, since he must have been 



l' No evidence has been discovered to establish that this Alexander was the brother of John King 
of Scotland, but not only is he so described by Dugdale, and in a pedigree in the College of Arms 
compiled by Glover, in a MS. entitled ' Illorutn Magnatura Stemmata quorum htcreditas, defici- 
entibus masculis, ad fceminas devoluta est," Philpot, No. 4. 78. f. 41 ; but many facts render it 
highly probable, as they show that he was a man of considerable importance in Scotland, and 
for some years held the office of Chamberlain of Scotland. 

i Glover's pedigree above cited. 

k She was the widow of Maurice Fitz Gerald, and afterwards married John de Avenes. Glover. 
She was living in August, 1308. See infra. 

1 Glover states that Alexander was the brother and heir of this Hugh de Baliol. 

m Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," vol. I. p. 191. n Ibid. p. 209. 

Esch. 6 Edw. I. No. 5. P Rot. Fin. 6 Edw. I. m. 2. 

1 Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 194. 



320 ALEXANDER DE BALIOL. 

of full age when, by the style of " Alexander de Baliol, Lord of Chilham," he 
was commanded to serve against the Prince of Wales in July, 5th Edw. I. 1277, 
at which time he was married, as Chilham was part of the inheritance of his 
wife, Isabella, the daughter and heiress of Richard de Dovor ; r and in the same 
month, by the designation of " Alexander de Baillol de Caures," he acknowledged 
the service of two knights' fees, " per Baroniam de Chilham," the inheritance of 
his wife, and one-third of two knights' fees for the manor of Beninton ; which 
services were performed by himself, and Henry de Baliol, and Nicholas de 
Rochford, Knights. 3 

In the 10th Edw. I. he was again enjoined to serve in person against the 
Welsh: 1 in the 19th Edw. I. 1290, he and Isabel his wife procured a grant of a 
market and fair at Chilham in Kent;" and in the 25th Edw. I. he served, Dug- 
dale informs us, in the retinue of the Bishop of Durham in the expedition into 
Flanders ; from which year until the 35th Edw. I. he received repeated writs to 
perform military service in the Scottish wars. x On the 5th of February, 1284, he 
was one of the peers of Scotland who agreed to accept of Margaret, daughter of 
Eric King of Norway, as their sovereign^ He was Chamberlain of Scotland as 
early as June, 1290, for in that year Alexander son of the Earl of Dunbar, ac- 
knowledged to have received xvm marks from his hands, 2 and numerous docu- 
ments are extant, from 1291 to 1292, in which that title is ascribed to him; 3 but 



r Hasted, in his History of Kent, says she was the daughter of Richard Fitz Roy, natural son of 
King John, by Rose, daughter and heiress of Robert de Dovor ; whilst Dugdale states that Rose 
was the daughter and heir of Robert de Dovor, that she first married Richard Fitz Roy, but that she 
afterwards dissented, and married Richard de Chilham, by whom she had Isabel, the wife, first of 
the Earl of Atholl, and secondly of Alexander de Baliol. If Dugdale had not added that Chilham 
was also called Dovor, it might be inferred that there was some mistake in his account, since 
Baliol, in his petition to parliament in the 33rd Edw. I. relative to the manor of Hugham, which 
he held in her right by the laws of England, expressly calls her " Isabel de Dovor," Rot. Parl. 
vol. I. p. 166, and in a record in Thome's Chronicle in the " Decem Scriptores," she is styled 
" Isabel de Dovor, Countess of Atholl, wife of Alexander de Baliol." 

s Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 209. t Ibid. pp. 225, 232. 

" Calend. Rot. Chartarum, p. 121. x Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," Digest, p. 442. 

y Fcedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 638. 

z Ancient Charters in the British Museum, 43 B. 10. The instrument marked 47 I. 28, is a si- 
milar acknowledgment of ^xx. from Sir William Byssett, Knt. in 1292. 

a Fcedera, p. 757, et seq. : and Rotuli Scotiae. 



ALEXANDER DE BALIOL. 321 

they afford no materials for his biography. On the 18th of August, 1291, Edward 
ordered six deer to be allowed to him : b he was present at the convention 
relative to the crown of Scotland, on the 13th June, 1292 ; c and also when his 
brother did homage to the English monarch on the 20th November in that year : d 
in 1293 he was a witness to the demands of his brother John, respecting his ma- 
nors and other property.* 

About the 23rd Edw. I. 1295, 1 Julio! incurred the royal displeasure, and all 
his lands were seized ; but he was soon restored to favour, for in September, 
1296, he obtained restitution of them ; f and on the 24th of June in the next year, 
a writ was addressed to the Earl of Surrey, Lieutenant of Scotland, stating that 
one hundred pounds had been assigned to Baliol in England, who was then about 
to go beyond the Trent and there to remain, for the support of himself, his 
children, and his household ; and that, as he had asserted that fifty marks of that 
sum were then unpaid, the Earl was commanded to cause the same to be imme- 
diately delivered to him.ff 

In the 28th Edw. I. he was first summoned to parliament: in May, 1298, he 
received letters of protection, being then in the King's service; 11 and he was 
commanded to attend at Carlisle with horse and arms on the 24th June, 1300, 1 
in which month he was present at the siege of Carlaverock, when he must 
have been about forty-two years of age. Though summoned to the parliament 
which was to meet at London or Westminster at Michaelmas, 1302, k Baliol was 
specially ordered to remain in the King's service in, Scotland. 1 About that period 
he, however, once more gave offence to Edward, and writs were addressed to 
the sheriffs of Kent, Hertford, and Roxburgh, tested on the 3rd February, 31 
Edw. I. 1303, commanding them to seize his goods and chattels for divers trans- 
gressions; to arrest him ; and to bring him before the King, on the first Sunday 
in the ensuing Lent. It is uncertain how long he continued in disgrace, but 
probably a very short time only, as on the 26th May following he was com- 
manded to serve in Scotland;" and in the same month he obtained letters of pro- 
fa Rot. Scot. p. 5. f Fffidera, N. E. vol. I. p. 768. d Ibid. p. 782 et seq. Ibid. p. 801. 
f Rot. Scot. p. 30. On the 31st July in the same year, the Earl of Surrey was also ordered to 
restore to Baliol all the lands in Scotland, which were then in the King's hands. Ibid. p. 44. 
S Ibid. p. 41. h Ibid. p. 51 b. i Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 347. 

k Ibid. p. 115. 1 Ibid. p. 117. Foedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 948. 

D Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 366' 

4 ii 



322 ALEXANDER DE BALIOL. 

tection in consequence of being so engaged. Among the petitions on the Rolls 
of Parliament, to which unfortunately no precise date can be assigned, is one 
from Alexander de Baliol, " of Cauers," claiming the wardenship of Selkirk 
forest, in which he states that the King had of his grace by his open letters 
restored all his lands and tenements in England and Scotland, which had been 
seized into his hands for divers causes ;P and in the 35th Edw. I. 1304, about a 
year after the date of the writ to arrest him, he petitioned relative to the manor 
of Hughan ;i hence, even if the first of those petitions referred to the pardon for 
his transgressions in 1295, instead of for those in 1303, the latter tends to show that 
he had ceased to be in disfavour before it was presented. After the accession of 
Edward the Second Alexander de Baliol was never summoned to parliament ; but 
on the 30th September, 1307, he was ordered to suppress the rebellion of Robert 
de Brus in Scotland ; r and on the 30th of July, 3 Edw. II. 1309, 2nd August, 4 
Edw. II. 1310, and on the 20th May, 4 Edw. II. 1311, he was commanded to 
serve against the Scots. 8 On the 5th June, 1309, he obtained letters of protec- 
tion in consequence of his being in the King's service;* about which time Dug- 
dale, on the authority of the Close Rolls," states that his son Alexander was 
imprisoned in the Tower of London ; " but upon security given by this Alexander 
his father, and two of the Lindeseys, for his future fidelity to the King, he was 
enlarged." On the 12th of August, 1308, Edward the Second confirmed to 
John Earl of Richmond all the castles, towns, manors, lands, &c. that had 
belonged to John de Baliol, and which had been granted to him by Edward 
the First, and also bestowed on him all the lands and tenements which 
Agnes de Valentia who was the wife of Hugh de Baliol, and Eleanor de Geneure 
who was the wife of Alexander de Baliol, held in dower, of the inheritance of the 
said John de Baliol, after the decease of the said Agnes and Eleanor." That 
record throws some doubt on the statement of Glover that the subject of these 
pages married, secondly, Eleanor de Geneure, unless the words of the instrument, 
" quae Agnes de Valencia quae fuit uxor Hugonis de Balliolo/ et Alianora de 
Geneure, quae fuil Alexandri de Balliolo, tenent in dotem," can receive any 



o Rot. Scot. p. 52. P Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 470. q Ibid. p. 166. 

r Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 8. s Appendix to the First Peerage Report, pp. 193, 203, 206. 

t Rot. Scot. p. 65 b. "3 Edw. II. m. 8. x Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 56. 

y Widow of Hugh de Baliol, brother of Alexander. See ante, p. 319. 



ALEXANDER DE BALIOL. 

other interpretation than that the said Eleanor was, on the 12th August, 1308, 
the widow of an Alexander de Baliol, for it is certain that the individual of 
whom she is said to have been the wife, was living on the 5th June, 1309, when 
he received letters of protection from the King, even which though possible is 
not very probable, if he was dead, in July, 1309, August, 1310, and May, 1311, 
when his name was included in the writs to perform military service in Scotland. 
These discrepancies, may however be reconciled either by considering that 
Eleanor de Geneure was the wife of the Alexander de Baliol who died in 
the 6th Edw. I. instead of the baron who was at Carlaverock ; or by deeming 
that the words in the record do not mean that she was at that time a widow. 

Alexander de Baliol was summoned to parliament from the 26th September, 
28 Edw. I. 1300, to the 3rd November, 35 Edw. I. 1306. He is said to have 
been twice married ; first, to Isabel, daughter and heiress of Robert de Dovor, z 
and widow of David dc Strabolgie, Earl of Atholl, by whom she was mother of 
John Earl of Atholl who was hung for felony." With her, Baliol acquired the 
manor of Chilham and some others in Kent, and they undoubtedly had issue, 
for he expressly states that he held the manor of Hugham in Kent by the law of 
England in her right ; b and in the writ to the Earl of Surrey in June, 1296, his chil- 
dren are mentioned. It appears from the Clause Roll cited by Dugdale that 
he had a son of his own names of full age in the 3rd Edw. II. 1309-10, but of 
whom nothing more is known. Isabel de Dovor died 
in February, 1292; d and Baliol is considered to have 
remarried Eleanor de Geueure, who is alluded to in the 
grant to the Earl of Richmond in 1308, and who survived 
him ; but by her he had no children.' 



His arms were, Or, an orle Gules/ 



z See note ', p. 320 ante. a Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 70. b Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 166. 

c See p. 321, ante. d Hasted's Kent, vol. III. p. 127. 

e Glover's pedigree in the MS. marked " Philpot, No. 4. 78," in the College of Arms ; but see 
the preceding remarks on the subject. f Page 58. 



324 



BERTRAM DE MONTBOUCHIER. 
[PAGE 66.] 

It will naturally be expected that, if materials for the lives of the Earls and 
Barons of the thirteenth century are extremely few and unsatisfactory, the par- 
ticulars recorded of persons of lower rank must be still more limited both in ex- 
tent and information ; hence it is that of the Knights who never attained the 
honours of the peerage, it is in many instances impossible to say much. 

Bertram de Montbouchier, who eminently distinguished himself in the attack 
of Carlaverock Castle, was, there can be little doubt, the son and heir of Bertram 
de Montbouchier, by Margaret, the daughter and heiress of Sir Richard Button, 
Knight/ and it may be conjectured that he was born about the year 1264. b 
The only circumstances which are mentioned of a person of those names, besides 
his being at the siege of Carlaverock in 1300, are, that in the 3rd Edw. II. 1309- 
10, he obtained a confirmation, in tail general, of the manors of Hamerden and 
Filsham, with all lands in Corley and Crotesby, in the county of Sussex, which 
had been granted to him by John de Bretagne, Earl of Richmond, by the service 
of a pair of gold spurs " ac per forinseca servitia ;"' that in the 10th Edw. II. 1316- 

17 the King bestowed on him for life the manor of Syhal in Northumberland, 
which belonged to Walter de Seleby, a rebel ; k and that on tKe 12th November, 

18 Edw. II. 1234, being of the household of the Earl of Richmond, he was allowed 
to accompany him abroad, provided he did not engage in any war against this 
country. 1 He died in the 6th Edw. III., leaving by Joan, daughter and sole 
heiress of Sir Richard," 1 or of Guischard, de Charon, Lord of Beamish and Tan- 



g Pedigree in the collection of Charles George Young, Esq. F. S. A. York Herald. 

h Reginald de Montbouchier, his son and heir, was forty-seven years old in the 6th Edw. III. 
hence this calculation presumes that Bertram de Montbouchier was twenty-one years old in 1285, 
when his son was born. 

Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 72. k Rot. Orig. p. 247. 1 Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 581. 

m Pedigree cited in note g. 



BERTRAM DE MONTBOUCHIER. 

field, and of Sutton in Nottinghamshire, and who was Knight of the Shire in 
the 4th Edw. II., and afterwards sheriff of Northumberland, Reginald de Mont- 
bouchier, his son and heir, then forty-seven years of age." The male line of this 
Reginald failed in the 4th Hen. VI., when the representation of the family de- 
volved on the issue of Isabel his granddaughter, who married Robert Harbottle. 
Eleanor, the eldest daughter and coheiress of Sir Guischard Harbottle, their de- 
scendant, married Sir Thomas Percy, and is now represented by the Duke of 
Northumberland ; and Mary, the second daughter and coheiress, became the 
wife of Sir Edward Fitton. 

Two facts only tend to render it possible that the Sir Bertram de Montbouchier 
who married Joan de Charon, and the knight who was at Carlaverock, were not the 
same individual. The arms of the former are considered to have been, Argent, 
three pots or pitchers Gules ; whilst the latter bore those charges within a 
bordure Sable Bezant^ ; and in the Roll of Arms in the Cottonian MS. which 
is supposed to have been compiled about the 10th or 12th Edw. II. the name of 
Sire Bertram de Montbouchier, whose arms were, " De 
Argent, a iij pos de Goules, od le bordure de Sable bcsante 
de Or," is inserted among the names and arms " abatues de 
grand seignors." 

I 

The arms of Bertram de Montbouchier who was at Car- 
laverock, were, Argent, three pitchers Sable within a bordure 
of the Second Bcsante\P 




n Surtees' Durham, vol. II. p. 225. Ibid. 

r Page 66 ; and Cottonian MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. 



4 x 



326 



GERARD DE GOUNDRONVILLE. 

[PAGE 66.] 

As neither the contemporary historians, the Foedera, the Rolls of Parliament, 
the Calendars to the Patent Rolls, Charters, Inquisitiones Post Mortem, the Roll 
of Arms in the Cottonian MS., the Appendix to the First Peerage Report, the 
Parliamentary Writs, nor the publications of the Record Commission, once 
mention this individual, it is of course impossible to say anything about 
him. If, however, the following entry in the " Liber Quotidianus Contrarotu- 
latoris Garderobae," of the 28th Edw. I. related to him, and of which there 
is not much doubt, it appears that he was a foreigner, and which explains the 
omission of his name in contemporary records : 

" Ciphus argenti, pond' iv marc', xv st. precij, xxiv/t. vs. Datur per Regem 
Domino Gerardo de Gaundrummillers, Militi Domini Johannis de Baar, in 

recessu suo versus partes proprias, apud Karliolum xiij die 

Novembris." P 

Thus it seems that in November, 1300, five months 

after the siege of Carlaverock, Goundronville returned to his 

own country. 

He was, the Poet says, an active and handsome bachelor, 
and his arms were Vaire. 




p Page 338. 



327 

ROBERT DE WILLOUGHBY. 

[PAGE 68.] 

Robert de Willoughby, who afterwards became a peer of the realm, 
was the eldest son of William de Willoughby, by Alice, daughter and coheiress 
of John Bek, Lord of Eresby ; and was born in 1270. 

Dugdale informs us that in the 25th Edw. I. he was in the expedition into 
Gascony ; and in the 28th Edw. I. 1300, he was returned from the county of Lin- 
coln, as holding lands or rents, either in caplte or otherwise, to the amount of 
^40 yearly value and upwards, and as such was summoned under the general 
writ to perform military service against the Scots in June in that year,i at which 
time he was present at the siege of Carlaverock, and was wounded by a stone in 
his breast in the assault." 1 In the 33rd Edw. I. he obtained a grant of free 
warren in his manors of Eresby and Wyleghby in Lincolnshire, 8 and of a market 
and fair in his manors of Spillesby and Skidbroke in that county;* and in the 
following year was a manucaptor of John de Knytecote, one of the burgesses 
who were returned from Leicester, an office which he also performed for Ralph 
Noman in the 24th Edw. I. u On the 21st June, 1 Edw. II. 1308, Willoughby 
was ordered to attend at Carlisle with horse and arms to serve against the Scots :* 
in the 4th Edw. II. he was found to be one of the heirs of his maternal uncle, 
Anthony Bek, Bishop of Durham, when he is stated to have been forty years 
of age ; and in the same year the manor of Lilleford in Northamptonshire 
was granted to him and his heirs.? On the 14th July, 5 Edw. II. 1311, he was 
again commanded to serve in the wars of Scotland ; z and on the 26th June, 7 
Edw. II. 1314, he received a writ of summons to parliament," in consequence, 
Dugdale conjectures, of his services in Scotland, and his possessing the extensive 
property which had devolved upon him by the death of Bishop Bek. In the 

q Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 334, 355. r Page 70, ante. 

Calend. Rot. Chart, p. 136. ' Ibid. p. 137. 

Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," pp. 44, 176. 

* Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 181. y Calend. Rot. Chart, p. 143. 

z Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 207 ; and Fffidera, N. E. vol. II. p. 139. 

a Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 231. 



328 ROBERT DE WILLOUGHBY. 

8th Edw. II. 1315, he was, with others, ordered to investigate the facts stated in the 
petition of the Prior of Park Norton against Sir Philip Darcy ; b and shortly af- 
terwards to inquire into and determine a complaint of the inhabitants of Lincoln, 
relative to divers robberies, murders, &c. in that county . c On the 30th June, 
8 Edw. II. 1315, Willoughby was for the last time commanded to serve in the 
Scottish wars; and in the 10th Edw. II. 1317, according to Dugdale and Col- 
lins, he shared with Edmund de Somerville the manors of Orreby and other lands 
in Lincoln which belonged to John de Orreby, clerk ; but it would appear that 
Orreby survived him, and that it was his son, John de Willoughby, who inherited 
these possessions, for by the inquisition on the death of John de Orreby, in the 1 1th 
Edw. II. Edmund de Somerville, set. 40, Alvered de Sulny, set. 30, and John, the son 
of Robert de Willoughby, set. 12, were found to be Orreby's cousins and heirs. 
Having been summoned to parliament on the 26th July and 26th November, 7 Edw. 
II. 1313, he died in 1316, aged about forty-six. By Margaret his wife, the daugh- 
ter of Lord Deincourt, d he left John, his son and heir, the second Lord Wil- 
loughby of Eresby, then fourteen years old. 

The present representatives of Robert Lord Willoughby are Priscilla Barbara 
Elizabeth, Baroness Willoughby of Eresby, in whose favour the abeyance of the 
Barony was terminated on the 18th March, 1780; and her sister, Georgiana 
Charlotte, Marchioness of Cholmondeley. 



, 


The arms borne by this Baron at Carlaverock, and which 
are those of Willoughby of Eresby, were, Or, frette 
Azure ; e but after the death of Bishop Bek in the 4th Edw. II. 
he adopted the coat of Bek, for in the Roll of Arms in the 
Cottonian MS. the arms of " Robert de Wylebi," whose name 
is placed among the Barons, are described as, " de Goules, a 
un fer de molin de Argent. f 


n 





b Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 314. c Ibid. p. 330. 

<l Pedigree by Glover in the Harl. MSS. 254. e Page 68, ante. 

f Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. Glover, however, assigns to him the arms of Willoughby 
with a canton of Bek, Harl. MSS. 254, f. 88 and 94 ; and to his son, John de Willoughby, the 
coat of Bek only ; and which alsor occurs on the seal of Joan de Rosceline his wife, Harl. MSS. 
254 f. 96. Robert third Lord Willoughby, on his seal in the 12th Ric. II. used a quarterly coat; 
1st and 4th, Ufford ; 2nd and 3rd, Bek. 



329 



ROBERT DE HAUMSART. 

[PAGE 68.] 

This Knight was, it is confidently presumed, the son of sir John Hamsard,* 
who was Lord of Evenwood in the Bishoprick of Durham in 1294, by Joan his 
wife, who had an assignment of dower in the 28th Edw. I. 1300. h Of the time 
of his birth no particulars are extant, and the earliest information which has been 
discovered of a person of similar names, and which probably related to him, is that 
a Robert Hansard was, in the 21st Edw. I., 1292-3, one of the mainpernors of John 
de Paries. 1 In the 28th Edw. 1. 1300, he was returned from the county of Lincoln, 
and also from the wapentake between Ouse and Derwcnt in Yorkshire, as hold- 
ing lands or rents, in caplte or otherwise, to the amount of ^40 yearly value 
and upwards ; and as such summoned under the general writ to perform military 
service against the Scots in June, 1300, k in which month he was at the siege of 
Carlaverock. His impetuous feravery is commemorated in glowing terms : he 
conducted himself so nobly, the Poet says, that from his shield fragments might 
often be seen to fly in the air, for he and the followers of Richmont drove the 
stones upward as if the castle were rotten, whilst they received heavy blows upon 
their necks and heads from the besieged. 1 

In the 29th Edw. I. 1301, Hamsard was again summoned to the Scottish wars 
from the counties of Lincoln and York; m and on the 19th April, 31 Edw. I. 
1303, he was appointed a Commissioner of Array in the county of Durham." 



g He was the son of Gilbert Hamsard, who was living in 1250 (Surtees' Durham, vol. III. p. 318) ; 
and who in the 1st of John, by the appellation of " Gilbert, the son of Gilbert Hamsard," obtained a 
charter of divers lands in Durham (Calend. Rot. Chart, p. 4). The said Gilbert was the son of 
Gilbert Hamsard, who was living in 1220, whose arms, as they occur on his seal, were a chief and 
bend, and who was the brother of Robert Fitz Maldred, Lord of Raby. Surtees' Durham, 
vol. III. p. 318. 

h Surtees' History of Durham, vol. III. p. 318. Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 95. 

k Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," pp. 332 334. ' Pages 70, 71, ante. 

m Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," pp. 355356. " Ibid. pp. 371372. 

4o 



330 



ROBERT DE HAMSART. 



On the 17th July, 4 Edw. II. 1310, by the description of " Knight," he obtained 
letters of protection in consequence of his being then engaged in the King's 
service; and on the 30th June, 8 Edw. II. 1315, he was commanded to be at 
Newcastle with horse and arms on the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed 
Virgin to serve against the Scots.P 

Here all notice of Sir Robert de Hamsard ceases, nor are we even informed 
of the date of his death. By Margaret his wife, who appears to have died in 
1313, he had a son, Sir Gilbert Hamsard, who was under age at the death of 
his mother.i 

William Hamsard, tenth in descent from Sir Robert who was at Car- 
laverock, left a daughter and heiress, Elizabeth, who married Sir Francis 
Ayscough, of South Kelsey in Lincolnshire, and died in the 
1st Eliz. 1558, leaving issue, and who consequently are the 
representatives of the elder line of the family ; but there 
were several younger branches, of which a minute account is 
given in Mr. Surtees' " History of Durham." 



' 





\ 




The arms of Hamsard were, Gules, three mullets Argent.' 



u Rot. Scot. p. 89. P Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 249 ; and Rot. Scot. p. 146. 

q Surtees' Durham, vol. III. p. 318. 

r Page 68 ; and Cotton MSS. Caligula, A. xviii., where Sir Robert Hamsard's name occurs 
among the Knights of Westmoreland and Lancashire. The next name to Sir Robert's in 
that Roll is that of Sir John Haunsard, who bore " de Goules, a un bende e vj moles de Argent." 
Glover gives a sketch of a seal of Sir John Hamsard, but without assigning any date to it, with the 
arms of three mullets. Harl. MSS. 245, f. 12. 



331 



HENRY DE GRAHAM. 

[PAGE 68.] 

Of a person of these names only one fact has been discovered, although every 
probable source of information was consulted. On the 5th February, 12 Edw. 
I. 1283, a Henry de Graham, and who possibly was the individual that 
was at Carlaverock in June, 1300, was one of the peers of Scotland who agreed 
to receive Margaret of Norway for their sovereign.* 

It appears that he evinced much bravery at the siege of the castle : the Poet 
says that those led by him did not escape, for there were not above two of his 
followers who returned unhurt, or brought back their shields 
entire. 1 




From his arms there can be little doubt that he was nearly 
allied to the house of Graham in Scotland; but Sir Wil- 
liam Douglas takes no notice of him. He bore Gules, a 
saltire Argent ; on a chief of the Second, three escallops of 
the First." 



Foedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 638. 



Page 73, ante. 



Page 68, ante. 



332 



THOMAS DE RICHMONT. 

[PAGE 70.] 

The first notice which has been discovered of this Knight, is that, by the de- 
scription of " Dominus Thomas de Richmunde," he was returned from the liberty 
of Richmondshire in the county of York as holding lands or rents, either in 
capite or otherwise, to the amount of s4Q yearly value and upwards ; and was 
consequently summoned under the general writ to perform military service against 
the Scots, and to muster at Carlisle on the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, 24 
June, 1300, x in which month he was present at the siege of Carlaverock. His 
followers were very conspicuous in the assault of the castle : they passed, the 
Poet tells us, quite to the bridge, and demanded entry ; but they were answered 
only by ponderous stones and cornues;? and Richmont, assisted by Hamsard, 
behaved so bravely that they drove the stones of the castle up as if it had been 
rotten, whilst the besieged loaded their heads and necks with heavy blows. 2 In 
the 29th Edw. I. 1301 he was again summoned from the county of York to serve 
with horse and arms in the wars of Scotland ; a and in the 30th Edw. I. he obtained 
a grant of free warren in his manors of Corkeby and Torcosseck in Cumberland. 11 
Richmont was a manucaptor of William Olifant, a Scot, who was taken in the 
castle of Sterling by Edward the First, and for whose release from the Tower 
of London a writ was addressed to John de Cromwell, the Constable of 
that fortress, tested on the 24th May, 1 Edw. II. 1308. On the 14th July 
and 9th October, 5 Edw. II. 1311, he was enjoined to serve against the Scots ; <l 
and on the 18th of the same month he was ordered to raise two hundred foot- 
soldiers in the neighbourhood of Richmond. 6 In the 8th Edw. II. 1314, he 



Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 332. y Page 70. z Page 71, ante. 

=' Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 356. l> Calend. Rot. Chart, p. 133. 

c Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 45. 

<1 Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 207 ; Rot. Scot. p. 104 ; and Rot. Scot. p. 106. 
< Rot. Scot. vol. I. p. 101. 



THOMAS DE RICHMONT. 

received a grant of the castle and honour of Cockermouth for life; 1 and \\a- 
again summoned to the Scottish wars on the liOth of June, 8 Edw. II. 1315;* 
after which year nothing is known of him. 

Of the time of Richmont's birth or decease we are equally ignorant : nor arc 
any particulars preserved of his family. 

In a pedigree of Stapleton in one of the Harleian Manuscripts, 11 Nicholas 
Stapleton, of Richmondshire, the brother of Sir Gilbert Stapleton, whose di - 
scendant in the eighth generation died in the 27th Eliz. is said to have married 
Elizabeth, the daughter of a John Richmont ; and in that of Andrew,' a Thoma- 

Andrew is stated to have married Anna, daughter of Richmond, about the 

middle of the fifteenth century, and on whom the following observation is madr. 
" cujus cognati maritam occiderunt." That pedigree is accompanied by sonn- 
doggrel verses descriptive of the different alliances, and which is said to have 
been copied from a MS. of the reign of Edward the Fourth. The followim: 
relate to the marriage of Thomas Andrew : 



3nDrcln an lincljinonD fjao to tonffe, 
fyt toljicl) manage fell great gtrpfle, 
On ilndrcto .sore troubled, anD in $out\j a 
Cljnt in a ljort tjnne ije cnDeD fji rajtfe. 

The arms of Thomas de Richmont were, Gules, two bars 
gemels, and a chief Or. k 



f Rot. Orig. vol. I. p. 209. 

S Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 249; and Rot. Scot. p. 115. 

h Harl. MSS. 1487, f. 283, a copy of the Visitation of Yorkshire. 

' MS. in the College of Arms marked " Vincent's Chaos," f. 50 b. k Page 70, ante. 



4p 



334 

RALPH DE GORGES. 

[PAGE 74.] 

If it were not for the Poet's assertion that Ralph de Gorges was " a newly 
dubbed Knight," it would be at once concluded that he was the individual who 
is described by Dugdale as the son and heir of Ralph de Gorges who died in the 
56th Hen. III. 1271-2 by Elene his wife, and who at her death in the 20th Edw. 
I. 1291-2 was thirty-six years of age, and inherited the lands of Bradepole, Yarde, 
Bedminster, and Redchore, in Dorsetshire ; but that eminent writer informs us 
that the Ralph de Gorges alluded to was Marshal of the King's army in Gas- 
cony in the 21st Edw. I., 1292-3 when he must have been a knight of considera- 
ble reputation. It appears from the " Parliamentary Writs" that as early as the 5th 
Edw. I. 1277, a Ralph de Gorges was summoned to perform military service ; and 
again in 1282, 1287, and 1294; that in 1297 a knight of those names was re- 
turned from the county of Northampton as holding lands there of the yearly 
value of ^20 ; and in 1300 a Ralph de Gorges was returned from the counties 
of Somerset, Dorset, and Southampton, as possessing lands of the annual value 
of ,^40, and as such was summoned under the general writ to perform military 
service against the Scots on the 24th June, 1300. 1 As in that month we find 
a Ralph de Gorges present at the siege of Carlaverock, there can be little doubt 
that he was the person mentioned in that writ ; and that he was then seised of 
the lands in Dorsetshire of which Elene de Gorges died possessed in the 20th 
Edw. I. ; but it is difficult to believe that her son Ralph, who was in that year 
thirty-six years old, only received the honour of knighthood in 1300, when if li- 
ving he must have been forty-four ; hence it is most probable that he was the son 
of the said Ralph, and grandson of Elene de Gorges, though this conjecture is 
not supported by positive evidence. It is almost certain that the Ralph de 
Gorges who held lands in Northamptonshire was a distinct person from 
the subject of this article, though it was in all probability the former, 
who was ordered to perform military service in 1294. The editor of the 

1 Digest, pp. 639-4,0. m Esch. eod. ami. 



RALPH DE GORGES. 335 

" Parliamentary Writs" also observes, that " several individuals of this family 
appear to have been named Ralph;" thus it would be useless to attempt to 
identify them ; but it may perhaps be confidently assumed that the Knight who 
was at Carlaverock was then for the first time in the field after he received the 
accolade ; and, as only one Ralph de Gorges is named in the Roll of Arms in the 
Cottonian MS. or in the writs of service during the reign of Edward the Second, 
every fact which is recorded of a man of those names from the 28th Edw. I. 1300, 
to the 17th Edw. II. 1323, when he is supposed to have died, will be here assigned 
to the Knight commemorated by the Poet. 

Gorges' bravery during the assault is particularly mentioned : though more than 
once beaten to the ground by the enemies' stones, or thrown down by the crowd, 
he still maintained his post, disdaining to retire. In the 33rd Edw. I. 1304-5, 
he obtained a grant of a market and fair in his manor of Liditon in Dorsetshire, 
and of free warren in that of Staunton in Devon. On the 4th March, 2 Edw. II. 
1309, he received his first writ of summons to parliament ; and on numerous oc- 
casions, from the 3rd to the 16th Edw. II. was enjoined to serve in the wars of 
Scotland with horse and arms ; but it is sufficient to refer to the records of the 
writs without specifying their respective dates. He solicited to be restored to the 
office of Bailiff of the forest of Whittlewood, which had been conferred upon him 
by Edward the First, in the 8th Edw. II. 1315 ; and Hugh le Despencer, the Jus- 
tice of that forest, was ordered to state why he was removed:? in the same year 
he, with Peter de Evercy, petitioned for himself and all the inhabitants of 
the isle of Wight, relative to the levying of scutage there.'' Gorges was 
appointed Justice of Ireland in the 14th Edw. II. 1 320-1 ; r in which year 
he was involved in a dispute with Sir Henry Tycs, son of the Baron Tyes who 
was at the siege of Carlaverock, the Constable of Carisbrooke Castle, and 
" enprovour" of the isle of Wight, against whom he exhibited various charges.* 
On the 30th January, 14 Edw. II. 1321, he was with other peers forbidden to 
allow of any assembly, either secretly or openly, by themselves or others :* on the 



n Calend. Rot. Chart, p. 136. 

Appendix to the First Peerage Report, pp. 194, 202, 206, 235, 251, 258, 283, 294, 295, 313, 
'24-7, 265, 271, 318, 330, 331, 337. See also Foedera, N. E. vol. II. pp. 78, 239, 275, 296, 485, 512. 
P Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 321. q Ibid. p. 323. r Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 89. 

s Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 383. t Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 41'J. 



330 RALPH DE GORGES, 

21st April following he was directed to preserve the peace, and not to give credit 
to false rumours; 11 and on the 12th November 15 EcLw. II. 1321, he was 
prohibited from attending a meeting with the Earl of Lancaster." 

Gorges was summoned to parliament from the 4th March, 2 Edw. II. 1309, 
to the 18th September, 16 Edw. II. 1322 ; y and died in 1323 ; z leaving by 
Eleanor his wife, who survived him, and in the 4th Edw. III. 1330, was the wife 
of John Peche, a a son, Ralph de Gorges, who was sixteen years old at his father's 
death. b He was never summoned to parliament, and appears to have died s. p., 

when his sisters, namely, 1st Elizabeth, who married Ashton, and left a son, 

Sir Robert, who died s. p. in the 7th Ric. II. ; 2nd Eleanor, who was the wife of 
Theobald Russell/ of Kingston Russell in Dorsetshire, by whom she had two 
sons, Sir Ralph Russell, and Sir Theobald, who assumed the name of Gorges, d 

" Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 448. x Ibid. p. 459. 

y Appendix to the First Peerage Report. z Esch. eod. ann. 

a Rot. Parl. vol. II. p. 40. The ,late Mr. Townsend in his MS. collections from Dugdale's Baro- 
nage says she married, after Gorges' death, Sir Guy de Ferre, and who must have been her third 
husband. It seems that she died in the 23rd Edw. III. Esch. eod ann. 

b Esch. 17 Edw. II. c He was twelve years old in the 4th Edw. II. Dugdalia. 

d Of the assumption of the name and arms of Gorges, the following curious record is preserved 
among the copies of documents of an heraldic nature in the Cottonian MS. Julius, C. vii. f. 239. 

" Nous, Henry, Conte de Lancaster, de Derby, de Leicester, et Seneschall d'Engleterre, 
William de Clinton, Counte de Hontington, Renaud de Cobham, Gaultier Seigneur de Manny, 
William Lovell, Steven de Cossinton, comis depar nostre Sire le Roy d'Engleterre et de 
Fraunce, a oyer et tryer et juger toutes manieres debats d'Armes et Heaulmes dedans son oste 
en son siege devant Calles, faisons scavoir que come John, filz et heretier Mounsr John de War- 
bleton, se plainct devant nous que Tibaud, filz Mounsr Tibaud Russell, come se appelle ung 
surnom' de Gorges, porta ses armes, cestassavoir lozenge d'Or et d'Azure, plainement sans dif- 
ference. Et pour ce que le dit Jehan et Tybaud jure et examines p'sonaillement devant nous, est 
ouy le motyves et evidences si bien d'un p't come d'auter, trove fut si bien p' savy come p> 
tesmoignage d'ancien Chivalers de leur pais que leur auncestres de dit Jehan, de auncester en 
auncester du temps dont homme n'ay tnemoire, ont porte le ditz armes sauns changier, est un 
Mounsr Rauf de Gorges ayle de cestuy Tibaud, susdict lessa ses armes, et print les armes 
susdits de volunte. Et un de ses heires morut sanz heire masle, et fut le diet Tibaud, fitz de sa sceur. 
Ad juge fait p' boun delib'ac'on, et avis par nous les dictes Armes au diet John heritablement. Et 
nous avandictes Henry et Guillaume Countes, Reinauld et Gaultier Banerettes, et Guillaume et 
Steven ChTrs, susdicts a cestes lettres ouvertes avons fait mettre nous seaulx et in tesmoinage de 
verite et de p'petuelle recorde. Donne en dit siege en la ville de St. Margaret, 1'an de grace mill' 
trois cens quarante sept. Ex ip'a charta sub sigillis nobiliu' infrascript in cutodia Ric'i Put- 
tenham.'' 




RICHARD DE ROKESLE. 

and from whom the family of Gorges of Wraxall in Somer- 
setshire descended ; and, 3rd, Joan, who was the second wife 
of Sir William Cheney, by whom she had Sir Ralph Cheney, 
and who is now represented by Lord Willoughby de 
Broke ; became the representatives of the subject of this 
memoir. 8 

The arms of Gorges were, mascally Or and Azure/ 



RICHARD DE ROKESLE. 

[PAGE 74.] 

Two persons called Richard de Rokesle, or Rokely, were living in the year 
1300, but, as the Roll of Arms in the Cottonian MS. states that the Knight who 
bore " mascally of Gules and Ermine" was of Suffolk, such facts as are related of 
a person of those names who possessed lands in that county or in Norfolk, will 
be attributed to the subject of this article, whilst the few notices which occur of 
a Richard de Rokesle who cannot be identified, will be briefly mentioned, leaving 
them to be applied to which of the parties the reader may think it most likely 
they referred. 

It is almost impossible to ascertain of whom Richard de Rokesly was the son, 
the time of his birth or decease, or who were his heirs, for the Escheats present 
nothing which can be safely considered to relate to him. All, however, that 
has been discovered respecting the family of Rokesle of Norfolk and Suffolk will 
be found in the note.? 



e The late Francis Townsend, Esq. Windsor Herald, MS. Collections for Ougdale's Baronage, 
marked " Dugdalia." 

t Page 76 ; and Cottonian MSS. Caligula, A. xviii., where they are blazoned, Azure, six 
mascles Or. 

S Placita De Quo Warranto, p. 728, ao 14 Edw. I. In answer to a quo warranto Richard de 

4u 



338 RICHARD DE ROKESLE. 

In 1296 a Richard de la Rokely was enrolled, pursuant to the ordinance for the 
defence of the sea-coast, as a Knight holding lands in Essex, though non-resident 
in the county ; h but, as the Rokeslcys of Kent possessed lands in Essex, it does not 
seem likely that it related to those of Suffolk : and on the 1st March in that year 
he was commanded to perform military service against the Scots. 1 On the 25th 
May, 1298, he was summoned from Norfolk for a similar purpose ; k but neither 
he nor Richard de Rokesley of Kent were included in the writ to attend at Car- 
lisle on the 24th June, 1300, 1 though the former was at that time present at the 
siege of Carlaverock, where he appears to have behaved with zeal and gallantry. 
In June, 29 Edw. I. 1301, he was summoned from the counties of Norfolk and 
Suffolk to serve in the wars of Scotland : m in 1302 he was elected a knight of 
the shire for Norfolk ; n and obtained his writ de expensis for his attendance. 
On the 10th May, 34 Edw. I. 1306, he was ordered to perform military service 
against the Scots, or to appear in the Exchequer to compound for his at- 
tendance.? 

After that time he cannot be identified with a single record in which the name 
of Richard de Rokesly occurs : on the contrary it is almost certain that they 
referred to the Knight of those names in Kent, since the greater part relate to 



Rokesley claimed to have frank pledge, &c. in Ryngeshale in Suffolk, from the record of which it 
appears that he was the son of Robert de Rokele. 

Placita de Banco, terra. Paschae, a 25 Edw. I. Norfolk. Richard, son of William de la Rokele, 
petitioned against Richard, son of Reginald de la Wade, relative to lands in Upeton, Helveston, 
and Berg near Helveston : 

Richard de la Rokele.=p 

i 



Reginald de la Rokele, ob. s. p. William de la Rokele.^= 

I ' 

Richard de la Rokele, petens. 

Vincent's MS. in the College of Arms, marked " Picture of our Lady." 

Escheats, 24* Edw. I. Ricardus de la Rokelee, 1 Ricardus, filius Ri- c Colkirke et Gatelee 
Cecilia uxor assign' dot' J cardi de Rokele. 1 in Co* Norfolk'. 

32 Edw. I. Ricardus de la Rokelee, filius et^i ,, 

heres Ricardi de la Rokelee. L^at.ldis soror. set. I Colkirke e 
Margareta uxor. J 17> ^ m Co Norfolk . 

h Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 273. i Ibid. p. 276. k Ibid. p. 311. 

1 Ibid. Digest. m Ibid. p. 354.. n ibid. p. 123. Ibid. p. 131. P Ibid. p. 377. 



RICHARD DE ROKESLE. 339 

that county .1 Of those, however, which do not bear evidence of being addressed 
to that individual, and, however improbable, might have been directed to the 
person who was at Carlavcrock, arc, the appointment of Mons r de Rokeley to the 
office of " gardcin" of the King's lands in Pontou and Monstroill, with special 
powers and directions to guard the same against all persons, on the 7th No- 
vember, 1 Edw. II. 1307 ; r and who received several writs containing commands 
connected with that situation.' A Richard de Rokcsley was summoned to the 
Scottish wars on the 30th June, 1311 : on the 3rd May, 6 Edw. II. 1313, he 
obtained letters of protection, being then about to accompany Nicholas de 
Segrave beyond the seas ; u and an individual so called was ordered to receive 
some Cardinals at Dover on the 13th June, 10 Edw. II. 1317. x As two 
persons of that name were summoned to serve against the Scots in June, 1315/ 
there can be no question that one of them was the Knight 
alluded to by the Poet. A Richard dc la Rokelc was also 
summoned to the Scottish wars on the 20th August, 10 
Edw. II. 1316 ; z on the 20th March, 12 Edw. II. 1318;" 
and on the 22nd May, 12 Edw. II. 1319. b 

The arms of Richard de Rokesle of Suffolk were, mascally 
Gules and Ermine. 



q Foedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 94-5 ; vol. II. p. 191-2 ; vol. II. p. 31, which contains a writ summoning 
a Richard de Rokesley of Kent, and his wife, to attend the King's and Queen's coronation, 
r Ibid. N. E. vol. II. p. 11. Ibid. pp. 39, 44. 

t Rot. Scot. vol. I. p. 45. u Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 213. * Ibid. p. 334. 

y Appendix to the First Peerage Report, pp. 248, 250. * Ibid. p. 262. Ibid. p. 294. 
b Ibid. p. 296. c Page 74; Cotton MS. Caligula, A. xviii. 




340 

ADAM DE LA FORD. 

[PAGE 74.] 

Very few circumstances are recorded of a person of these names ; nor is it 
probable that all of them related to this individual. From the Roll of Arms 
in the Cottonian Manuscript it would appear that he held lands either in Wilt- 
shire or Hampshire, as he is included among the knights of those counties. 

There can be little hesitation in believing that he was the Adam de la Ford who, 
in the 26th Edw. I., 1297-8, obtained a grant for a market and fair in his manor 
of Wichford in Wiltshire;* 1 and it is probable that he was the person mentioned 
in the following extract from the Calendar of the " Inquisitiones post Mortem:" 

" 33 Edw. I. Adam de la Ford, pro capellano Beatae Mariae de la Ford, 
Stawelle unum messuag', 1 acr' terr', et iiij acr' prati, ib'm Somerset'." 6 

In the 7th Edw. I. 1278-9, a man of these names held a virgate of land in the 
hundred of Ewelme, Oxfordshire ; f and among the ancient charters in the British 
Museum, is one without date, to which an Adam de la Forde was a party.s 

William Quintin, Forester of Grovele in the forest of Clarendon, complained 
in the 8th Edw. II. 1314-15, of a malicious information which Adam de la Forde 
and John Bonhamhad laid against him : h on the 30th June, 1315, an Adam atte 
Forde was summoned to serve with horse and arms against the Scots ;' and in 
the 13th Edw. II. 1319-20, the King granted to John de Hanstede thirteen acres 
which Adam de Ford, deceased, held in the forest of WhittlewoodJ 

But the most important account which occurs of this Knight is in a MS. note 
of the escheat of the 19 Edw. II, 1325-6, k whence it appears that he died in or 
before that year, seised of De la Hale manor near Brommore in the county of 
Southampton, and of a moiety of the manor of Wichford Magna in Wiltshire ; 
that by Christiana his wife, the daughter and heiress of Patrick Chaworth, he 

d Calend. Rot. Chart, p. 128. e No. 105, p. 200. f Rot. Hundred, vol. II. p. 760. 

S Marked 78 B. 20. It is without date or seal, nor is any place mentioned in it. The other 
names which occur in it are, Robert, son of Simon de la Forde, and Nicholas de la Forde. Other 
charters are preserved of Nicholas de la Forde, marked 78 B. 21 and 22. 

h Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 319. > Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 248. 

j Rot. Orig. p. 250. k No. 46. 



THE BARON OF WIGTON. 



341 



left Adam his son and heir then about thirty years of age. Christiana his \\ i- 
dow died in the 3 Edw. III. > 1329. 

Such are the few notices of persons of this name which arc scattered through 
the numerous volumes that have been consulted for particulars relating to the 
Sir Adam de la Ford who, at the siege of Carlaverock, in June, 1300, " mined 
the walls as well as he could for the stones which were hurled about him, and 
by which many of his fellow soldiers were wounded." 

He is therefore almost entirely indebted to the Poet for thr 
preservation of his name ; and as no other notice has been 
discovered which can with certainty be applied to him, per- 
haps neither his ancestors nor his descendants can be traced. 

His arms were, Azure, three lionccls rampant and 
crowned Or. m 




THE BARON OF WIGTON. 

[PAGE 75.] 

The Baron of Wigton was John, the son and heir of Walter de Wigton, whom 
he succeeded in the 14th Edw. I. 1289, at which time he was twenty-two years 
ofage; n and in the same year did homage for his lands. His services in tin- 
field were, it will be seen, constant and distinguished ; and he may be ranked 
among the most eminent soldiers of his time. The title of " Baron," by which 
the Poet describes him, is also attributed to him in a record that will be hereafter 
cited, and was one of the few instances of such an appellation being given to an 
individual, though in the remarks on the subject in the " Third Report on the dig- 
nity of a Peer of the Realm," no notice is taken of its having been assigned to him. 

In the 15th Edw. I. 1287, John de Wigton was summoned to attend with 



1 Esch. eod. ann. No. 59. 
" Esch. eod. ann. 



' Page 74 ; and the Cottonian MS. Caligula, A. xviii. 

o Rot. Orig. p. 51. 
4 R 



342 THE BARON OF WIGTON. 

horses and arms at a military council at Gloucester before Edmund Earl of 
Cornwall ; and in the 19th Edw. I. 1290-1, he was commanded to perform military 
service against the Scots.r He is mentioned in some pleadings about the ward- 
ship of the lands of Richard de Kirkbride in the 20th Edw. I.i 1291-2, which will 
be more fully alluded to in the next article ; and in that year answered a quo war- 
ranto respecting his right to a market and fair, and other privileges, in his manors 
of Wygeton and Melborby; r but in the 28th Edw. I. 1299-1300, he obtained a 
formal grant of those rights in Melborby. 5 On the 2Gth June, 22 Edw. 1. 1294, 
he was commanded to join the expedition into Gascony; 1 and in the 25th Edw. 
I. was ordered to proceed immediately to Scotland, to join the forces then under 
the command of John Earl of Surrey." On the 14th January, 28 Edw. I. 1300, 
he was appointed a commissioner to summon the knights of the county of Cum- 
berland to meet the King for the purpose of serving against the Scots ; x and by a 
writ tested at St. Alban's on the 1 1th April following he was enjoined to enforce 
the muster of the levies of the men at arms in that county, pursuant to the com- 
mission of the 14th January, and to return the names of the defaulters into the 
Wardrobe.y Wigton was nominated a Commissioner of Array in Cumberland on 
the 30th April, 1300 ; z and in June in that year served at the siege of Carlaverock, 
when he must have been about thirty-three years of age. His steadiness and valour 
excited the Poet's admiration, and which no language can so well describe as his 
own : " The good Baron of Wigton received such blows that it was the astonish- 
ment of all that he was not stunned, and, without excepting any Lord present, 
none shewed a more resolute or unembarrassed countenance." About that time 
twelve foot-soldiers of his retinue were paid their wages for three days ; a and in 
the 29th Edw. I. 1300-1, he was returned a Knight of the Shire for the county 
of Cumberland, and obtained his writ de expensis for attendance at the parlia- 
ment at Lincoln in February, 1301 : b on the 20th January, 1303, orders were 

Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 250; and Fcedera, N. E. vol. 1. p. 675. 
p Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 256 ; and Fcedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 753. 
<l Placita de Quo Warranto, p. 115. r Ibid. p. 116. 

s Calend. Rot. Chart, p. 129 ; and Calend. Rot. Patent. 9 Edw. III. p. 124. 

1 Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 259; and Fcedera, N. E. vol. 1. p. 804. 

u Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 300. * Ibid. p. 330. y Ibid. p. 342. 

z Ibid. p. 342. a Liber Quotidianus Contrarotulatoris Gardarobas, xxviij Edw. I. p. 261. 

b Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 102. 



THE BARON OF WIGTON. 343 

issued to him to place himself, with horses and arms, under the directions of 
John de Segrave, the King's Lieutenant in Scotland; and in 1305 he was again 
a Knight of the Shire for, and in 1307 a Commissioner of Array in, Cumber- 
land." 1 He was one of the manucaptors for Joan, the widow of John Wake, in 
the 35th Edw. I. 1306-7 ; e and obtained the custody of her lands in the 3rd 
Edw. II. 1309-10. f On the 30th Septi-nibi-r, 1 Edw. II. 1307, by the style of 
" John Baron of Wigton," he was enjoined to assist in repressing a rebellion in 
Galway with the men raised in the counties of Lancaster and Cumberland :& by 
writs tested on the 21st September, 2 Edw. II. 1308, h and 30th July, 3 Edw. II. 
1309, in which he is called " John de Wigton" only, he was directed to serve 
with horse and arms in Scotland.' In consequence of his being so engaged he 
received letters of protection dated on the 20th June, 1309 ; k and on the 26th 
October in that year he was with others ordered to defend the inarches near 
Carlisle against the Scots. 1 When the Earl of Lancaster opposed Piers de Ga- 
veston, Wigton joined the Earl's party; and on the 16th October, 7 Edw. II. 
1313, he obtained the King's pardon for his conduct on that occasion." 1 The last 
notice of him which has been found is in March, 1315, when a letter was addressed 
to him and others, desiring them to give credence to what Sir John de Benstede, 
Knight, and Robert de Wodehous, Clerk, should tell them." 

The Baron of Wigton died in the 8th Edw. II. 1315, leaving his wife Dionysia 
surviving. It appears from some proceedings in Trinity term in the 13th Edw. 
II. 1320, that two inquisitions were held on his decease ; and that it was doubt- 
ful whether his daughter Margaret, John Kirkbride, Joan, the daughter of John 
de Rcygate, or Florence de Wigton, Margaret, and Elizabeth, his sisters, were 
his heirs, as the latter asserted that they were so, and that his daughter Mar- 
garet was a bastard.? A MS. note of one of these inquisitions states that Mar- 
garet, the wife of John de Crokedeke, was his heir ; but it does not say in what 

c Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 370 ; and Foedera, N. E. vol. I. p. 948. 
d Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," pp. 156, 157, and 379. c Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 215. 

( Rot. Orig. p. 168. S Fredera, N. E. vol. II. p. 8. h Rot Scot. vol. I. p. 57 b. 

i Ibid. p. 78 ; and Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 194. 

k Rot. Scot. vol. I. p. 66. ' Ibid. p. 77. " Fredera, N. E. vol. II. p. 230. 

Rot. Scot. vol. I. p. 140. Esch. eod ann. That he was dead in the 9th Edtv. II. 

is also evident from the " llotulorum Originaliura Abbrevatio," p. 223. 
P Placitorum in Domo, &c. p. 336. 



344 RICHARD DE KIRKBRIDE. 

manner she was related to him. It is nearly certain, however, that she was his 
daughter, but whether legitimate or not seems from the plead- 
ings just noticed to he at least questionahle.P 

The arms of the Baron of Wigton were, we learn from the 
Poem, Sable, three estoils within a bordure indented Or;i 
but in the contemporary Roll/ where his name is inserted 
among the Barons, they are thus blazoned, " de Sable, a iij 
moles de Or, od la bordure endente de Or." 




RICHARD DE KIRKBRIDE. 

[PAGE 76.] 

The individual who is described by the Poet as " he of Kirkbride," and to 
whose prowess he bears such honourable testimony, was Sir Richard Kirkbride, 
of Kirkbride in Cumberland. 8 It is said that he was the second son of Richard de 
Kirkbride, who died in or before the 4th Edw. 1. 1275-6.* But became heir to his 
elder brother Robert, who died without issue in the 23rd Edw. I. 1294-5. Of the 
date of his birth no information is given, but it is evident from the proceedings 
in the 20th Edw. I. 1291-2, which are cited in the note, that he succeeded to his 
lands whilst he was a minor, and that he married before he became of age. u 



p In the 12th Edw. II. a John de Wigton did homage for the lands of his mother, Cecily de 
Blida de Wigton. Placitorum in Domo, &c. p. 2^2. 

q Page 76, ante. r Cotton. MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. 

s Nicholson and Burn's History of Westmoreland and Cumberland, vol. I. p. 211. 

. Rot. Orig. p. 27. 

u " Cumberland, 20 Edw. I. John, son and heir of Walter de Wygeton, Thomas de Normanvyl^ 
late the King's Escheator, just before the last eyre seised into the King's hands all the lands and 
tenements which Richard de Kirkbride held, being a minor, of the King in capite, and his mari- 
tage belonged to the King. Thomas afterwards committed the custody of Richard's lands to one 
Roger Mynyot with consent of the King, at an annual rent of ^12. 16s. 9d. until the lawful age of 



RICHARD DE KIRKHRIDE. 

In the 24th Edw. I. he had, however, attained his majority, as on the 4th 
December, 1295, he was appointed assessor and collector in Cumberland of tin- 
eleventh and seventh granted in the parliament at Westminster on the 27th of 
November preceding." We learn from the Poem that he- was in the Knlih 
army at the siege of Carlavcrock in June, 1300 ; that many a heavy stone fell 
upon his followers during the assault of the castle ; that they assailed the gate of 
it with such vehemence that it resembled the beating of a smith on his anvil ; 
and that they were so hurt and exhausted by the severe wounds they received 
that it was with difficulty they were able to retire. That Kirkbride was present 
on the occasion- is further proved by an entry in the Wardrobe expenses of the 
28th Edw. I. recording the payment of wages to ten of his foot-soldiers.? In March, 
35th Edw. I. 1307, he was nominated a Commissioner of Array in Allersdale; 1 
and on the 26th October, 3rd Edw. II. 1309, was with others commanded to de- 
fend the marches near Carlisle against the Scots; 8 and on the 17th July, 1310, 
received letters of protcction. b On the 3rd February, 1316, a writ was addressed 
to him, stating that the King had appointed John de Castre, Constable of the 
castle of Carlisle, hut that Andrew de Harcla would not deliver up the custody 
of it, and he and others were ordered upon pain of forfeiture to cause it to be 
rendered to Castre accordingly. The Scots having committed various inroads, 
and destroyed the property of the inhabitants, Kirkbride with several other 
persons obtained a remission of the tax of one-eighteenth, in consequence of the 
losses they had sustained, by writ tested on the 25th November, 13 Edw. II. 



Richard, and Roger transferred the same to Walter, father of John, who allowed Richard to 
marry under age without the license of the King. The marriage was valued last eyre at 100 marks, 
when Walter declared it to have occurred with license of the King, as John now says, who alleges 
the record. A writ was directed to the justices, 3rd December, anno 21, about referring their 
exaction of 100 marks to the next parliament. Upon inquiry by jury, it is reported that Richard's 
heritage came first to him on the part of his father, which was held of Walter, and afterwards fell 
to him, before he was married, on the part of his mother, a parcel of the barony of Levinton, held 
of the King in capite, whereby his marriage belonged at the time he was married to the King 

Placita de Quo Warranto, p. 115. Nicholson and Burn state that the parish of Kirkbride is 

part of the barony of Wigton, vol. I. p. 211. 

* Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 45, and Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 227. 

y Liber Quotidianus, &c. p. 261. z Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 380. 

a Rot. Scot. p. 77. b Ibid. p. 89. f Ibid. p. 153. 

4 S 



346 RICHARD DE KIRKBRIDE. 

1319 ; d and on the 8th May, 18 Edvv. II. 1325, he was appointed to keep the 
truce with the Scots. 6 After this time nothing more is recorded of him ; and he 
probably died in the 5th Edw. III. 1331, leaving Walter, his son and heir, then forty 
years of age. f The name of his wife is not stated, but Nicholson and Burn assert 
that he left a son called Walter, who was Knight of the Shire for Cumberland 
in the 9th Edw. II., and " from whom male issue descended for several genera- 
tions, who were lords of the manor of Kirkbride, until a coheir of George Kirk- 
bride transferred a moiety of it to the Dalstons of Dalston Hall." For this very 
vague statement a correct account of the family cannot perhaps be substituted; 
but the following notices throw some light upon the descent. 

In the Calendar of the Inquisitions " ad quod damnum," of the 12th Edw. II.s 
is the following entry : 

" Walterus Kirkebride, Kirkeandres terr' ib'm. Eden Piscaria. Skelton maner' 
3 tii p's. Cumb'." 

In the 1st Edw. III. a John Kirkbride died seised of lands in Cumberland, 
and left Walter Kirkbride, his brother, his heir, then forty years old ; h which John 
and Walter were probably sons of the subject of this article. 

The said Walter Kirkbride died in the 10th Edw. III., leaving Richard his 
son, his heir, then twenty-two years of age.' Richard de Kirkbride died in the 
23rd Edw. III. leaving Richard, his son and heir, one year old, k who, it rnay be 
safely concluded, was the Sir Richard Kirkbride, husband of Johanna, who died 
in the 22nd Ric. II., leaving Richard his son, his heir, nine years old. 1 In the 
1st Hen. IV ., m however, an inquisition was held on the death of a Sir Richard 
de Kirkbride, Knight, who held the same lands as were mentioned in the pre- 
vious inquisition of the 22nd Ric. II., whose wife was called Agnes, and whose 
son and heir was also named Richard, and then nine years old ; hence it may be 
inferred that these inquisitions related to the same person, that he was twice 
married, and that his son Richard, who was a Knight, and made proof of his 
age in the 1st Hen. IV." was by his first wife Johanna. 

In the 33rd Edw. I. a Richard de Kirkbride, of Laurencehelme in Cumber- 



<1 Fceclera, N. E. vol. II. p. 409. e Ibid. p. 598. f Esch. 5 Edw. III. No. 74. 

S Page 257. h Esch. 1 Edw. III. No. 21. i Esch. 20 Edw. III. No. 58. 

k Esch. 23 Edw. III. No. 80. 1 Esch. 22 Hie. II. No. 26. 

u> Esch. 1 Hen. IV. No. 68. n Calend. Inq. post Mort. eod. ami. 



RICHARD DE KIRKBRIOE. 



347 



land, died, leaving Johanna, the wife of John Smallwood, his heir; and in the 
23rd Edw. III. Richard, the son of Walter Kirkhride, junior, then aet. 21, \v;i> 
found heir to the lands in Cumberland of Margaret Wigton, the wife of Sir John 
Weston, Knight. She died seised of the lands which John Baron of Wigton 
held, and it may be supposed that she was his daughter ; that she died without 
issue ; and that the said Richard Kirkbride was descended from the John Kirk- 
bride mentioned in the proceedings in the 13th Edw. II. relative to the Baron's 
heirs.P The Calendar of the Patent Rolls 1 contains the following entry in the 
3rd Ric. II. : " Rex confirmavit Ricardo de Kirkebride in feodo consanguineo et 
haeredi Roberti Parvinge, Landam de Brathwaite infra forestam de Englewoode, 
pro fcodifirma octo marcarum necnon licentiam assartandi quinquaginta acrus 
parcell' ejusdem." 

It has been already remarked that the male line of Kirkbride terminated with 

George Kirkbride, and that one of his daughters and coheirs married Dal- 

ston : Emma, another of these coheirs, appears to have been the wife of Robert 
Cliborne, of Westmoreland, whose great-great-grandson was five years old in 
1585. r 



The arms of Kirkbride are said in the Poem to have 
been, Argent, a cross engrailed Vert ; s but in the Roll in 
the Cottonian MS.* Sir Richard de Kirkbride, whose name 
occurs among the knights of Northumberland and Cum- 
berland, is stated to have borne, Argent, a saltirc engrailed 
Vert ; and which coat is also attributed by Vincent to George 
Kirkbride abovementioned. 




o Esch. 33 Edw. I. No. 18. 
t Vincent's Yorkshire, f. 127 b. 



p Esch. 23 Edw. III. No. 86. n Page 203. 

s Page 76. * Caligula, A. xviii. 



348 

BARTHOLOMEW DE BADLESMERE. 

[PAGE 78.] 

It is a singular coincidence that the career of the two knights, Badlesmere 
and Cromwell, whom the Poet describes as having acted together at the siege of 
Carlaverock Castle, should present such a striking resemblance. They be- 
came the most distinguished peers of the reign of Edward the Second, were 
frequently selected to perform the same duties, and for a considerable time 
equally deserved and enjoyed the confidence and esteem of their sovereign. 

Bartholomew de Badlesmere was the son and heir of Sir Gunceline de Badles- 
mere, a knight of high reputation ; and was born about the year 1275. In June, 
22 Edw. I. 1294, he was excepted from the general summons of persons holding 
by military tenure or serjeantcy which was then issued for the expedition into 
Gascony. u ln the 26th Edw. 1. 1297-8, however, he was ordered by three writs to 
perform military service in Flanders ; x and in June, 1300, he was at the siege of 
Carlaverock. He and Cromwell were sent, the Poem states, by Lord Clifford to 
the gate of the castle with that nobleman's banner, and behaved during the whole 
day " well and bravely." The Wardrobe accounts of the time contain the fol- 
lowing entries respecting Badlesmere and his father : 

Anno 28 Edw. 1299. " Domino Guncelino de Badelesmere, pro feodo suo 
hiemali, per manus Bartholomei filii sui, apud Berewicurn super Twedam, xxvij 
die Decembr', \]li. xiijs. iiijd."? 

" Domino Guncelino de Badlesmere, pro roba sua hiemali, per manus Bar- 
tholomei filii sui, apud Berewicum super Twedam, xxix die Decembr' viij marc." z 
" Domino Bartho' de Badelesmere, pro roba sua hiemali, per manus proprias 
apud Berewicum super Twedam, xxix die Decembr' iiij marc." a 

In the following year his father, Sir Gunceline de Badlesmere, died, when 
he was found to be his heir, at which time he was twenty-six years of age. b 



u Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 260. * Ibid. pp. 260, 304, 306. 

y Liber Quotidianus Contrarotulatoris Gardarobse, 28 Edw. I. p. 188. 

z Ibid. p. 310. a Ibid. p. 311. l> Esch. 29 Edw. I. 



BARTHOLOMEW DE BADLESMERE. 349 

According to Dugdalc he was in the wars of Scotland in the 29th, 31st, 32nd, 
and 34th Edw.I. ; and in the 35th Edw. I. 1306-7, he was a Knight of the Shire 
for the county of Kent, and obtained a writ de expensis for his attendance in 
parliament in that year at Carlisle. 

In the 1st Edw. II. 1307-8, Badlesmcre was constituted Governor of Bristol 
Castle ; and again in the 3rd Edw. II. 1309-10, when the custody of the town 
and barton were also entrusted to him. Through the influence of Gilbert Earl 
of Gloucester and Henry Earl of Lincoln he obtained a grant in that year of 
the castle and manor of Chilham in Kent, to hold for the life of himself and of 
Margaret his wife ; and of several other manors. In November, 1308, at the re- 
quest of Philip King of France, he was appointed a commissioner to grant a truce 
to the Scots ; d and on the 3rd December following he was nominated Captain 
of the forces then sent into Scotland.* On the 26th October, 3 Edw. II. 1309, 
he received his first writ of summons to parliament as a Baron ; f and on the 
2nd August, 4 Edw. II. 1310, was enjoined to be at Berwick on Tweed, equipped 
for the field, to serve against the Scots.s As his life presents far more interest- 
ing objects of attention, it would be tiresome if not useless to state the date of 
every writ which he received to attend the King in his Scottish wars, it being 
sufficient to observe that his name appears on almost every occasion when an 
expedition was made into that country. 

On the 17th of March, 1310, Badlesmere was appointed one of the peers to re- 
gulate the royal household; 11 and in the 5th Edw. II. 1312, he was constituted 
Governor of Leeds Castle : about that time he obtained a grant of various lands 
in Wiltshire ; and on the 17th January and 16th August, 6 Edw. II. 1313, he was 
commanded, on pain of forfeiture of his possessions, not to attend a tournament 
which was proposed to be held at Newmarket. 1 He was, Dugdale says, again 
made Constable of the town, castle, and barton of Bristol, in the 6th Edw. II. 
1312-13, which office he held in November, 1314 ; k and in March following he 
was Gustos of Glamorganshire. 1 Badlesmere appears about that time involved in a 



Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," pp. 189, 190, 191. 

d Rot. Scot. vol. I. p. 59. Ibid. p. 60. 

f Appendix to the First Peerage Report, p. 198. 6 Ibid. p. 202. 

h Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 443. Feeders, N. E. vol. II. pp. 196 and 225. * Ibid. p. 257. 

l Ibid. p. 261. 

4 T 



350 BARTHOLOMEW DE BADLESMERE. 

dispute with the inhabitants of Bristol, a plea on the subject occurring on the rolls 
of parliament. 1 " He was present with other peers in the 8th Edw. II. 1314-15, 
when the petition was heard from the Abbot and Convent of Ruffbrd ; n and at- 
tended the parliament when some proceedings took place with the ambassadors 
from Flanders. In the 9th Edw. II. 1315-6, he was present in parliament when 
the quarrel between the King and the Earl of Lancaster was settled;? and in 
the same year was one of the manucaptors of Theobald de Verdon.i In Febru- 
ary, 9 Edw. II. 1316, x he was sent to repress the rebellion of Llewellyn Prince 
of Wales ; r and a few months afterwards he assisted at the ceremony of knighting 
Sir Richard de Rodney, and placed the spur on his left foot. 6 

Badlesmere was intended to have been dispatched to Scotland in August, 10 
Edw. II. 1316, as letters of safe conduct were granted on the 28th of that month 
to Richard de la Lee, his clerk, Thomas de Eshe and Thomas de Chidecroft, his 
valets, who were sent to Newcastle upon Tyne to provide corn and other provi- 
sions against his arrival; 1 in December following the Bishops of Norwich and 
Ely, Earl of Pembroke, Otho de Grandison, and himself, were appointed ambas- 
sadors to Amadeus of Savoy;" and Dugdale asserts that in the 8th Edw. II. he 
and Grandison were sent in that capacity to the court of Rome. 

In 1317 Edward the Second meditated a voyage to the Holy Land, and 
Badlesmere was, by writ tested on the 4th January in that year, directed to make 
the necessary preparations :* it was probably in relation to that object that 
he was appointed Ambassador to the Pontiff on the 8th January following;? 
from which time until July, many documents occur in the " Fcedera" connected 
with the Holy See ; and in those negociations Badlesmere bore a very conspi- 
cuous part. z 

His eminent services were in the 8th and 9th Edw. II. partially rewarded by 
a grant of the custody of Skipton Castle during the minority of Roger de Clif- 
ford ; by an assignation of the proceeds out of the rents of the King's lands in 



m Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 359. See also p. 434. n R o t. Parl. vol. I. p. 298 b. 

o Ibid. p. 359. V Ibid. p. 351. q Ibid. p. 353. r Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 283. 

s Selden's Titles of Honour, p. 642, cited in Anstis's Collection of Authorities on the Order of 
the Bath, p. 8. t R o t. Scot. vol. I. p. 162. 

" Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 302-3. * Ibid. p. 309. y Ibid. p. 311. 

z Ibid. pp. 311, 335. 



BARTHOLOMEW DE BADLESMERE. 

Glamorgan and Morgansk ; and by charters for free warren, markets, and fairs, 
in many of his lordships. 

In the 9th, 10th, and llth Edw. II. he was in the Scottish wars; and in tin- 
latter year was once more appointed Constable of the Castles of Bristol and 
Leeds. He was sent to Northampton to treat with the Earl of Lancaster on 
the government of the realm ; and on the 9th August, 12 Edw. II. 1318, was a 
party to the terms of agreement then determined on between the King and 
the Earl. 8 

Badlesmere became Steward of the King's household as early as November, 13 
Edw. II. 1319 ; b and it is worthy of observation that in the various letters from 
Edward to the Pope, begging his Holiness to appoint Henry de Burghersh, 
Bishop of Lincoln, he constantly describes him as the nephew of Badlesmere : c 
this probably arose from the latter having become personally known to the 
Pontiff when an Ambassador at his court. On the 1st March, 13 Edw. II. 1319, 
he was appointed with Hugh le Despenser the younger, to reform the state of the 
Duchy of Acquitaine, and to remove all such officers there as were unfit to fulfil 
their duties : d on the 1st December in that year he was ordered to treat for a 
truce with the Scots ; e and was present at the Friars Minors of York on the 
23rd January, 13 Edw. II. 1320, when the King received the great seal from 
John Hotham, Bishop -of Ely, the Chancellor : f in March following he was ap- 
pointed Ambassador to the King of France and to the Pope.s On the 19th 
January, 1321, he was sent with Aymer de Valence Earl of Pembroke, and many 
others, to treat for peace with Robert de Brus, at which time Badlesmere was 
still Steward of the Royal Household : h in the ensuing April he was Constable 
of Dover and of the Cinque Ports ;' and on the 21st of that month commands 



a Rot. Parl. vol. I. pp. 453, 454 ; and Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 370. 

b Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 405. 

c Ibid. pp. 405, 406, 411, 412, 414, and others. Blore, in his " History of Rutland," states that 
Robert first Baron Burghersh married a sister of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, by whom he had the 
Bishop of Lincoln and his brother Bartholomew, who was probably named after his maternal uncle; 
and who was summoned to parliament from 1330 to 1354. 

d Carte's Rot. Vase. vol. I. p. 55. Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. pp. 409-10. 

f Ibid. p. 415. g Ibid. pp. 419, 420. l Ibid. p. 441. ' Ibid. p. 448. 



352 BARTHOLOMEW DE BADLESMERE. 

were issued to him and several other peers to preserve the peace ; and they were 
forbidden to give credence to false rumours. k 

Lord Badlesmere obtained a release dated on the 20th August, 15 Edw. II. 
1321, from all engagements contained in a writing by which he had bound him- 
self to perform " plusurs choses," 1 but of what nature they were does not ap- 
pear. From the date, this document seems to be the one which is referred to in 
the Calendar of the Patent Rolls. m 

Until this time Badlesmere's career was marked by uninterrupted success : his 
talents and fidelity had been conspicuous both in the field and in diplomatic 
affairs ; and he enjoyed in the highest degree the favour of his sovereign. However 
important his services were, and the simple statement of the occasions upon 
which he was employed are sufficient evidence of the confidence which was re- 
posed in him, his merits were amply rewarded. He had been raised to the 
peerage, and had received innumerable grants of lands ; n but more than all, as it 
is unquestionable proof of Edward's regard, he was the Steward of his House- 
hold. This brief review of the conduct of this Baron, and of the manner in 
which he was treated by the king is material to the consideration of the causes 
which could have induced an individual so deservedly honoured, to join a power- 
ful rebellion against the royal dignity and authority ; for his conduct evinced 
either the most exalted patriotism or the most despicable ingratitude. Every 
motive which is supposed to actuate the human heart must have bound Badles- 
mere to support the King, excepting those which ought to be paramount to all 
others, a love of our country and of public and private liberty, and their insepa- 
rable attendants, a hatred of injustice and oppression. It argues, then, powerfully 
against Edward that even his friends and the officers of his house deserted him ; 
and instead of that desertion exciting our compassion for his situation, it only 
tends to raise those who abandoned him in our good opinion ; since to have 
submitted longer would have been to approve of the unhappy state into which 
the realm was thrown by his weakness or his vices. 

The fact, then, that Badlesmere joined the Earl of Lancaster and the other 
Barons in the effort to produce a reform in the government can scarcely create 
surprise, and ought not to be considered as a stain upon his character. He 

* Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 448. 1 Ibid. p. 454. m p age 90 a. 

n See Calendar to the Patent Rolls, pp. 69 b, 70, 73, 78, 82, 84, 84 b, 85. 



BARTHOLOMEW DE BADLESMERE. 353 

forfeited, it is true, his fidelity to his sovereign, hut it is at least doubtful if he 
did not thereby preserve his fidelity to his country. The first act of disobedience 
he committed was to go from Tilbury in Essex to Hengham in Kent, where 
being met by some of his adherents, and having taken part of his soldiers out of 
his castle of Leeds, he marched to Chilham, and thence to Canterbury, with 
nineteen knights; and visited the shrine of St. Thomas. At Canterbury he \va- 
joined by his wife and John de Cromwell, soon after which he proceeded to the 
Barons at Oxford. The King h'aving sent the Queen to Leeds Castle, where she 
was denied admittance by the persons whom Badlesmere had left to guard it, 
siege was immediately laid to the castle, and its owner having failed in persuading 
the confederated peers to march to its relief, it fell into the King's hands, when 
Margaret, the wife of Lord Badlesmerc, and Giles his son and heir, were taken 
prisoners and conveyed to the Tower. 

On the 26th December, 1321, a writ was issued to the Sheriff of Gloucester to 
arrest him, and to inquire by a jury, to whom he had given protection, for what 
time, and their names;? and he, with the other rebellious Barons, having en- 
tered and burnt Bridgcnorth, they were declared to have forfeited all their lands.i 

So inveterate was Edward's resentment against Badlesmere, that, when at the 
request of the Earls of Richmond, Pembroke, Arundel, and Warren, he gave 
Roger de Mortirnore of Wigmore safe and sure conduct with any forty persons 
of condition whom he chose to select, to come from Belton le Strange to treat 
with those Earls, on the 17th January, 15 Edw. II. 1322, r this Baron was spe- 
cially exceptcd from being one of the number. The following curious letter, 
which is translated from the copy in the " Foedera," shows that Badlesmere was 
then at Pomfret. It was addressed to Ralph Lord Neville, and was sealed with 
the seal of James de Douglas : it was probably written early in 1322. 

Si r e, Know that the treaty which was to take place between us is nearly 
completed, as the Earl of Hereford, Mons r Roger Dammory, Mons r Hugh 
D'Audley, Mons r Bartholomew de Badlesmere, Mons r Roger de Clifford, Mons r 
John Giffard, Mons r Henry Tyes, Mons r Thomas Maudyt, Mons r John de 
Wylington, and I, and all the others, are arrived at Pomfret, and ready to give 



o Writs to the Sheriffs of several counties relative to this circumstance, tested October 1321, 
are preserved in the Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 467-8. 

I> Ibid. p. 469. 1 Ibid. p. 471. r Ibid. p. 472. 

4U 



354 BARTHOLOMEW DE BADLESMERE. 

you surety 8 if you will perform the things proposed, that is to say to come to 
our assistance, and to accompany us into England and Wales. Moreover we 
also entreat that you will appoint a day and place where we may meet you to 
perform the things faithfully, and to live and die with us in our quarrel. And 
we pray you to cause us to have safe conduct for thirty horsemen to go safely 
into your parts."* 

Badlesmere was summoned to parliament from the 26th October, 3 Edw. II. 
1309, to the 5th August, 14 Edw. II. 1320 ; u but his long and, unless his junc- 
tion with the discontented Barons be considered to tarnish his former merits, 
honourable career, terminated in the most tragical manner. On the llth March, 
15 Edw. II. 1322, x writs were directed to the Earls of Kent and Surrey to arrest 
the Earl of Lancaster, this Baron, and his other adherents. In obedience to the 
royal mandate the Earls marched with a strong force against them ; and, as is 
well known, defeated them at Boroughbridge in Yorkshire on the 16th March, 
1322. Badlesmere shared the fate of his leader, the Earl of Lancaster : being 
taken prisoner he was immediately sent to Canterbury to be drawn and hanged, 
which sentence was accordingly executed. He w r as hung on a gallows at Bleen, 
and his head being cut off, it was set on a pole at Burgate. 

Lord Badlesmere was about forty-seven years of age at his death, and left issue 
by his wife Margaret, who was born in 1289, the daughter of Thomas de Clare, 
grandson of Richard Earl of Gloucester, a son, Giles, and four daughters ; 1. 
Margery, who married William Lord Roos;? 2. Maud, who married John de 
Verc, Earl of Oxford; 2 3. Elizabeth, who was first the wife of Edmund Mor- 
timer, and secondly of William Earl of Northampton ; z and 4. Margaret, who 
married John Lord Tibetot. z 

Lady Badlesmere continued a prisoner in the Tower for several months ; but at 
the intercession of her son-in-law, Lord Roos, and others, who engaged for her ap- 
pearance on receiving three weeks notice, she obtained her release, when she en- 
tered the convent of Minoresses without Aldgate ; and two shillings per diem were 
allowed for her support, which were to be paid by the Sheriff of Essex. She was 



s Faire seurte vers vous." t Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 474. 

Appendix to the First Peerage Report. x Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 477. 

y Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 103. z Ibid. p. 220. 



BARTHOLOMEW DE BADLESMERE. 



355 



the sister of Richard de Clare, and aunt and coheiress of Thomas de Clare; Maud, 
her sister, married Robert de Clifford, and her son Rohert de Clifford was the 
other coheir of the said Thomas de Clare. 8 In the reign of Edward the Third 
she petitioned for the restitution of certain lands which had been enfeoffnl to 
her and her late husband, b and also for the castle of Leeds or her manor of 
Aderlc ; and succeeded in obtaining the latter : c other lands were also ordered to 
be restored to her. d 

Giles second Lord Badlcsmere was fourteen years old at his father's death, and 
his wardship was committed to his cousin-german, Henry de Burghersh, Bishop 
of Lincoln. He obtained a restitution of his father's lands 6 which had been 
declared forfeited, and part of which were conferred on Eleanor the King's nicer, 
wife of Hugh le Despenccr ; f and was summoned to parliament from the 9th 

to the llth Edw. III. 1336 to 1337, but died in 1338 

without issue: 

his heirs. 



liii 



when his sisters before-mentioned became 




The arms of Badlesmere were, Argent, a fess between two 
bars gemells Gules ; e but when at Carlaverock the arms of 
Bartholomew de Badlesmere were differenced by a l;iln 1 
Azure, his father being then living. 



Escheats, 14 Edw. II. No. 45, and 1 Edw. III.; and Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 147 b. 
H Rot. Parl. vol. II. p. 430. c Ibid. pp. 436, 437. d Ibid. pp. 420, 422, 42:5. 

Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 103. f Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 491 ; and Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 91. 
R Page 78, ante; and Cotton MSS. Caligula, A xviii. 



356 



JOHN DE CROMWELL. 

[PAGE 78.] 

Although Dugdale states that " there is notable mention in our public records 
of this family before any of them became Barons of the realm," he does not 
positively inform us who was the father of John de Cromwell, the first peer, 
but leaves it to be inferred that he was the son as well as successor of a 
Ralph de Cromwell who was living in the 35th Edw. I. It appears however 
from the inquisition on a Ralph de Cromwell, and who, it may be safely pre- 
sumed, was the person mentioned by Dugdale, that he left Ralph his son his 
heir, and who was then only seven years of age. 

Many reasons 11 could be adduced for believing that the subject of this article 
was not related to the Lords Cromwell of Tatshall ; but as the pedigrees of that 
house are confused and contradictory, and as the usual sources of information, 
Inquisitiones post Mortem, relating to that family do not regularly occur, it is 
impossible to throw any light on the subject, without very considerable expense 
and labour. 

The earliest occasion on which a John de Cromwell is mentioned in the reign 
of Edward the First is in 1292, when he was one of the manucaptors of Ralph 
de Cromwell, but it is doubtful if it was the same individual who was at the 
siege of Carlaverock in June, 1300. 1 He was then in the prime of life : we are 
told he was both brave and handsome, and that his shield was bruised and de- 
faced by the stones that fell on it during the assault of the castle. In the 29th 

h The arras of Cromwell, from whom the Lords of Tatshall descended, were, Argent, a chief 
Gules, over all a bend Azure, and which are attributed to " Le Seygnyer de Cromwell," in More's 
" Nomina et Insignia Gentilitia," though they do not occur on the Roll in the Cottonian MS. 
Caligula, A. xviii. The seal of Ralph Lord Cromwell, in December, 1370, to a charter in the 
British Museum, contains the same arms : that of Maud his wife, who styled herself " Lady 
of Tatshall," in November, 1417, (Ancient Charters, 49, A. 44,) and which is also annexed to the 
charter in 1370, contains four shields ; the 1st, Tatshall ; 2nd, Vaire, a fess ; 3rd, Vaire, and a fess 
impaling a chief and a bend; 4th, three quintefoils and a canton. 

i Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 89. 



JOHN DE CROMWELL. 357 

Edw. I. he married Idonea, youngest daughter and coheiress of Robert de Vipount, 
hereditary Sheriff' of Westmoreland, and widow of Roger de Leyburne ; and on 
the 20th January, 31 Edw. I. 1303, he was ordered to pLace himself with horses 
and arms, and all his forces, under the command of John de Segravc, the King's 
Lieutenant in Scotland. k In the 33rd Edw. I. 1305, Cromwell became involvl 
in a serious quarrel with Nicholas de Segrave, who had insulted him whilst in 
the King's service in Scotland ; but as the dispute, the particulars of which are 
fully related on the Rolls of Parliament, has been alluded to in the memoir of 
that Baron, it is unnecessary to enlarge on the subject. 1 

As soon as Edward the Second ascended the throne, he loaded Cromwell 
with distinguished marks of his con6dence and favour : on the 10th of 
March, 1 Edw. II. 1308, he caused him to be summoned to parliament as a 
Baron ; m and in the same year he bestowed on him the castle of Hope in Flint- 
shire, with the manor, for life, upon condition that he should rebuild that castle ; 
he nominated him Governor of Striguil Castle ; and also appointed him to the 
important situation of Constable of the Tower of London, an office which he 
held with but short intermissions during his life." From the 1st Edw. II. to the 
7th Edw. III. numerous writs were directed to him or to his seneschal, com- 
manding him to raise from forty to sixty foot soldiers from the lands of Hope. 
During the reign of Edward the Second, and in the early part of that of Edward 
the Third, he was repeatedly commanded to serve in the Scottish wars.P On the 
17th March, 3 Edw. II. 1310, he was one of the peers appointed to reform the 
royal household ;i and on the 8th March, 5 Edw. II. 1312, he was ordered to treat 
with other peers relative to certain ordinances which they had made. r In July> 
1310, he was constituted Ambassador to the King of France:' on the 15th 



k Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," p. 369 ; and Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 948. 

1 See pp. 123, 124, ante, and Rolls of Parliament, vol. I. pp. 172, 17*. 

m Appendix to the First Peerage Report. 

n In the 8th Edw. III. the year before that in which Cromwell is supposed to have died, the 
King granted the office of Keeper [Gustos] of that fortress to William de Montacute, after the death 
of John de Cromwell " custodis ejusdem." 

o Rot. Scot. vol. I. pp. 106, 120, 127, 159, 171, 176, 185, 231 ; and Foedera, N. E. vol. II. 

pp. 857, 863. 

P Appendix to the First Peerage Report. q Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 443 b. 

r Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 159 ; and Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 447. s Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 1 10. 

4x 



358 JOHN DE CROMWELL. 

April, 5 Edw. II. 1311, he was sent to Boulogne sur Mer to treat with certain 
persons sent there by that monarch ; l and in the 6th Edw. II. 1312, he was dis- 
patched on the King's service into Gascony, and obtained a precept to the Con- 
stable of Bordeaux to pay him s5Q sterling towards his expenses on the occa- 
sion. In January, 6 Edw. II. 1313, he was ordered to treat with some Cardi- 
nals;" and in the 7th Edw. II. 1314, he was sent with Henry de Scropc into 
Wales, when he was allowed ten marks for his charges, which were to be paid by 
the Chamberlain of Caernarvon. He was commanded with three others to hear 
and determine all complaints against John de Segrave or his servants in the 
execution of his duties of Keeper of the Forests beyond the Trent, and of the 
castles of Nottingham and Derby, in the 8th Edw. II. 1314 ; x and also to inquire 
into the petition presented by the inhabitants of Nottingham relative to the state 
of the bridges and causeways in that county .y 

In December, 10 Edw. II. 1316, Cromwell was sent with Badlesmere and 
others on an embassy to the Pontiff; 2 and in the llth Edw. II. 1317, he was 
made Governor of Tickhill Castle in Yorkshire : he received a grant of various 
lands in that year; again in the llth, a 12th b and 15th Edw. II. ; c and in the 
14th Edw. II. he was one of the manucaptors of Henry Tyes. d 

Excepting that Cromwell's name appears among the Barons who were for- 
bidden to attend the assembly which the Earl of Lancaster had appointed to meet 
at Doncaster on the 12th November, 15 Edw. II. 1324, e the evidence in favour 
of the opinion that he escaped the vicissitudes of fortune which attended 
the peerage in the reign of Edward the Second, was so strong, and the pro- 
bability that he adhered under every circumstance to the cause of his sovereign, 
so great, that some remarks on the subject were actually written ; but proof 
was afterwards discovered that he was connected with the rebellion of 
the Earl of Lancaster, as his estates were consequently forfeited, and he 
did not recover them until the 1st Edw. III., when commands were issued to the 
Sheriffs of York, Wiltshire, Nottingham, Warwick, Rutland, Bedford, Bucks, 
Northampton, and Lincoln, to restore to him his lands in those counties/ But, 



t Foedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 1G6. u Ibid. p. 197. * Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 325 a. 

y Ibid. p. 333 a. z Fcedera, N. E. vol. II. p. 303. a Calend. Rot. Patent, p. 84 b. 

b Ibid. p. 86 b. c Ibid. p. 91. <i Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 385. 

e Fosdera, N. E. vol. II. p. 459. , f Rot. Parl. vol. II. p. 422 a. 



JOHN DE CROMWELL. 



359 



though his territories were withheld from him, he evidently recovered Edward's 
favour,? for, in the 18th Edw. II. 1324, he was appointed Admiral of the King's 
fleet towards the Duchy of Gascony ; and as Dugdale says that he attended Queen 
Isabel to France in that year, it may be inferred that he commanded the ships 
which escorted her across the channel. 

On the accession of Edward the Third he was re-appointed Constable of the 
Tower of London ; and was soon afterwards enjoined to serve in the wars of Scot- 
land. Having been summoned to parliament from the 10th March, 1 Edw. II. 
1308, to the 1st April, 9 Edw. III. 1335, he " departed this life soon after " accord- 
ing to Dugdale ; but, as his name occurs among the Inquisitiones post Mortem 
in the 7th Edw. III., it is most probable that he died in that year. 

His wife was, as has been before observed, Idonea, h the daughter and co- 
heiress of Robert de Vipount ; but the statement of Dugdale, that he was the 
ancessor of the Lords Cromwell of Tatshall is too doubtful to 
be repeated. 

The arms borne by John Cromwell at Carlaverock, were, 
Azure, a lion rampant double queued Argent, crowned Or ; ' 
but, agreeably to the Roll of Arms in the Cottonian MS. he 
then used the coat of Vipount, Gules, six annulets Or, k of 
which family his wife was one of the coheiresses. 




e In the 6th Edw. III. he and Idoigne his wife petitioned, stating that, by a statute made at 
Westminster soon after the coronation, the fines levied by Hugh le Despenser by force and con- 
straint should be reversed at the suit of the parties, and, that as they had levied a fine to him by 
force and menace, and at peril of their lives, they prayed that they might not be disinherited by 
the effects of it, to the damnation of his soul. Rot. Parl. vol. II. p. 68. 

b Blore, in his " History of Rutland," says she died s. p. before the 8th Edw. III. 

i Page 78, ante. k Caligula, A. xviii. 



360 



JOHN DE CRETING. 

[PAGE 78.] 

There are several reasons for believing that this Knight was the individual who 
many years afterwards was raised to the dignity of a Baron of the realm ; but, 
notwithstanding that that circumstance occasioned him to be noticed by Sir Wil- 
liam Dugdale, few facts can be stated of his life. 

He was the son of Sir Adam de Creting, who died in the 24th Edw. I. 1296, 
seised of lands in the counties of Essex, Huntingdon, Suffolk, and Shropshire, 
and also in Wales. 1 Two inquisitions were held on his decease, one in the 24th 
Edw. I; and the other in the 27th Edw. I., by the former of which John his son 
and heir was found to be seventeen, and by the latter twenty-four years of age, a 
trifling discrepancy not uncommon in those records. The precise time of his birth 
cannot therefore be determined, but it evidently occurred between 1275 and 
1279 ; and as he must have been of full age, if not a few years beyond it, when 
he was at the siege of Carlaverock, the first of those statements is the most 
likely to be correct. Dugdale asserts that he was born at Striguil in Wales, and 
that he accompanied his father in the expedition into Gascony in the 22nd Edw. 
I. ; but this is not very probable, since he could not, according to either of the 
inquisitions just cited, have been then more than nineteen years old. 

The manner in which Creting is spoken of by the Poet is not a little ambi- 
guous ; and, though the passage is translated that he was in danger of losing his 
horse by a person pricking it with an arrow, and that he used such haste to 
strike him that he did not appear to be dissembling, considerable doubt, is enter- 
tained of the accuracy of the version. It is however certain that he rendered 
himself conspicuous in the assault of the Castle ; and it is said that he was again 
in the wars of Scotland in the 34th Edw. I. 1305-6. Among the petitions on the 
Rolls of Parliament of the reigns of Edward the First and Second, but to which 
the exact date cannot be assigned, is one from John de Creting, stating that 



1 Esch. 24 Edw. I. No. 47, and 27 Edw. I. No. 25. 



JOHN DE CRETING. 361 

Adam de Creting his father had borrowed two hundred and twenty marks of tin- 
King's Wardrobe towards the war in Gascony, and which were now demanded 
of him; but as he had heard that the King had remitted the claim of others 
who were so situated, he prayed that he might also be pardoned the debt ; and 
he was answered that the King " le pardone du tot."" 1 

On the 30th June, 8 Edw. II. 1315, he was commanded to serve with horse 
and arms against the Scots;" and on the 20th February, 18 Edw. II. 1325, was 
summoned from the counties of Huntingdon and Cambridge to attend, simi- 
larly equipped, in Acquitaine. In the 4th Edw. III. 1330, he obtained 'a 
charter for free warren in his manor of Stoctou Magna in Huntingdonshire ; P and 
on the 27th January, 20th July, 20th October, and llth December, 6 Edw. III. 
1325,i he was summoned to parliament as a Baron ; after which time nothing is 
recorded of him. 

Creting probably died about 1333 or 1334, when he must have been nearly 
sixty years of age, but no inquisition was held on his decease, nor has any pedi- 
gree been found. It is evident, that his lands were inherited by his family, for in 
the 7th Ric. II. 1383-4, Thomas de Cretings held the manor of Barwe in 
Suffolk ; r and in the 22nd Ric/ II. 1398-9, Edward Creting was possessed of three 
parts of the manor of Fornham, and John Creting held Barwe and part of Fora- 
ham, in that county, 8 each of which manors became the property of John Baron 
Creting on the death of his father Sir Adam in the 24th Edw. I. ; but whether 
the said Thomas, John, and Edward Creting were his immediate descendants has 
not been ascertained. 

The other facts relating to this family which have been discovered, arc, that 
Isabella is called the daughter and heiress of an Adam de Creting in a collection 
of notes from records, and apparently upon the authority of an inquisition, 24 
Edw. I.;' that in 1307 Roger Bigot, Earl of Norfolk, held of John de Creting, 
in Romford in Essex, one capital messuage, 180 acres of arable and five of 
meadow, 100 of pasture called Layes, and 54s. rent, by the service of one penny 



m Rot. Parl. vol. I. p. 462. n Rot. Scot vol. I. p. 146. 

Fecdera, N. E. vol. II. p. .591. P Calend. Rot. Chart, p. 164. 

q Appendix to the First Peerage Report, pp. 410, 413, 417, 419. 

r Calend. Inquisit. post Mortem, Esch. 7 Ric. II. vol. III. p. 63. Ibid. pp. 241-2. 

1 Cotton. MSS. Claudius, A. viii., the references cited are, " R. I. 2t Edw. I. r. 6." 

4 Y 



362 



JOHN DE CRETING. 



per annum ; u that on the 3rd October, 11 Edw. III. 1337, and on the 23rd May, 
12 Edw. III. 1338, an Edmund de Cretyng* received letters of protection, he 
being then about to accompany the Earl of Northampton beyond the sea;? and 
that in the 38th Edw. III. 1364, Margaret, the daughter of Richard Creting, 

released to John de Montpiliers and Joan his wife, divers 

lands in Suffolk. 2 



The arms of Creting were, Argent, a chevron between 
three mullets Gules ; a but in the contemporary Roll of Arms, 
where the name of " Sir Johan de Cretinge" occurs among 
the knights of Suffolk, they are thus blazoned, " de Argent, 
a un cheveron e iij rouwels de Goules. b 




u Inq. 35 Edw. I. cited in Morant's Essex, vol. I. p. 64. 

* The following abstract of a deed of Edm' de Creting, occurs in the Cottonian MS. Julius, C. 
vii. f. 175, with a drawing of the beautiful seal which was attached to it, which contains a shield 
charged with a chevron between three mullets, surmounted by a helmet, on which is an armed 
leg with a spur affixed, the foot uppermost, issuing from a ducal coronet. 

" Edm' de Creting, Ch'l'r, cone' Joh'n' de Abindon, pisc'io London', terr' in manerio de Stock- 
ton, et ij p'tes advocac'o'is eccl'iae de Stockton, in com' Hunt', Hawisia uxor ejusdem Joh'is, test', 
Johannes D'engayne, Will'us Moyne, Ric'us de Baiocis, Guide de S'to Claro, Joh'es de Papworth, 
Milites ; Hugo de Croft, Nic' de Stukle, &c. Dat' ib'm xvj Maij, a 22 Edw. III." 1348. 

y Fffidera, N. E. vol. II. p. 997 and p. 1037. 

z Extracts from the Clause Rolls in the Harleian MS. 1176, f. 3. 

a Page 81, ante. b Cotton. MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. 



363 



a a a a 

/$M 




JOHN DEINCOURT. 

[PAGE 83.] 

Every thing which has been ascertained of this Knight will 
be found in the account of Edmund Lord Deincourt in a 
former page, where it is conjectured that he was a younger 
son of that Baron. 

His arms, the Poet informs us, were, Azure, billete'e and a 
fess dancette Or. 



THE BROTHERS BASSET." 

[PAGE 83.] 

Barren as many of the memoirs of the Knights who were at the siege of Car- 
laverock are, not only of interest, but of facts of any kind, the attempt to collect 
particulars of their lives has never proved more fruitless than with respect to " the 
brothers Basset." 

We may conclude, from the Roll of Arms which has been so useful in 
identifying many of the individuals who have been noticed in these memoirs, 
that their names were Sir Edmund Basset and Sir John Basset, and that they 
were knights of the county of Gloucester. It might have been inferred from 
their being mentioned in that Roll that they were both living in the 10th or 12th 
Edw. II., when it is presumed to have been compiled ; but an Edmund Baseett, 



364 " THE BROTHERS BASSET." 

of Gloucestershire, is recorded as "deceased" in the 4th Edw. II. 1310-11 c ; and 
according to the inquisition held on his death, he was possessed of lands in Glou- 
cestershire and Somersetshire, and left his three sisters, Isabel, the wife of John 
Pinchardine ; Margaret, the wife of Nicholas Valeirs ; and Katherine, the wife 
of John Bisset ; his heirs. d 

A John Bassett was elected by the community of the county of Rutland to be 
one of the assessors or collectors of the fifteenth in the 29th Edw. I. 1300 ; e and 
was Sheriff' of that county in 1302. e If the Edmund Basset who died in the 4th 
Edw. II. was at Carlaverock, the inquisition tends to raise a doubt as to whether 
the word "frcre" does not mean " brother" in a military sense rather than in the 
common acceptation of the word ; because if the " brother" who was with him at 
that siege survived him, his sisters would not have been his heirs. The slight 
difference between their arms, however, supports the idea of their rela- 
tionship. 

Notwithstanding that it has been suggested that the names of the " brothers 
Bassett" were Edmund and John, some grounds exist for supposing that one of 
them was called Robert ; for immediately after speaking of them, the Poet says, 
the " brother Robert" cast numerous stones from the Robinet; and in 1297 a 



c Rot. Orig. p. 174, et seq. 

d Esch. 4 Edw. II. No. 41. The following pedigree of Bassett, which occurs in the Harleian 
MS. 1041, f. 20, is cited in Fosbroke's " History of Gloucestershire." 

Sir Aunselme Bassett, Knt.^Margaret, daughter to .... Lemahen. 



Sir Edmond Bassett, ob. s. p. 
[Esch. 4 Edw. II.] 
John Bassett, ob. s. p. 

Elizabeth, 


1 
Isabel, sister=j 
and co- 
heiress. 

1st wife.^Symo 


=[John] Pyn- Margaret, mar. 
charde [Pin- [Nicholas] Val- 
chardin], lers[is]. 

n Pynchard.=pMaud, 2nd wife. 


Katherine, 
[mar. John 
Blsset.] 






Elizabeth,=pJohn Pynchard.=plsabel. Edmond Pynchard,=pMargery. Mary, died before 

1st wife. | alias Bassett. her father. 

! __ I __ I 

Margaret, ob. s. p. Sir Simon Bassett.=pMaud, dau. and heir of Sir John Bytton. 

A quo the Bassetts of Yewley in Gloucestershire. 

The arms there attributed to the family of Bassett of Yewley are, Quarterly, 1st and 4th, 
Ermine, on a canton Gules a mullet pierced Or ; 2nd, Ermine, a fess Gules ; 3rd, Gules, a bend 
between six cross crosslets Or. 

e Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," Digest, p. 449. 



THE BROTHERS BASSET. 



365 



Robert Basset was returned from the counties of Nottingham and Derby as 
holding lands there, and was consequently summoned to the Scottish wars in 
July, 1297/ and on the 24th June, 1301 ; f and another Robert Basset, who is 
described as of Rushton, and an Esquire, was similarly summoned from North- 
amptonshire in the former of those years/ It is possible, however, that the Robert 
who conducted the robinet was Robert de Tony, and if it was any other person 
than a Robert Basset, the doubt which has just been expressed as to the 
meaning of the word " frere " is confirmed. But the name of Basset is too 

common to pursue the inquiry upon such uncertain evidence 

as the Poem affords. 



The arms of the eldest of the brothers Basset, were, 
Ermine, on a chief indented Gules three mullets Or ; % and 
which, in the Roll of Arms, are assigned to Sir Edmund 

Basset. h 



And of the other brother, Ermine, on a chief indented 
Gules three escallops Or,e and which are ascribed in that 
Roll to Sir John Basset. h 




f Palgrave's " Parliamentary Writs," Digest, p. 450. 
h Cottonian MSS. Caligula, A. xviii. 



K Page 83, ante. 



4z 



NOTES. 



Page 2, line 12. Cotes et Surcos. Dr. Meyrick observes, " Giles is here introduced 
merely for the sake of the metre, for strictly speaking it is ilic juste au corps which was worn 
when the person was out of armour. It was never at this period emblazoned, and therefore 
must in the present instance be considered as synonymous with Surcos. The surcout, which 
had been adopted by the crusaders in the thirteenth century to prevent their mail armour 
from being heated by the sun's rays, a mode still continued by the Mamelukes of Egypt, was 
at first of merely variegated pattern, but soon became embellished with the same armorial 
bearings as the shield : hence the expression " coat of arms." It was a long loose dress 
without sleeves, open before and behind for the convenience of riding, and girted round the 
waist by the cingulum militare or belt. It was put on over the hauberk, and reached to 
the neck, and when the hood was placed on the head it was covered by it as far as the shoulders. 
The front and back were emblazoned alike." 

Page 4, line 5. Eschieles. " Although this word has been translated ' squadrons,' it must 
not be understood in the modern confined sense of the word, any more than ' battalion' for 
battaile. The latter is equivalent to our word tine or column, and the former to a division of 
an army. It is from the same source as the present term echellon, from representing the 
steps of a ladder, which woidd be the appearance of the four eschieles moved from one line 
a little in advance of each other, without the diagonal direction now given to this kind of 
march." Dr. Meyrick. 

Page 5, line 2. del. " and sacks of." 

Ibid, line 11. Read, " Henry, the good Earl of Lincoln, who was clasped and embraced 
by prowess, and who hath it sovereign in his heart, leading the first squadron, has," &c. 

Page 11, line 4. For " He was with the Count," read " He belonged to the Earl." 

Page 12, line 28. Baclirlitr.t. " This word is contracted from two, bas-c/u ruin rx, and 
means the class generally termed poor knights. A further confusion was afterwards occa- 
sioned by the expression knights-bachelors." Dr. Meyrick. 

Page 13, line 10. Perhaps the following is a preferable translation of the last sentence : 
" I cannot recollect what other Bannerets were there ; but, if I sum up the truth thereof for 
you, there were full a hundred good bachelors there, not one of whom ever alighted at 



368 NOTES. 

quarters till they had searched the suspected passes. Along with them rode every day the 
Marshal, the harbinger, who assigned quarters to those who were to be lodged." 

Page 15, line 16. The translation should have been, " He had in his company Henry de 
Percy, his grandson, who seemed to have made a vow to disperse [or put to rout] the Scots." 
Page 17, line 1. The sentence ought to have stood thus : " Walter de Money was joined 
to this company," &c. 

Ibid, line 8. " Burele," or " burlee," has been translated, upon the authority of Roque- 
fort, " stuff," but it undoubtedly meant " barry." In a Roll of Arms of the reign of Edward 
the Second, in a contemporary MS. in the British Museum, Caligula, A. xviii., the word often 
occurs in that sense, thus : 

" Le Counte de Penbroc, burele de argent e de azure, od les merelos de goules." 
" Sire Robert de Estoteville, burlee de argent e de goules a un lion rampand de 
sable," &c. 

Ibid, line 11. " Of great fame," the following words of the original would have been 
better rendered, " whose feats had many a time appeared in wood and plain." 

Page 18, line 2. The omission of two words in the translation is important, since, as has 
been noticed in the Preface, they perhaps afford a clue to the author of the Poem. The whole 
should have stood : 

" Guy Earl of Warwick, as is said in my rhyme of Guy," &c. 

Page 19, line 9. It has been suggested that this sentence ought to have been thus ren- 
dered : " We have drawn that of Tatteshal with them for his valour, of gold and red, che- 
quered, with a chief ermine." 

Ibid, last line. The word " him" ought perhaps to have been omitted. 
Page 20, line 9. Prestes a lustier les ventailles. " At the end of the reign of Edward the 
First, the skull-cap had been pretty generally laid aside for the superior protection which the 
bascinet afforded. The helmet was then but seldom used except in tournaments, when it was 
put over it, and reached almost to the shoulders. For war, as being lighter, the ventaille, 
which covered the face, was fitted in the bascinet, and made to move on a pivot at each side. 
These words therefore mean that the knights were ' ready to let down (or lower) their ven- 
tailles,' which, to admit a greater freedom of breathing, had been pushed up. One of the 
equestrian figures on the monument of Aymer de Valence affords a good specimen of the 
bascinet with its ventaille at this period." Dr. Meyrick. 

Page 21, line 6. A material variation has been suggested from the translation there 
given : " John de Beauchamp bore handsomely a banner of vair to the gentle weather and 
south-west breeze." A rhythmical version might in this instance have been easily attained : 
" Handsomely bore his banner of vair, 

To the gentle weather and south-west air." 

Page 23. After the words " at a little distance," the following version is preferable : 
" and managed the order of march so closely and ably that no one was separated from the 
others. In his banner were three leopards of fine gold set on red, cruel, fierce, and haughty, 



NOTES. 

thus placed to signify that like diem the King is dreadful, fierce, and proud to his enemies, 
for his bite is slight to none who are envenomed by it; not but his kindness is soon rekindled 
when they seek his friendship again, and are willing to return to his peace. Such a Prince 
must be well suited to be the chieftain of noble personages." 

Page 27, line 6. Instead of " He had a long," &c. read, " He had a long and broad 
banner of good silk, not of cloth," &c. 

Ibid. p. 15. The account of Lord Clifford has been also thus rendered : " Robert the 
Lord of Clifford, to whom reason gives assurance of overcoming his enemies as often as he 
can call to mind his noble lineage, taketh Scotland to witness that it hath its rise well and 
nobly, as he that is of the seed of the noble Earl Marshal, who beyond Constantinople," &c. 
but Dr. Meyrick observes on the word comfort, " that it must be considered rather as im- 
plying exhortation or excitement When Odo, in the Bayeux tapestry, is represented 
as urging on a body of troops, the explanation is ' Hie Odo confortat pueros ;' *'. e. Here 
Odo gives renewed energy to die lads. The word ' confort' in this sense is one of those 
engraved on the blade of the sword of James IVth of Scotland, still preserved in the Heralds' 
College." Lord Clifford's descent from die Earl Marshal has been shown in die memoir 
of his life. 

Page 31, line 6. " Ki va prouesse reclamant," may mean " whose cry of war is 
' Prowess.' " 

Page 33, line 1. " He who hath a heart disposed to do good," is a preferable translation. 

Page 35, line 4. t Read, " That of the Earl of Lennox I knew to be red with a white lion, 
and die border was white with roses of the field." 

Ibid, line 7. For Count," read " Earl." 

Ibid, line 10. For " Suwart," read " Siward." 

Page 41, line 1. Read, " Also I recognised John de Grey there, who had his banner 
borne before him, inlaid barry of silver and blue with a red bend engrailed." 

Page 42, line 20. Blanche cote et blanche alettes. " In die latter part of the reign of 
Edward I. were introduced those fanciful ornaments, placed on die shoulders capriciously, 
in the front, behind, or at the sides, which from their position were called Ailettes, or litde 
wings. It is not clear whether, like the passguards at the beginning of die sixteenth cen- 
tury, they were designed to turn off die lance and protect die throat from die stroke of the 
sword. They were generally of an oblong shape, though sometimes pentagonal, and, as well 
as the surcoat, were emblazoned with die arms of die wearer. The effigy of Sir Roger de 
Trumpington, in brass, of this period, is a good example. The fashion continued until the 
commencement of the reign of Edward the Third." Dr. Meyrick. 

Page 43, line 23. JVko well evinces that he is a Knight of the Swan, As has been ob- 
served in the memoir of Robert de Tony, it is extremely difficult to explain the meaning of 
diis allusion. According to the popular romance of the Kniofct of t?>e fttoan, die Counts of 
Boulogne were lineally descended from that fabulous personage, and genealogists of former 
ages have pretended to trace the pedigree of die houses of Beauchamp Earls of Warwick. 

5 A 



370 NOTES. 

Bohun Earls of Hereford, and Stafford Earls of Stafford and Dukes of Buckingham, from 
the same source, whence they say they derived their respective crests. a It would not perhaps 
be difficult to deduce the descent of Robert de Tony from the Counts of Boulogne, and the 
accurate knowledge of genealogy which the Poet has displayed in his account of Lord Clif- 
ford^ justifies the idea that he referred to Tony's pedigree, an opinion which is further sup- 
ported by the fact of the shield, on his seal affixed to the Barons' letter to the Pope in the 
year 1301, being surrounded by lions and swans alternately. But it must not be forgotten 
that a custom then prevailed for Knights to make their vows of arms " before the swan." 
" The ceremony of conferring knighthood upon Edward Prince of Wales in 1306," Mr. 
Palgrave observes, " was performed with great splendour. Whilst they were sitting at the 
feast, the minstrel entered, gaily attired, and required of the knights, but principally the 
younger ones, to make their vows of arms before the swan ;" or, to preserve the words of 
the original, " Eodem die cum sedisset Rex in mensa, novis militibus circumdatus, ingressa 
menestrellorum multitudo, portantium multiplici ornatu amictum, ut milites, prajcipue 
novos, invitarent et inducerent ad vovendum factum armorum aliquod coram Cygno." 
Trivetus, p. 342. 

Although Tony might on a former occasion have made his vows " before the swan," it 
does not explain why he only of the Poet's heroes should have been described as a " Knight 
of the Swan," and still less why he should have assumed that badge on his seal, since the 
ceremony must have been common to the whole of the chivalry of the period. As Guy de 
Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, married Alice, the sister and heiress of Robert de Tony, that 
family became doubly descended from the " Knights of the Swan," if the invaluable dis- 
tinction was possessed by the Baron. 

Page 47, line 1. Instead of the translation there given the following has been suggested : 
" He takes his way with the others, for he and the before named were appointed to conduct 
and guard the rein d of the King's son. But as I reckon them, St. John [and] Latimer were 
first given him for the arrangement of his squadron, as those," &c. 

Ibid, line 14. The sons of " my Lord Edmond, the best beloved brother of the King, 
whom I ever heard so called." 

Page 49, line 9. For " He by whom," 8cc. " He whose love was well supported and 
brought to an end, after great doubts and fears until it pleased God he should be delivered 
therefrom, endured for a long time great sufferings for the Countess of Gloucester. He had 
a banner," &c. 

Page 51, line 11. The difficult passage relating to Alan le Zouche has been also ren- 
dered, " Alan le Zouch, to signify [to show by a sign or type] that he was a squanderer of 
treasure, bore bezants on his red banner, for I know well that he has spent more treasure 
than he hung in his purse." 

Ashmole's MSS. Dugdale, G. 2. b See page 18C. c Parliamentary Writs, p. 71, note. 

11 i. e. to be hit counsellors and guardians in battle. 



NOTES. 

Page 53, line 4. A different translation of the account of the Bishop of Durham has been 
suggested : " With them were joined, both in company and affection, the followers of the 
noble Bishop of Durham, the most vigilant clerk in the kingdom, yea, verily, of Christen- 
dom. I will tell you truly why, if you will attend to me. Wise he was and well spoken 
temperate, just, and chaste. You never came near a rich man who better regulated his life. 
Pride, covetousness, and envy he had quite cast out. Not but that he carried a lofty heart 
for the maintenance of his rights, so that he suffered not tamely any conspiracy of his ene- 
mies, for so strongly was he influenced by a just conscience, that it was the astonishment of 
every one. He had been in all the King's wars in noble array, [attended by] great persons 
and at great charges. But owing to some outrage, whereof a suit was set on foot against 
him, he was kept in England, so that he came not into Scotland. However, he so well re- 
membered that the King undertook the expedition, that," &c. 

Page 55, line 9. Rather perhaps, " He who all honour teaches, John de Hastings is his 
name, was to be leader there on his account, for he had continued with liim the most 
intimate," 8cc. 

Page 59, line 10. Instead of, " To those last named," &c. this translation has been given : 
" In addition to the last named I have reckoned, not including attendants, eighty-seven 
banners, which quite filled the roads to the castle of Carlaverock, which will not be taken by 
check of rook," &c. Although the Poet says there were only eighty-semt banners, he had 
already described eighty-eight. 

Page 61, line 2. Another version of this passage is, " Carlaverock was so strong a castle 
that it did not fear a siege before the King came there. For it had never been its fate to 
surrender ; but was in its own power [maintained its own right]. Stored it was, when need 
thereof should come, with men," &,c. 

Page 63, line 17. Instead of" Consequently those of the castle," &c. a better version 
appears to be, " Wherefore I well believe that those of the castle might then divine that 
they were never in such peril. Which they might call to mind when they saw us arrive, 
drawn up as we were. We were lodged by the Marshals, and all assigned in every place, 
and then might be seen," &c. 

Page 65, line 15. For " quarreaus," read " quarrels." " They were so called from their 
heads being quarree, or square-sided, and were arrows, short in reference to their thickness, 
shot either from cross-bows, or the machines resembling them." Dr. Meyrick. 

Ibid, line 18. For, " In one short hour," read, " In a short time." 

Page 66, line 8. Clutpeaits et heaumes. " The chapelle de fer, or iron hat, had a rim 
and a convex crown, and was worn over the capuchon or hood. One of the equestrian 
figures winch ornament the canopy of the monument of Aymer de Valence has been already 
noticed; the other exhibits him wearing the chapelle de fer. The heaume or helmet was in 
shape a cone, swelling out in the middle. It was ornamented in front with a cross fleiiry. 
the transverse bar of which was pierced with occularia or openings for the sight After being 
placed on the head it was kept from turning round, when struck, by cords, with which it was 



372 NOTES. 

fastened to the shoulders. The effigy of Sir Roger de Trumpington not only gives its form, 
but shows that it was sometimes held to the body by means of a chain." Dr. Meyrick. 

Ibid, line 9. Escus et targes. " The shield of the time of Edward I. differed from that 
of the preceding reign by having the curve at top so lowered as to form angles at the sides. 
The targe or target was, as well as the buckler, flat and circular, yet differed not only in 
being larger, but in its handle not extending quite across to the circumference. Both were 
held at arm's length." Dr. Meyrick. 

Page 67, line 4. " Then might there," 8tc. is not so spirited a version as, " Then might 
there be seen stones fall as thick as if one must be covered with them, caps and helmets 
broken, shields and targets dashed in pieces, for to kill," &c. 

Page 68, line 15. Les enarmes. " An examination of the monumental effigy of one of 
the Vere family, at Hatfield Broad-oak, certainly sculptured in the time of Edward I. 
although referred to an antecedent period, proves that the shield was not only furnished with 
a gig, as it was termed, for suspending it from the neck of the warrior, but two other straps 
for the arm and hand. These last were the 'enarmes,' and Skelton's engraved illustrations 
of armour, &c. show that this fashion for targets continued in the middle of the sixteenth 
century." Dr. Meyrick. 

Page 70, line 14. De grosses pieres et cornues. " Great stones, during a siege, were 
hurled not only by machines, but with the hand. Over the doorway of the town-hall at 
Ratisbonne are two figures in armour, of the time of Edward IV., represented in the act of 
defending the entrance ; one is hurling a great stone, the other holding the cornue. This 
weapon, sometimes termed besague, i. e. bis-acutum, was a staff with two horns of iron, 
formed in imitation of a pick-axe, though the broad end, or axe, was omitted for a 
pointed one." Dr. Meyrick. 

Page 71, line 10. For, " Those of Richmont," read, " He of Richmont." 

Page 72, line 24. Meint riche gamboison. " This dress, so called from its protection of 
the womb or abdomen, was of German origin, and, though often considered as sufficient 
armour itself, was generally, as in the passage quoted, worn under the hauberk. It was, 
according to an anonymous ancient writer, ' de rebus bellicis notitiae Imperil,' put on before 
the hauberk, to prevent it from chafing the body, and it may be observed just beneath it 
in all monumental effigies of this period. It was externally garnie de soie, ornamented with 
silk, and stuffed with tow and cotton, stitched down in parallel lines, itself being of leather 
or cloth." Dr. Meyrick. 

Page 73, line 1. After " Fly in the air," the following has been deemed the correct 
version ; " For he and he of Richmont gather stones as they advance as though they were 
vicing with each other, whilst those within, in defiance, loaded their heads," &c. 

Ibid, line 6 et seq. Nothing can be more opposite than the translation and one which has 
been suggested : " He of Graham did not escape ; the whole of the shield that he shall carry 
off when he shall retire will not be worth two baked apples" [pommes cuites]. One of the 
MSS. reads " pomes quites," the other " promes quites." 



NOTES. 

Ibid, line 10. For, " Then you might hear," 8cc. " Do you hear? When the tumult 
began, a crowd of the King's people," &c. The interrogation being addressed to the reader 
or listener of the poem. 

Page 75, line 15. The following version of the account of Ford and Wigton has been 
suggested, but it does not appear probable that such was the Poet's meaning : " Adam de 
la Forde mined the walls as well as he could : as thick as rain rains his stones fly within ami 
without, whereby the gold of three lioncels rampant, natives of Ind, that he bore, was much 
injured. [As for the] good Baron of Wigtown, it is marvellous that he is not quite stunned 
by the blows that he receives, for though he is come hither without a lord, unattended, [or 
as a volunteer, without any immediate commander or retinue of his own] yet hath he not any 
the more on that account a countenance of alarm or fear." But this conjecture is proved to 
be erroneous, for an account of the payment of die wages of his retinue is preserved. See 
the memoir of this individual, page 342 ante. 

Page 77, line 16. For " but as soon as," read, " but before," &c. 

Ibid, line 20. " Et tant come bien le ai convoie," has been thought to refer to the writer 
himself, thus : " And (as I rightly take it) accompanied ['. e. Clifford's banner] by Bartho- 
lomew de Badlesmere, John de Cromwell made his attempt there as well as he could." 

Page 80, line 1. Espringaut. " The Espringalle, springal, springald, or springarde, as it 
was indifferently called, was a machine formed in imitation of the cross-bow, in order to eject 
quarrels of an immense size. Hence William Guiart, under the year 1304, says, 

Et font 1'espringale gieter 
Li garros. 

And they made an espringale to cast 
Quarrels." Dr. Meyrick. 

Page 81, line 1. This sentence has been considered to mean, " And shoot from their 
espringalls, and keep themselves quite a match bodi in casting and shooting." 

Ibid, line 8. After the word " arms," the following translation is perhaps more correct : 
" Those who defended the gate very soon shelter their company, for no one else had assailed 
them so furiously before. However, diey did not at all fail to give any one who came nigh 
a share of what they had to bestow, before he went away, till the sample was more than 
enough." 

Ibid, line 17. After the word " horse," " When one came down upon it goading it with 
arrows, but he did not seem to be dissembling, he used such haste to get at the business. On 
his white," &c. is perhaps a preferable translation ; but the original is obscure. 

Page 82, line 26. Meint piere par robinet. " The Robinet was one of dial class of 
machines which threw stones ; but though the peculiarities of the onager and trepied may be 
pointed out, it is difficult to distinguish this from the matafunda, mate-griffon, bricolle, tre- 
buchet, and others." Dr. Meyrick. The robinet used on this occasion is thus mentioned in 
the " Liber Quotidianus Contrarotulatoris Garderoba?," 28 Edw. I. : " Domino Thome de 
Bikenore, pro uno corio equino empto per ipsuin ad lengas et alia necessaria inde facienda 

5 B 



374 



NOTES. 



apud Carlaverok, pro ingenio Reg' quod dicitur Robinettus, per manus Ade Sellar' recipient' 
denariis apud Kirkudbright xxij die Julij vs. \jd." p. 65. 

Page 83, line 10. After " three shells," has been suggested, " If those within had now 
sallied forth they would have found the passage straitened," 8cc. for the version there given. 

Page 173. Upon the authority of Dugdale d it is said that in the 1st Edw. III. the Earl 
of Richmond obtained the King's license to grant the earldom of Richmond to his brother, 
Arthur Duke of Brittany, but that personage died before the 5th Edw. II. The remark in 
p. 174 upon the arms of the Earl has been also made by Nesbit. 

Page 181. The extract from the Chronicle of Lanercost, which is inserted in page xiv, 
ought to have been noticed in the memoir of Hugh de Vere. 

Page 324, line 10. Bertram de Montbourchier did not marry the heiress of Sir Richard 
Sutton. See Thoroton's Nottinghamshire. The Sir Richard or Guischard de Charon men- 
tioned in line 23, is said in that work to have been a son of Guischard de Charon by a second 
wife, his first wife having been one of the coheirs of Sir Richard de Sutton, upon which 
Guischard or Richard, his father, with the consent of Stephen, his son by Mary de Sutton, 
settled the manor of Sutton. 

Page 333. The following pedigree, for which the author is indebted to Thomas Sta- 
pleton, jun r . Esq. proves the remark, that no particulars are preserved of the family of Tho- 
mas de Richmont, to be erroneous : 



Musard. === 



Hascoit Musard, held in de-=f= 
mesne Keddington and Chil- 
worth, co. Oxon, and Saint- 
bury, co. Gloucester; he was 
also a tenant in capita in 
Derbyshire, Berks, and 
Bucks, at the time of the 
general survey. 



Emsant Musard, also called in Domesday Enisan and Ernesi, 
first Constable of Richmond, under Alan Fergaunt, first Earl, 
Lord of Burton, Aldborough, Barningham, Easby, Stapleton 
upon Teys, Croft, Coldwell, Cleasby, Brompton, Thorp, 
Stanwick, Newton, Bolton, Kiplin, Brough, Hipswell, Huds- 
well, Masham, Middleton Quernhow, and Stratford, co. Ebor. 
of the fee of Earl Alan ; and of Eyford, Aston, Somerville, 
Siddington, St. Peter, and Miserden, co Glouc. of the fee of 
Hascoitt Musard at the time of the general survey, ob. s. p. 



Richard Musard, 
son and heir ac- 
cording to Dug- 
dale, vivens tern- 
pore Hen. I. 


2. Roald Fitz Hascoit, second Constable^ 
of Richmond, under Stephen, third Earl; 
Lord of Burton, Aldborough, and most of 
the lands of his uncle the first Constable, 
by grant of Earl Stephen ; he founded an 
abbey on his manor of Easby in honour 
of St. Agatha, A. D. 1152, 17 Stephen, 
obiit .... buried at St. Agatha's.e 


=Graciana, 
daughter 
of 


Isabella =j 
Musard. 


=EliasGiffard, 
Lord of 
Brimsfield, 
co. Glouc. 
Dugdale,vol. 
I. p. 501. 


buried at 
St. Aga- 
tha's. 



* Baronage, vol. I. p. 52. 

" Stephanas Cannes Britanniie omnibus Baronilms suis et hominibus suis de Anglia, Frsncigenis et Anglicis, salutem. 
Sciatis me dedisse et conccssisse Roaudo filio Harscodi Conestabulario meo et heredibus suis Bernincheham (Barningham), 
scilicet sex carucatas terrie in feudo et hereditate quemadmodum Herveus fi. Morini eas melius tenuit, et prxcipio qubd 
bene et in pace et honorifice teneat. Testibus, Comitissa, Rogero Dapifero, Radulfo fi. Ribani, Akario, Scollando, 
Rogero de Sacel, Roberto Camerario, Alano Pincerno, Hugone fi. lorn, Garuero fi. Guihomari Dapifcri, Roscelino fi. 
Ricardi." Madox's Baronia Anglica. The original is in the treasury of the Church of Westminster. 



NOTES. 375 



Alan Fitzroald de Richmond.f or de^= 2. William de Elias Giff'ard, Lord of Brimsfield, 

Burton, Constable of Richmond during 
the reigns of Henry II. Richard I. and 
John ; obiit . . . . g 



Burton. co. Glouc. 



Conan, son of Elias, Lord of Kirkby- 
Fletcham, co. Ebor. temp. Hie. I. 



Roald Fitzalan de Burton, or de Kichmont,h Constable of Richmond temp.== Amfeliza, uxor 



Hen. III. ; Lord of Burton, Aldborough, Caldwell, &c. ; in the :<'2nd Hen. 
III. 124'8, sold his manor of Aldborough to the King ; he rendered ward to 
Richmond castle for 13 knights' fees; obiit temp. Hen. III. 



Jollanidfl Neville, 
Lord of Rolles- 
ton, co. Notts. 



Roald Fitz Roald, Lord of Burton, Caldwell, Croft, &c. at the time of Kirkby's Inquest, taken== 
15 Edw. I. 1287, where he is generally styled Roald de Richmond, obiit temp. Edw. I. 

Thomas de Richmont, or de Burton, Lord of Burton, Caldwell, Croft, &c. ; sold Burton Con-= 
stable to Geoffrey le Scrope, of Masham; PRESENT AT THE SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK ; he 
was slain at Lintalee in the forest of Jedburgh in a personal rencounter with the famous James 
Earl of Douglas, where the Earl of Arundel was defeated, A. D. 1316. 

Thomas, son of Thomas de Richmond, Lord of John de Richmond, had lands in Cald-=p 

Caldwell, &c. released all his right in Burton to well, for which he paid a fine to Sir 

Geoffrey le Scrope, 6 Edw. III. A. D. 1333 ; sold all Richard le Scrope, of Bolton, pro re- 

his lands to Henry le Scrope, of Bolton ; ob. s. p. laxanda secla curiae ;" ob 



Isabella,^ bur. in Drax=Sir Nicholas de Stapleton, Knight and Baron,==Elizabeth de Richmont,' 
Priory, in Yorkshire, Lord of Carlton by Snaith, co. Ebor. obiit 17 daughter and sole heir- 



1st wife. Edw. III. 1343. ess, 2nd wife. 



Sir Miles de Stapleton, of Carlton, Knt.=j=Isabella, daughter of Sir Henry Vavasour, of 



son and heir. 



Hazlewood, co. Ebor. 



Thomas de Stapleton, ob. s. P. Elizabeth, sister and^=Sir Thomas Metham, of 

47 Edw. III. sole heiress. Metham, co. York. 

' " Alanus films Rualdi reddet compotum de c. et quater xx et x marcis pro habenda castodia Castelli de Ricliemunt cum 
Constabulatu in Thesauro xx marcas. Et debet c et LM raarca. Mag. Rot. 5 Ric. I. Rot. S. Everwichoc." Madox's 
History of the Exchequer, p. 317. 

* Thi family are sometimes named from their office, u Roaldut Constabularius ; sometimes alto from their hereditary place, 
aa Roaldus de Burton, or Roaldui de Richmond. Burton till retains the name of Constable affixed to it, now the leat of 
Marmaduke Wyvill, Esq. Conan, the son of Elias, was a witness to a deed of Alan the Constable to Jollanut de Neille, and 
to a grant of Lisiard, son of Robert de Mustors, to Helewise, widow of Robert, son of Ralph of Middlehwn. HelewUc, who 
was a daughter of Ralph de Glanville, died A. D. 1 195, 6 Ric. I. 

1 " Roaldus filius Alani debet c marcas et in palfridos pro habeuda carU Regii de quietancia tilii et heredibu* suis et t*M- 
mentis suis et omnil.us njilitibus et libere tenentibui suis de Sectii Comitatfti et hundredorum et wapenuc et Ueingtt in per- 
petuum. Mag. Rot. 6 John, 14 l>is a." Madox. 

1 Leland'a Collectanea, vol. I. p. 547, and Redpath's Border History, p. 458. 

* Sir Nicholas de Stapleton released the Canons of Drax Priory from all services, renU, Sec. for their premises in Camels- 
ford, for the uood of the soul of Isabel his wife, buried in Drax Priory." Burton's Monasticon EboraceDH. 

1 Harleian MSS. 1487, f. 883, a copy of the Visitation of Yorkshire. 



are 



NOTES. 



e^teit De grant pris" 

ert De top le pais 1 
e <jreneorte tote le honour 
&one eiSteit & icel four 
!5B>e 25oftinham tut le eounte 

e^teit en eel tens' elame 
qucns' iioalt out anoun 

par ert noble taroun 
mne fide ont De s\i moillcr 
Sa grant bcaute ne jJan counter 



The following extracts from the contemporary copy of the Romance of " Guy Earl of 
Warwick," by Walter of Exeter, in the Harleian MSS. 3775, are here introduced as spe- 
cimens of that production. The copy in the College of Arms, however, differs materially 
from them in many places. 

It begins with a commendation of those authentic compositions whereby the noble and 
virtuous deeds of the " ancients, that have lived since the birth of our Lord and the diffusion 
of Christianity," are brought to light; and states that the present narrative was about 
" an Earl who performed many laudable deeds ; a good, valiant, and faithful Seneschal ; 
his daughter, a gentle and fair damsel ; and how he loved a very beautiful girl, who was 
daughter to the Earl ;" to which follow, 

<n <ngfetcrre un qeng egteit 
n JBaretoi&e la Cite manept 
ffiicheg ert De grant pouer 

gages' De grant gaber 
Doc et De argent 

e Drag De gepe et De neggelement 
e forg chagtelg De fticfje Cite? 
par tut le fiegne ert mult Dote? 
Uabeit Jjom en tote la tere 
Oi berg lui ogat prenDre guece 
<t par force togt nel prett 
< en ga chartre Ie metgt 

chibalerg mout ama 

Dong gobent Dona 
pur ceo fugt creme et Dote 
<2t pat tut la ftegne 



la plu bele lout 
c^t re^un qe ie bou# Die 
Un petit De a beaute 
%t bis 1 ont blanc et colore 
Itong treicis" et abenant 
25ele bouche neji ben 
ILeio eols 1 ber^ et le che 
e It her bouji' s*emblat pop. 
2Ben ft$t De cors" De beat e^tature 
JTant par Douce la regarDure 
(ortap.s'e ert et en^egnee 
e tou? ars 1 cnDoctrinee 
^e me#tre^ e^teint benu? 
<e cotilette tou? blanc chaunu? 
i la aparbepnt De as'tronomte 
e ar?'metrifee et De jeometrie 

par ert fere De corage 
ceo qi cole es"teit tant jsage 

et counted Ie requereint 
e mute feres' pur lun beneimt 
s' nul De eu^ aber no boleit 
ceo qe tnnt noble o^teit 

fu eole apelee 

a beaute fu mult ame 
e tote^ beautes" ert cole la ftur 
Cant bcle ne fust a eel iouc 



NOTES. 



Ml 



<0c tote a bcaute countered 
jjrant Domorancc il frcit. 



<Qc tote tcrc^ aDunqc ccrdjat 
Unc tant bcle ne trobat 



The following lines are taken from the account of a battle, occasioned by the Emperor'- 
anger at Guy's uniting in rebellion with the Duke Otho: 

Ouant Oi beit IJjeraut benir 
<3 Del fort c.tftur ei&et 
Sun healmc par ills' qua.s'jic 
C on egqu De terencfje 
< oun djibal qi naufre e.stett 
n fcr etur c.Ste abeit 
n haute boig jie gigne eyerie 
31 Due aD fe.^t une en bope 
3te compagnujS l^eraut aD 
* De^ ^eon^ preg et retcnu? 
<Du hit beit le uc <toun 
Cerement le mos'tre ^a raigoun 
5?uc pur qei me fetteg trair 
< meg home)* aDel morir 
1 pas? Del forest Del plcin? 
Si bait Deu^ et le geapniS 
Oe ieo Deg ore bou Dcfl 
Cum mon mortci enemi 
3 nut iour hcite ne ^erreie 
Si ieo De lions bcngc ne soic 
3le chef^ tre^turnent De 
Ontcr ferir en tont le 
5rant coupe De glenbc^ trencbant 
EcsS es?cu? ne lur bailut un ganj 
5Le 5Duc primer O. fen 
Soun ejScu a or DefenDi . 
Hi Jjauberft fu bon ne ge fau.sJa 
<ar tre.s'tut le gleibe Dcpe^a 
i5i aD le Due feru 

li le corsS Dun epe molu 

5c 



unt trctej! lc 
cntre fcrir ^cn tant Dure coles' 
43* lust la le chef tolu 
Ouant jsocourii! (i tft abenu 
^c tcls mil cljibalerl 
<Qi tou^ sunt pru? ct legerj* 
a Oi alerunt tu? fcrir 
^e li occire unt grant Dcsir 
JUcs <3. cum (eon jsc Detent 
Oui qil fert mort (abate scnglat 
&il unt pri.s pur (our cgnout 
Baufre (e portut Del cstour 

.sen i^egne ct trie jSobent 
25en ferir amonc^te j>a gent 
PUJ^ enter ferir tfe bont 
Cant bon^ efjitaaler^ mourrunt 
Om? qi le iour ?cit bien pa^t 
Oar <3i ^e^t Durcment pene 

e Itumbar^ prenDre et Detrencfjcr 

DCUC s'c boDra benger 

Ii (1st (a felonie 
5Mmt meint homo aD pcrDu (a btc 

01 bciD Dune <3i. tant bien fcrir 
< $t$ cncmi^ t\ feire morir 

O iti compaingnon.S tut cn^cmcnt 
(Qi mult ifcrunt harDicment 
c# e^pccjS DC launch De 

gcfjant DarjS 
Occi.s en unt mult De %umbar$ 



378 NOTES. 

>ar Itir bon fct unt Oc.sfcunfi? <E l\ collectable IE>al&emer 

.tRorg retenu et occig uen.^ luc ifjicljj^ compagne^ 

3JI ^en tiont 45. te.si enctia^e a un tal unt <3. enrountre 

Septi? DC mor^ en ct [a place .IJSluIt lunt ferement eyerie 

Di fe^ enlace ct ar ^en bont 3i $t retreit a une pleine 

Cum cil qt Dijicumfi? glint uBns'emble ou lui ^a tione compagne. 

3 tant ejJtebou^ le Quc Segnec 



379 



INDEX. 



The letter M. indicates the pages in which the Biographical Memoirs occur, and the reference* 

in italics are to the Notes. 



Ailettes, 369. 

Aruiulel, Richard Earl of, 50. M. 
283. 

Bachelor, 367. 

Badlesmere, Bartholomew,78. M.348. 

Baliol, Alexander de, 58. M.318. 

Bardolf, Hugh, 6. M. 103. 

Barr, John de, 24. M. 174. 

Bassett, " the brothers," 82. M. 363. 

Beauchamp, Guy ; see Warwick. 

- John, 20. M. 168. 

- Walter, 30. M. 200. 
Bek, Bp. Anthony, 54, 371. M. 288. 
Berkeley, Maurice, 58, 80. M. 314. 
Bohun ; see Hereford. 
Botetourte, 32. M. 202. 

Brette ; see La Brett. 

Brittany, John of, 22, 80. M. 171. 

Burton ; see Richmont. 

Carew, Nicholas, 16. M. 154. 
Cantilupe, William, 40. M. 237. 
Chapelle defer, 371. 
Clavering, John, 10. M. 117. 
Clifford, Robert, 27, 28, 76, 86. 

M. 185. 
Cornue, 372. 

Courtenay, Hugh, 30. M. 193. 
Creon, Maurice, 26. M. 184. 
Creting, John, 78. M. 360. 
Cromwell, John, 78. M. 356. 

D unbar, Patrick, 8th Earl of, 34. 
M. 210. 



M. 211. 

Daubeney, Elias, 24. M. 177. 
Deincourt, Edmund, 56. M. 303. 
- John, 82. M. 363. 
De la Ford, Adam, 74. M. 340. 
De la Mare, John, 38. M. 231. 



De la Ward, Robert, 50, 78. M. 280. 
De la Warr ; see La Ware. 
Despenser, Hugh le, 28. M. 190. 
Durham, Bishop of; see Bek. 

Edward, the King, 2, 22, 86. M. 

170. 
Edward, Prince of Wales, 42, 46, 

72. M. 243. 
Enarmes, 372. 
Engaine, John, 30. M. 199. 
Eschiele, 367. 
Espringal, 373. 
EXETER, WALTER OF, v. 

Ferrers, William de, 48. M. 273. 
Fitz Alan, Brian, 36. M. 221. 

Richard ; see Arundel. 

Fitz Marmaduke, John, 56, 68, 70. 

M. 307. 

Fitz Payne, Robert, 14. M. 142. 
Fitz Roger, Robert, 10. M. 115. 
Fitz Walter, Robert, 4. M. 99. 
Fitz William, Ralph, 18. M. 162. 
Ford ; see De la Ford. 
Fresel, Simon, 36. M. 216. 
Furnival, Thomas, 38. M. 228. 

Gamboison, 372. 

Gloucester, Countess of, 48 ; see 

Monthermer. 

Gorges, Ralph, 74. M. 334. 
Goundronville, Gerard, 66. M. 326. 
Graham, Henry, 68, 72. M. 331. 
Grandison, William, 24. M. 175. 
Grey, Henry, 6. M. 106. 
John, 40, 78. M. 235. 

Hacche, Eustace, 32. M. 204. 
Hastings, Edmund, .56. M. 299. 
John, 54, 80. M. 295. 



Helmet, 371. 

Hereford, Humphrey Earl of, 10, 

86. M. 119. 

Hodleston, John, 10. M. 114. 
Huntercombe, Walter, 36. M. 225. 

Kirkbride, Richard, 76. M. 34*. 
Kyme, Philip de, 6. M. 104. 

La Brett, Eurmenions, 26. M. 178. 
Lacy ; see Lincoln. 
Lancaster, John de, 8. M. 111. 

Thos. Earl of, 46. M. 265. 

Henry de (afterwards Earl 

of) 48. M. 270. 

Latimer, William, 44, 46. M. 253. 
La Ware, Roger, 16. M. 155. 
Lincoln, Henry Earl of, 4. M. 93. 
Lennox : see D unbar. 
Leybourne, William, 44. M. 257. 

Mare ; see De la Mare. 
Marshal, William le, 6. M. 101. 
MAXWELL, pedigree of, xix. 
Mohun, John, 18. M. 159. 
Montacute, Simon, 40. M. 240. 
Montalt, Robert, 6. M. 107. 
Montbouchier, Bertram, 66. M. 324, 

374. 

Monthermer, Ralph, 48. M. 275. 
Mortaigne, Roger, 36. M. 224. 
Mortimer, Hugh, 40. M. 238. 

Roger, 44. M. 259. 

Mouncy, Walter de, 16. M. 143. 
Multon, Thomas de, 8. M. 109. 

Nithsdale ; see Maxwell. 

Paignel, John, 56. M. 300. 
Pembroke, Aymer Earl of, 16. M. 
145. 



Haumsart, Robert, 68, 70. M. 329. Pointz, Hugh, 20, 36. M. 167. 



380 

Quarrels, 371. 

Riclimont, Thomas, 70, 72. M. 332, 

374.. 

Ridre, William, 38. M. 227. 
Rivers, John, 26. M. 182. 
Robinet, 373. 

Rokesle, Richard, 74. M. 337. 
Roos, William de, 20. M. 164. 

St. Amand, Almaric, 30. M. 197. 
St. John, John, 42, 46. M. 244. 

, jun. .50. M. 281. 

Scales, Robert, 32. M. 208. 



INDEX. 

Segrave, John, 12, 86. M. 12.5. 

Nicholas, 12. M. 122. 

Shield, 372. 

Siward, Richard, 34. M. 214. 

Strange, John le, 38. M. 233. 

Surcoat, 367. 

Swan, Knight of the, 369. 

Target, 372. 

Tateshall, Robert, 18. M. 161. 
Tony, Robert, 42, 74. M. 244. 
Touches, Emlam, 34. M. 209. 
Tyes, Henry, 44. M. 251. 



Valence; see Pembroke. 
Vavasour, William, 8. M. 113. 
Ventaille, 368. 
Vere, Hugh de, 26. M. 181. 

Wales, Prince of; see Edward. 
Ward ; see De la Ward. 
Warren, John Earl, 14. M. 130. 
Warwick, Guy Earl of, 16. M. 157. 
Welles, Adam, 32. M. 206. 
Wigton, John Baron, 75. M. 341. 
Willoughby, Robert, 68, 70. M. 327 

Zouche, Alan le, 50. M. 285. 



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